1982–83 NFL playoffs
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2011)|
A players' strike reduced the regular season to nine games. Thus, the league used a special 16-team playoff format (dubbed the "Super Bowl Tournament"), just for this year. Division standings were ignored (although each division did send at least one team to the playoffs). Eight teams from each conference were seeded 1–8 based on their regular season records:
Because of the eight-game first round, this was the first (and currently only) time that NFL playoff games were regionally televised across the United States instead of nationwide. This year was also the only season in which the conference championship games were played on separate days.
In addition, it marked the first time in NFL history in which a team that qualified for the playoffs had a losing record (< .500), as both Cleveland and Detroit finished with 4-5 records (.444). Both teams lost in the first round of the playoffs. This feat went unmatched up to the 2010 Seattle Seahawks, which finished 7-9 (.438). However, it is not the only time that teams with non-winning records (≤ .500) have made the playoffs. In eight seasons, nine teams with a record of 8–8 (.500) made the playoffs: 1985 Browns, 1990 Saints, 1991 Jets, 1999 Lions, 1999 Cowboys, 2004 Vikings, 2004 Rams, 2006 Giants, 2008 Chargers, and the 2011 Broncos.
- 1 Bracket
- 2 First round
- 2.1 January 8, 1983
- 2.2 January 9, 1983
- 3 Second round
- 4 Conference championships
- 5 Super Bowl XVII: Washington Redskins 27, Miami Dolphins 17
- 6 References
|First Round||Second Round||Conf. Championship Games||Super Bowl XVII|
|January 9 - Riverfront Stadium|
|6) N.Y. Jets||44|
|January 15 - L.A. Memorial Coliseum|
|6) N.Y. Jets||17|
|January 8 - L.A. Memorial Coliseum|
|1) L.A. Raiders||14|
|January 23 - Miami Orange Bowl|
|1) L.A. Raiders||27|
|6) N.Y. Jets||0|
|January 9 - Three Rivers Stadium|
|5) San Diego||31|
|January 16 - Miami Orange Bowl|
|5) San Diego||13|
|January 8 - Miami Orange Bowl|
|7) New England||13|
|January 30 - Rose Bowl|
|January 8 - Lambeau Field|
|6) St. Louis||16|
|January 16 - Texas Stadium|
|3) Green Bay||41|
|3) Green Bay||26|
|January 9 - Texas Stadium|
|7) Tampa Bay||17|
|January 22 - RFK Stadium|
|January 9 - Metrodome|
|January 15 - RFK Stadium|
|January 8 - RFK Stadium|
January 8, 1983
NFC: Washington Redskins 31, Detroit Lions 7
The Redskins jumped to a 24–0 lead en route to a 31–7 victory over the Lions. Washington receiver Alvin Garrett, who only caught 1 pass during the regular season, recorded 6 receptions for 110 yards and 3 touchdowns. Fullback John Riggins led the team on the ground with 119 rushing yards. Quarterback Joe Theismann compiled 210 passing yards and 3 touchdowns. While the Redskins only outgained the Lions by two yards (366 to 364), they intercepted two passes and recovered three fumbles, while losing no turnovers themselves.
The game seemed to start well for Detroit, as they reached the Redskins 21-yard line on their opening drive. But halfback Billy Sims lost a fumble that was recovered by Washington linebacker Rich Milot. The next time the Lions had the ball, Jeris White intercepted a pass intended for Sims and returned it 77 yards for a touchdown, the second longest interception return in NFL playoff history. Then on their third possession, quarterback Eric Hipple was sacked by blitzing cornerback Vernon Dean causing a fumble that defensive tackle Darryl Grant recovered on the Redskins 19-yard line. This set up Mark Moseley's 26-yard field goal to make the score 10–0 with just over 2 minutes left in the first quarter.
Washington increased their lead to 17–0 early in the second quarter with Theismann's 21-yard touchdown pass to Garrett. Detroit responded with a drive to the Redskins 5-yard line, but came up empty again when Dave Butz forced a fumble from Sims that was recovered by defensive end Dexter Manley. Washington then drove 96 yards to score on Garrett's second 21-yard touchdown catch, giving the team a 24–0 first half lead.
