NEDD4L

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Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
Protein NEDD4L PDB 1wr3.png
PDB rendering based on 1wr3.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols NEDD4L ; NEDD4-2; NEDD4.2; RSP5; hNEDD4-2
External IDs OMIM606384 MGI1933754 HomoloGene86986 GeneCards: NEDD4L Gene
EC number 6.3.2.-
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 23327 83814
Ensembl ENSG00000049759 ENSMUSG00000024589
UniProt Q96PU5 Q8CFI0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001144964 NM_001114386
RefSeq (protein) NP_001138436 NP_001107858
Location (UCSC) Chr 18:
55.71 – 56.07 Mb
Chr 18:
64.89 – 65.22 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like (NEDD4L) or NEDD4-2 (NEDD4-2) is an enzyme (ubiquitin ligase) of the NEDD4 family. In human the protein is encoded by the NEDD4L gene.[1][2][3][4] In mouse the protein is commonly known as NEDD4-2 and the gene Nedd4-2.

NEDD4-2 has been shown to ubiquitinate and therefore down regulate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts of the kidneys, therefore opposing the actions of aldosterone and increasing salt excretion. In Liddle's Syndrome NEDD4 is unable to bind to the ENaC and lead to salt retention and hypertension occur.[5]

NEDD4L belongs to the NEDD4 family of E3 HECT domain ubiquitin ligases.[6][7][8][9] It is the closest homologue of NEDD4, the prototypic member of the family and probably arose as a result of gene duplication.[8] While NEDD4 orthologues are present in all eukaryotes, NEDD4L proteins are limited to vertebrates. NEDD4L proteins are known to be involved in regulating many membrane proteins via ubiquitination and endocytosis.[6]

NEDD4L protein is expressed widely. The primary targets of NEDD4-2 include the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the Na+-Cl- co-transporter (NCC), and the voltage gated sodium channels (Navs), although additional targets are predicted from in vitro studies. NEDD4-2 gene in mice is essential for animal survival and the polymorphisms in NEDD4L are associated with human hypertension.[7][9]

Protein architecture[edit]

The NEDD4-2 protein consists of an amino-terminal Ca2+-phospholipid binding domain (C2), 4 WW domains (protein-protein interaction domains) and the carboxyl-terminal HECT domain (ubiquitin ligase domain). The WW domains in the protein are responsible for binding the substrates, regulatory proteins and adaptors. These domains generally recognize PPxY (or similar) motifs in the target proteins.[6][7][8][9]

Expression[edit]

Human NEDD4L gene is located on chromosome 18q12.31 with 38 exons that transcribe multiple splice variants of NEDD4L.[10][11] The protein expressed in the brain, lung, heart and the kidney contains a C2 domain. Three predominant forms of NEDD4L are isoform I containing a novel C2 domain with a start codon in exon1, isoform II with an intact conserved C2 domain consisting of an alternate start codon in exon 1 upstream of the actual start codon of the isoform 1, and isoform III lacking a C2 domain due to exon 2a–3 splicing. Isoform 1 is found to be abundant in kidney and adrenal gland whereas isoform 2 is predominantly found in the lungs.[11][12] The antibodies specific to NEDD4-2 recognize two species of ~110-115 kDa in most tissues, with one being variable depending on the tissue.[11][13]

Function[edit]

NEDD4L is a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) that accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the form of a thioester and then transfers it to specific substrates.[7][8][9]

In vivo NEDD4-2 regulates ENaC in the lung and kidney, the renal NCC and several Navs.[12][12][14][15][16] It has also been shown to regulate EGFR, TGFβ receptor and WNT signalling.[17][18] NEDD4L has been implicated in viral budding and viral latency processes via ubiquitination of viral proteins.[7][9][19] In vitro data implicate NEDD4-2 in the regulation of many other proteins, including several ion channels and transporters. However most of these results have not been validated in vivo.[8][9]

Regulation of NEDD4-2[edit]

NDFIP1 and NDFIP2 proteins bind NEDD4-2 and regulate its activity and/or interaction with substrates.[20][21] NEDD4-2 phosphorylation by kinases SGK1 and AKT in response to insulin and aldosterone signaling results in its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. 14-3-3 binding to NEDD4-2 inhibits its ability to bind and ubiquitinate its substrates (such the ENaC subunits).[22][23][24][25] Autoubiquitination and deubiquitylation of NEDD4-2 by USP2-45 are also known to maintain NEDD4-2 protein stability.[26][27]

Clinical significance[edit]

NEDD4L is a critical regulator of renal ENaC and NCC and malfunction of this pathway has been linked to hypertension, as in Liddle's syndrome, a genetic disorder where mutations in the ENaC subunits abrogate NEDD4L binding.[13][28][29] In mouse, NEDD4-2 deletion leads to increased cell surface expression and activity of ENaC in the lung, resulting in premature clearance of lung fluid, airway drying, lung inflammation and perinatal lethality.[28][30]