In the third quarter, Washington essentially put the game away with a 5-play, 74-yard drive that ended with Garrett's third touchdown of the day, this one a 27-yard catch, making the lead 31–0. Meanwhile, all Detroit could do was avoid a shutout on Hipple's 15-yard touchdown pass to tight end David Hill.
Lions receiver Leonard Thompson was the top performer for his team with 7 receptions for 150 yards.
NFC: Green Bay Packers 41, St. Louis Cardinals 16
In the first playoff game at Lambeau Field since the Ice Bowl in 1967, Green Bay quarterback Lynn Dickey threw for 260 yards and 4 touchdowns en route to a 41–16 win. The Packers scored four touchdowns on four consecutive possessions. It was their first playoff victory since Super Bowl II in 1968. Oddly, this victory was 15 years after that Super Bowl victory, 15 the same jersey number of Super Bowl II MVP (and then-Packer coach) Bart Starr.
After stopping the Cardinals on fourth and goal on the Packers 1-yard line, Dickey put Green Bay in the lead by finishing off two long drives with touchdown passes to John Jefferson and James Lofton. Later in the first half, they converted two St. Louis turnovers into a pair of touchdowns by Eddie Lee Ivery.
By the end of the game, the Packers had set numerous franchise post season records, including most touchdown passes in a game (4). most receiving yards (6 receptions for 148 yards by Jefferson), longest touchdown reception (Jefferson's 60-yard score), and longest field goal (46 yards by Jan Stenerud)
Cardinals receiver Roy Green caught 9 passes for 113 yards.
AFC: Miami Dolphins 28, New England Patriots 13
The Dolphins controlled most of the game with four long touchdown drives, and intercepted Patriots quarterback Steve Grogan twice. Miami quarterback David Woodley had one of the best performances of his career, completing 16 of 19 passes for 246 yards and 2 touchdowns (both to tight end Bruce Hardy) with no interceptions, while also rushing for 16 yards. David Woodley's passer rating for this game was 153.8. Miami running back Andra Franklin had 26 carries for 112 yards and a touchdown.
AFC: Los Angeles Raiders 27, Cleveland Browns 10
The Raiders gained 510 total yards of offense and held the Browns to 284. Faced with a hard fought 10–10 tie late in the second quarter, the Raiders scored 17 unanswered points and shut Cleveland out in the second half. Quarterback Jim Plunkett threw for 386 yards, while running back Marcus Allen rushed for 72 yards, caught 6 passes for 74 yards, and scored 2 touchdowns. Receiver Cliff Branch caught 5 passes for 121 yards, while tight end Todd Christensen caught 6 passes for 93. Linebacker Rod Martin and defensive tackle Johnnie Robinson each had two of LA's six sacks.
On the Raiders first drive, Plunkett's 64-yard completion to Branch set up a 27-yard field goal from Chris Bahr. Their next two drives ended with Plunkett being intercepted, first by Browns defensive back Clarence Scott and later by Hanford Dixon. However, both picks were in Cleveland territory and the Browns could not convert either into points. On Dixon's interception, they managed to reach midfield before linebacker Ted Hendricks sacked Browns quarterback Paul McDonald for a 10-yard loss, bringing up 3rd down and 16. McDonald completed a 15-yard pass to Dwight Walker on the next play, but on a fourth down conversion attempt, LB Matt Millen and DT Lyle Alzado stuffed running back Mike Pruitt for no gain. Los Angeles took over and drove to the Browns 11-yard line, featuring a 34-yard reception by Allen. But linebacker Clay Matthews sacked Plunkett for a 9-yard loss, and following a third down completion, Bahr missed a field goal attempt from 35 yards.
On their first drive of the second quarter, Cleveland managed to tie the game at 3 with McDonald's 47-yard completion to Ricky Feacher setting up Matt Bahr's franchise playoff record 52-yard field goal. But Los Angeles quickly stormed back with an 88-yard scoring drive. Plunkett completed five passes on the way to the end zone, including a pair of 24-yarders to Christensen and Branch, while Allen finished the drive a 2-yard touchdown run to give the Raiders a 10–3 lead. With 2:01 left in the half, Cleveland tied the game at the end of a 76-yard drive with McDonald's 43-yard touchdown pass to Feacher. But aided by Greg Pruitt's 40-yard kickoff return to the Raiders 40, Plunkett was able to get his team into scoring range, completing three passes for 26 yards and rushing for 11. Chris Bahr kicked a 37-yard field goal on the last play of the quarter, giving LA a 13–10 lead going into halftime.
Cleveland took the opening kickoff and drove to the Raiders 14-yard line. But in what turned out to be the crucial play of the game, running back Charles White lost a fumble that was recovered by linebacker Jeff Barnes. After the turnover, LA drove 89 yards and increased their lead to 20–10 on Allen's 3-yard touchdown run. Cleveland would never mount a serious scoring threat for the rest of the game. In the fourth quarter, Los Angeles essentially put it out of reach with a 65-yard drive, including Plunkett's completions to Malcolm Barnwell for 26 yards and Branch for 15, that ended with a 1-yard touchdown run by Frank Hawkins, making the final score 27–10.
McDonald finished the game 18/37 for 281 yards and a touchdown. His top target was Feacher, who caught 4 passes for 124 yards and a score.
January 9, 1983
AFC: New York Jets 44, Cincinnati Bengals 17
The underdog Jets overcame an early 14–3 deficit by racking up 517 yards of offense and scoring 21 points in the fourth quarter. Running back Freeman McNeil led the Jets to a victory with 210 rushing yards and a touchdown, while also catching a pass for 9 yards and throwing a touchdown pass on a halfback option play. Receiver Wesley Walker caught 8 passes for 145 yards and a touchdown. Jets quarterback Richard Todd completed 20 of 28 passes for 269 yards and a touchdown. Playing in the final postseason game of his legendary career, Bengals quarterback Ken Anderson completed 26 of 35 passes for a career playoff high 354 yards and 2 touchdowns, but was intercepted 3 times. Receiver Cris Collinsworth caught 7 passes for 120 yards.
Cincinnati opened up the scoring with an 81-yard drive that ended with Anderson's 32-yard touchdown pass to Isaac Curtis. New York responded with Todd's 49-yard completion to Walker that set up a 32-yard field goal by Pat Leahy and cut the score to 7–3. Cincinnati found themselves facing 3rd down and 30 on their ensuing possession, but it didn't stop them from picking up a first down with Anderson's 53-yard pass to Curtis, and he later finished the drive with a 2-yard touchdown pass to tight end Dan Ross, giving the Bengals a 14–3 lead at the end of the first quarter.
In the second quarter, McNeil cut the score to 14–10 with a 14-yard touchdown throw to Derrick Gaffney on a halfback option pass. Cincinnati countered with a drive into the Jets red zone, but Johnny Lynn's interception on the 1-yard line eliminated the scoring chance and resulted in a huge reversal of momentum. After the turnover, New York moved the ball 85 yards to take a 17–14 lead on Todd's 4-yard touchdown pass to Walker.
The Jets added two more field goals to their lead before Jim Breech made a 20-yard field goal for Cincinnati. So despite giving up 20 unanswered points, the Bengals were only trailing 23–17 going into the final period. However, the Bengals self-destructed in the fourth quarter, suffering one of the worst collapses in franchise history. Throughout the fourth quarter, Cincinnati had a 69-yard touchdown pass called back by a false start penalty, gave up two Jets rushing touchdowns, missed a 46-yard field goal, and threw two interceptions, one of which was returned a playoff record 98 yards for a touchdown by safety Darrol Ray.
AFC: San Diego Chargers 31, Pittsburgh Steelers 28
The game began disastrously for the Chargers when James Brooks fumbled the opening kickoff, which was recovered for a touchdown by Guy Ruff of the Steelers. But San Diego battled back. Quarterback Dan Fouts threw for 333 yards and 3 touchdowns with no interceptions to lead his team to victory. With the Steelers leading 28–17 in the fourth quarter, the Chargers scored two touchdowns in the final period—the second with only a minute remaining. Chargers running back Chuck Muncie rushed for 126 yards and caught a pass for 12, while tight end Kellen Winslow caught 7 passes for 102 yards and 2 touchdowns. Steelers receiver John Stallworth caught 8 passes for 116 yards and a touchdown. Quarterback Terry Bradshaw threw for 325 yards and 2 touchdowns and scored a rushing touchdown in his final postseason game, but was intercepted twice.