Specific deletion of NEDD4-2 in mouse renal tubules leads to increased expression of ENaC and NCC. Consistent with the critical function in ENaC and NCC regulation, NEDDL polymorphisms are linked to essential hypertension in certain human populations.[31][32] Specific deletion of NEDD4-2 in mouse neurons results in axonal branching defects.[33] Isolated fetal cortical neurons from NEDD4-2 knockout mice show defective regulation of voltage-gated sodium currents,[34] and in animal models of neuropathic pain NEDD4-2 expression has been found to be downregulated.[35] Also NEDD4-2-deficiency results in hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and contributes to pathological pain[36]

Interactions[edit]

NEDD4L has been shown to interact with SCNN1A.[2][37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Erdeniz N, Rothstein R (Jan 2000). "Rsp5, a Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase, Is Involved in Degradation of the Single-Stranded-DNA Binding Protein Rfa1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Mol Cell Biol 20 (1): 224–32. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.1.224-232.2000. PMC 85078. PMID 10594025. 
  2. ^ a b Harvey KF, Dinudom A, Cook DI, Kumar S (May 2001). "The Nedd4-like protein KIAA0439 is a potential regulator of the epithelial sodium channel". J Biol Chem 276 (11): 8597–601. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000906200. PMID 11244092. 
  3. ^ Raikwar NS, Thomas CP (May 2008). "Nedd4-2 isoforms ubiquitinate individual epithelial sodium channel subunits and reduce surface expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel". Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294 (5): F1157–65. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00339.2007. PMC 2424110. PMID 18322022. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: NEDD4L Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like". 
  5. ^ Rotin D (2008). "Role of the UPS in Liddle syndrome". BMC Biochem. 9 Suppl 1: S5. doi:10.1186/1471-2091-9-S1-S5. PMC 2582799. PMID 19007435. 
  6. ^ a b c Harvey KF, Kumar S (May 1999). "Nedd4-like proteins: an emerging family of ubiquitin-protein ligases implicated in diverse cellular functions.". Trends in cell biology 9 (5): 166–9. doi:10.1016/s0962-8924(99)01541-x. PMID 10322449. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Scheffner M, Kumar S (Jan 2014). "Mammalian HECT ubiquitin-protein ligases: biological and pathophysiological aspects.". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1843 (1): 61–74. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.03.024. PMID 23545411. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Yang B, Kumar S (Jan 2010). "Nedd4 and Nedd4-2: closely related ubiquitin-protein ligases with distinct physiological functions.". Cell death and differentiation 17 (1): 68–77. doi:10.1038/cdd.2009.84. PMID 19557014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Rotin D, Kumar S (Jun 2009). "Physiological functions of the HECT family of ubiquitin ligases.". Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 10 (6): 398–409. doi:10.1038/nrm2690. PMID 19436320. 
  10. ^ Araki N, Umemura M, Miyagi Y, Yabana M, Miki Y, Tamura K, Uchino K, Aoki R, Goshima Y, Umemura S, Ishigami T (Mar 2008). "Expression, transcription, and possible antagonistic interaction of the human Nedd4L gene variant: implications for essential hypertension.". Hypertension 51 (3): 773–7. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.102061. PMID 18268134. 
  11. ^ a b c Itani OA, Stokes JB, Thomas CP (Aug 2005). "Nedd4-2 isoforms differentially associate with ENaC and regulate its activity.". American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 289 (2): F334–46. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00394.2004. PMID 15814530. 
  12. ^ a b c Itani OA, Campbell JR, Herrero J, Snyder PM, Thomas CP (Nov 2003). "Alternate promoters and variable splicing lead to hNedd4-2 isoforms with a C2 domain and varying number of WW domains.". American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 285 (5): F916–29. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00203.2003. PMID 12876068. 
  13. ^ a b Ronzaud C, Loffing-Cueni D, Hausel P, Debonneville A, Malsure SR, Fowler-Jaeger N, Boase NA, Perrier R, Maillard M, Yang B, Stokes JB, Koesters R, Kumar S, Hummler E, Loffing J, Staub O (Feb 1, 2013). "Renal tubular NEDD4-2 deficiency causes NCC-mediated salt-dependent hypertension.". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 123 (2): 657–65. doi:10.1172/JCI61110. PMID 23348737. 
  14. ^ Fotia AB, Ekberg J, Adams DJ, Cook DI, Poronnik P, Kumar S (Jul 9, 2004). "Regulation of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels by the ubiquitin-protein ligases Nedd4 and Nedd4-2.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (28): 28930–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M402820200. PMID 15123669. 