NFC: Dallas Cowboys 30, Tampa Bay Buccaneers 17
The Cowboys had 445 yards of total offense, while their defense held Buccaneers quarterback Doug Williams, playing in his final game in a Bucs uniform, to just 8 of 28 completions for 113 yards and intercepted him 3 times. Dallas running back Tony Dorsett rushed for 110 yards, while kicker Rafael Septien made 3 field goals.
This was Tampa Bay's last playoff game until 1997, by which time the Buccaneers ditched their orange uniforms. From 1983 to 1996, they suffered 14 consecutive losing seasons, 13 of which saw Tampa Bay lose 10 or more games.
NFC: Minnesota Vikings 30, Atlanta Falcons 24
The Vikings drove 72 yards to score the winning touchdown with 1:44 left in the game.
January 15, 1983
NFC: Washington Redskins 21, Minnesota Vikings 7
33-year-old running back John Riggins led the Redskins to a victory with 185 rushing yards on 37 carries (both career highs) and a touchdown.
Washington scored their 21 points in the games's first 20 minutes. On their opening drive, Riggins gained 34 yards on 7 carries as the team drove 66 yards to score on Joe Theisman's 3-yard touchdown pass to tight end Don Warren. On the Redskins next possession, they drove 71 yards, including Theismann's 46-yard completion to Alvin Garrett on a flea flicker play, and scored on a 2-yard touchdown run by Riggins on fourth down and inches with one minute left in the quarter. At this point, the Vikings had 5 total yards, no first downs, and held the ball for only two minutes.
The Vikings cut a 14–0 Redskins lead in half early in the second period, scoring on Ted Brown's 18-yard touchdown run. But Washington stormed right back to score on Theismann's 18-yard touchdown pass to Garrett.
There would be no more scoring for the rest of the game, despite many opportunities for both teams. Vikings kicker Rick Danmeier missed a 38-yard field goal, while Washington's Mark Moseley also had two misses, from 47 and 39 yards. Moseley, who had became the first kicker to win the NFL MVP award during the year, finished this game having made a total of one of his last five attempts, though his 39-yard miss only occurred after his 29-yard field goal was wiped out by a penalty on teammate Rich Milot.
In the second half, the Vikings had drives to the Washington 39, 28, and 15-yard lines, but failed to score each time. They ended up punting on the drive to the 39, while the other two both ended with failed fourth down conversion attempts, including Redskins' lineman Tony McGee's sack on quarterback Tommy Kramer on 4th and 7 from the 15 that essentially put the game away in the fourth quarter.
In the closing moments of the game, fans at RFK Stadium began chanting "We Want Dallas" indicating their ideal choice of opponent for the NFC Championship Game. They would get their wish. Theismann finished the game 17/23 for 213 yards and two touchdowns, with 1 interception. Kramer completed 18/39 passes for 252 yards.
AFC: New York Jets 17, Los Angeles Raiders 14
Scott Dierking scored the Jets' winning touchdown with 3:45 left to upset the top-seeded Raiders. New York linebacker Lance Mehl subsequently intercepted two passes from Jim Plunkett in the final minutes to seal the victory. Jets running back Freeman McNeil rushed for 105 yards and caught a pass for 11. Wesley Walker caught 7 passes for 169 yards and a touchdown.
Walker's 20-yard touchdown catch and Pat Leahy's 30-yard field goal gave New York a 10–0 lead before Los Angeles stormed back, taking a 14–10 lead on Marcus Allen's 3-yard touchdown run and a 57-yard scoring reception by Malcolm Barnwell. Late in the fourth quarter, Richard Todd's 45-yard completion to Walker gave the Jets a first down on the Raiders 1-yard line, where Dierking took the ball into the end zone to give the Jets a 17–14 lead. Their defense seemed to put the game away when Mehl intercepted a pass from Plunkett with slightly over two minutes left on the Raiders ensuing drive. However, Los Angeles linebacker Ted Hendricks recovered a fumble from McNeil to give his team one last chance to drive for a tying score. The Jets defense proved up to the challenge, and Mehl intercepted another Plunkett pass that enabled New York to run out the rest of the clock.
Hendricks finished the game with a sack and two fumble recoveries.
January 16, 1983
AFC: Miami Dolphins 34, San Diego Chargers 13
Miami avenged their divisional playoff loss to San Diego in the previous season known as The Epic In Miami with dominating 34–13 win. The Dolphins defense completely shut down Chargers quarterback Dan Fouts, limiting him to just 15 of 34 completions for 194 yards and a touchdown while intercepting him 5 times. The Dolphins led 27–13 at halftime. Miami quarterback David Woodley, who was benched in the second quarter of the Epic in Miami due to poor performance, redeemed himself by completing 17 of 22 passes for 195 yards and 2 touchdowns with 1 interception, while also scoring a rushing touchdown. The Dolphins converted 3 turnovers, including 2 fumbled kickoffs, into 21 points. This was the final postseason game in the hall of fame careers of Chargers stars Dan Fouts, Charlie Joiner, and Kellen Winslow.
NFC: Dallas Cowboys 37, Green Bay Packers 26
The Cowboys scored touchdowns on two 80-yard drives while cornerback Dennis Thurman had 3 interceptions, including a 39-yard touchdown and one to clinch the victory. Packers quarterback Lynn Dickey threw for a franchise postseason record 332 yards and a touchdown, but his 3 interceptions were too costly to overcome. Receiver James Lofton caught 5 passes for 109 yards and a touchdown, and also had a 71-yard touchdown run on a reverse play, which tied the record for longest running play in a playoff game at the time.
Two field goals by Rafael Septien, a touchdown run by Robert Newhouse, and Thurman's 39-yard touchdown return gave the Cowboys a 20–7 lead by halftime. In the second half, the Packers mounted a strong comeback attempt, racking up 363 yards and scoring 19 points. Midway through the fourth quarter, Green Bay defensive back Mark Lee's 22-yard interception return for a touchdown cut the Packers deficit to 30–26. But later on, Thurman's third interception set up a 74-yard scoring drive to put the game away with Newhouse's second touchdown run.
Green Bay finished the game with a franchise playoff record 466 total yards.
This would be the final playoff game that Cowboys' coach Tom Landry would ever win in his career.
January 22, 1983
NFC Championship: Washington Redskins 31, Dallas Cowboys 17
In their regular season meeting, Dallas had handed Washington their only loss of the year, 24–10, holding running back John Riggins to just 26 rushing yards while sacking quarterback Joe Theismann seven times and intercepting three of his passes. But this game would turn out quite different as the Redskins sealed the victory by converting 2 turnovers in the final period into 10 points. Although Dallas outgained Washington in total yards 340–260, it wasn't enough to overcome their 3 turnovers vs the Redskins 0.
The Cowboys scored first after a 75-yard drive led to a 27-yard field goal by kicker Rafael Septien. But Washington then scored on a 9-play, 84-yard possession to take the lead. Riggins rushed for 32 yards on the drive, while Theismann capped it off with a 19-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Charlie Brown. In the second quarter, a pair of completions by Theismann and 24 more yards from Riggins moved the Redskins into scoring range, only to have kicker Mark Moseley miss a 27-yard field goal. Moseley, who had been the first kicker ever to win the NFL MVP award with 20/21 field goals during the regular season, found himself just 1/5 on field goal attempts during the playoffs after this attempt.
Later on, the Cowboys committed a special teams blunder of their own when rookie kick returner Rod Hill muffed a Jeff Hayes punt and linebacker Monte Coleman recovered it, giving Washington the ball on the Dallas 10-yard line. Four plays later, Riggins scored a 1-yard touchdown run, increasing his team's lead to 14–3.
With 32 seconds left in the first half, Cowboys quarterback Danny White suffered a concussion after being hit by Washington's Dexter Manley and was replaced by unknown backup Gary Hogeboom, a three-year veteran who had only thrown 8 passes in his career up to now, for the rest of the game. A short Redskins punt early in the third quarter then set up Hogeboom's 6-yard touchdown toss to Drew Pearson, capping a six-play, 38-yard drive and cutting the score to 14–10. But on the ensuing kickoff, Mike Nelms returned the ball 76 yards down the right sideline to the Dallas 21-yard line. A 22-yard pass from Theismann to Brown was then followed by Riggins' four-yard touchdown run. Hogeboom then responded by leading Dallas on an 84-yard, 14-play drive capped by his 23-yard scoring pass to Butch Johnson, cutting the margin back to 21–17 with 3:25 left in the third quarter.