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  16. ^ Ekberg J, Schuetz F, Boase NA, Conroy SJ, Manning J, Kumar S, Poronnik P, Adams DJ (Apr 20, 2007). "Regulation of the voltage-gated K(+) channels KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ3/5 by ubiquitination. Novel role for Nedd4-2.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (16): 12135–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609385200. PMID 17322297. 
  17. ^ Gao S, Alarcón C, Sapkota G, Rahman S, Chen PY, Goerner N, Macias MJ, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Massagué J (Nov 13, 2009). "Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling.". Molecular Cell 36 (3): 457–68. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.043. PMID 19917253. 
  18. ^ Zhang Y, Ding Y, Chen YG, Tao Q (Aug 1, 2014). "NEDD4L regulates convergent extension movements in Xenopus embryos via Disheveled-mediated non-canonical Wnt signaling.". Developmental biology 392 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.05.003. PMID 24833518. 
  19. ^ Chung HY, Morita E, von Schwedler U, Müller B, Kräusslich HG, Sundquist WI (May 2008). "NEDD4L overexpression rescues the release and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 constructs lacking PTAP and YPXL late domains.". Journal of Virology 82 (10): 4884–97. doi:10.1128/JVI.02667-07. PMID 18321968. 
  20. ^ Mund T, Pelham HR (May 2009). "Control of the activity of WW-HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases by NDFIP proteins.". EMBO Reports 10 (5): 501–7. doi:10.1038/embor.2009.30. PMID 19343052. 
  21. ^ Shearwin-Whyatt L, Dalton HE, Foot N, Kumar S (Jun 2006). "Regulation of functional diversity within the Nedd4 family by accessory and adaptor proteins.". BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 28 (6): 617–28. doi:10.1002/bies.20422. PMID 16700065. 
  22. ^ Snyder PM, Olson DR, Kabra R, Zhou R, Steines JC (Oct 29, 2004). "cAMP and serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) regulate the epithelial Na(+) channel through convergent phosphorylation of Nedd4-2.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (44): 45753–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407858200. PMID 15328345. 
  23. ^ Bhalla V, Daidié D, Li H, Pao AC, LaGrange LP, Wang J, Vandewalle A, Stockand JD, Staub O, Pearce D (Dec 2005). "Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 regulates ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2 by inducing interaction with 14-3-3.". Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 19 (12): 3073–84. doi:10.1210/me.2005-0193. PMID 16099816. 
  24. ^ Lee IH, Dinudom A, Sanchez-Perez A, Kumar S, Cook DI (Oct 12, 2007). "Akt mediates the effect of insulin on epithelial sodium channels by inhibiting Nedd4-2.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (41): 29866–73. doi:10.1074/jbc.M701923200. PMID 17715136. 
  25. ^ Nagaki K, Yamamura H, Shimada S, Saito T, Hisanaga S, Taoka M, Isobe T, Ichimura T (May 30, 2006). "14-3-3 Mediates phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of the interaction between the ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4-2 and epithelial Na+ channels.". Biochemistry 45 (21): 6733–40. doi:10.1021/bi052640q. PMID 16716084. 
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  27. ^ Oberfeld B, Ruffieux-Daidié D, Vitagliano JJ, Pos KM, Verrey F, Staub O (Jul 2011). "Ubiquitin-specific protease 2-45 (Usp2-45) binds to epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-ubiquitylating enzyme Nedd4-2.". American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 301 (1): F189–96. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00487.2010. PMID 21478478. 
  28. ^ a b Boase NA, Rychkov GY, Townley SL, Dinudom A, Candi E, Voss AK, Tsoutsman T, Semsarian C, Melino G, Koentgen F, Cook DI, Kumar S (2011). "Respiratory distress and perinatal lethality in Nedd4-2-deficient mice.". Nature communications 2 (4): 287. doi:10.1038/ncomms1284. PMID 21505443. 
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  33. ^ Hsia HE, Kumar R, Luca R, Takeda M, Courchet J, Nakashima J, Wu S, Goebbels S, An W, Eickholt BJ, Polleux F, Rotin D, Wu H, Rossner MJ, Bagni C, Rhee JS, Brose N, Kawabe H (Sep 9, 2014). "Ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4-1 acts as a downstream target of PI3K/PTEN-mTORC1 signaling to promote neurite growth.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (36): 13205–10. doi:10.1073/pnas.1400737111. PMID 25157163. 
  34. ^ Ekberg JA, Boase NA, Rychkov G, Manning J, Poronnik P, Kumar S (Jan 1, 2014). "Nedd4-2 (NEDD4L) controls intracellular Na(+)-mediated activity of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary cortical neurons.". The Biochemical journal 457 (1): 27–31. doi:10.1042/BJ20131275. PMID 24152020. 
  35. ^ Laedermann CJ, Cachemaille M, Kirschmann G, Pertin M, Gosselin RD, Chang I, Albesa M, Towne C, Schneider BL, Kellenberger S, Abriel H, Decosterd I (Jul 1, 2013). "Dysregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels by ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2 in neuropathic pain.". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 123 (7): 3002–13. doi:10.1172/JCI68996. PMID 23778145. 
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Further reading[edit]