Dallas threatened to cut the lead further, driving to the Washington 23-yard line early in the fourth quarter, but Septien missed a 42-yard field goal, ending his NFL playoff record streak of consecutive field goal makes at 15. Following a Washington punt, Dallas had the ball at the Washington 32-yard line, but linebacker Mel Kaufman made a leaping, over-the-shoulder interception that was intended to Cowboys receiver Tony Hill, setting up Washington kicker Mark Moseley's 29-yard field goal that gave the team a 24–17 lead with 6:55 left in regulation. Then from the Dallas 20-yard line, defensive lineman Dexter Manley tipped Hogeboom's delayed screen pass intended for running back Tony Dorsett, which tackle Darryl Grant caught and returned it 10 yards for the game-clinching touchdown.
White completed 9/15 passes for 113 yards before being knocked out of the game, while Hogeboom completed 14/29 passes for 162 yards, two touchdowns, and two interceptions in the only playoff game he would play in during his 10-season career. Theismann completed 12/20 passes for 150 yards and a touchdown. Nelms returned 4 kickoffs for 142 yards and two punts for 14.
Riggins, who ran nine straight times to help Washington run out the clock in the final period, finished the game with 140 rushing yards and 2 touchdowns, setting an NFL record with three consecutive 100-yard posteason games. "I’ve waited a long time for this,” he said after the game. “I’m really thrilled. To tell you the truth, after the strike, I wasn’t sure if I wanted to continue the season. I was ready to pack my bags and head for Kansas. Boy, what a mistake that would have been.”
January 23, 1983
AFC Championship: Miami Dolphins 14, New York Jets 0
On a wet, muddy field (the Jets complained about the Dolphins' decision not to place the tarp over the field before the game), the Dolphins defense held Jets quarterback Richard Todd to only 15 of 37 completions for 103 yards and intercepted 5 of his passes. Linebacker A.J. Duhe led Miami to a victory with 3 interceptions, scoring a 35-yard touchdown and setting up the other Dolphins score. Miami held the Jets to 139 total yards.
Both teams started off with drives that would set the tone for the rest of the game. New York got the ball first and drove to midfield before losing it when Glenn Blackwood intercepted Todd's pass. On the first play after the turnover, Miami gave the ball right back with a pass that was picked off by Jets safety Ken Schroy. In the second quarter, Dolphins quarterback David Woodley broke free for a 17-yard run to his 39-yard line, which turned out to be the longest run of the day for either team. However, running back Tony Nathan lost a fumble on the next play, though the Jets still failed to get any points with a possession starting at the Miami 41.
Late in the second quarter, it seemed Miami would finally break the scoreless tie when their cornerback Don McNeal blocked a punt from Chuck Ramsey, allowing the Dolphins to get the ball on the New York 20-yard line. But with time running out, Schroy intercepted his second pass of the day and the game remained scoreless at halftime.
Early in the second quarter, Blackwood recorded his second interception, only to see it wiped out by a defensive holding penalty. But the next play fared no better for New York, as Todd threw a pass that bounced out of the hands of running back Mike Augustyniak and was intercepted by Duhe. A few plays later, Nathan appeared to lose a fumble, but officials ruled him down by contact before he lost the ball. Another key play on the drive occurred when Woodley completed a 13-yard pass to Duriel Harris on third down and 3. Safety Darrol Ray vehemently protested the call of a completed pass, drawing an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty that moved the ball to the Jets 7-yard line, and running back Woody Bennett ran the ball into the end zone on the next play.
Later in the third quarter, Duhe intercepted another pass from Todd, this one on the Jets 41-yard line, but his team couldn't move the ball and had to punt. Two minutes into the fourth quarter, Duhe recorded his third interception of the day, and this time took it 35 yards for a touchdown. The Dolphins 14–0 lead turned out to be more than enough, as New York never mounted a serious scoring threat for the rest of the game.
Both teams combined for 9 turnovers, 19 punts, and just 437 total yards.
Super Bowl XVII: Washington Redskins 27, Miami Dolphins 17
- O'Neil, Danny (2 January 2011), "Seahawks defeat Rams 16–6 to win NFC West title", The Seattle Times, retrieved 3 January 2011
- Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League (ISBN 0-06-270174-6)
- The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl Book 1995 (ISBN 0-89204-523-X)