NFPA 704

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NFPA 704
fire diamond
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 4: Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures. E.g., nitroglycerin Special hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond

"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.

Codes[edit]

Flammability (red): no hazard code Health (blue): no hazard code Reactivity (yellow): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond

The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of health hazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk). The latest version of NFPA 704 sections 5, 6, 7 and 8 for the specifications of each classification are listed below.[2]

Flammability (red)
0 Materials that will not burn under typical fire conditions (e.g. carbon dioxide), including intrinsically noncombustible materials such as concrete, stone and sand (Materials that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of [820 °C (1,500 °F)] for a period of 5 minutes)
1 Materials that require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur (e.g. mineral oil). Includes some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point at or above 93 °C (200 °F).
2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur (e.g. diesel fuel) and some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F).
3 Liquids and solids (including finely divided suspended solids) that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions (e.g. gasoline). Liquids having a flash point below 23 °C (73 °F) and having a boiling point at or above 38 °C (100 °F) or having a flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F).
4 Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily (e.g. acetylene, diethylzinc). Includes pyrophoric substances. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F).

Health (blue)
0 Poses no health hazard, no precautions necessary and would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible materials (e.g. wood)
1 Exposure would cause irritation with only minor residual injury (e.g. acetone)
2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury (e.g. diethyl ether)
3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. chlorine)
4 Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury (e.g. hydrogen cyanide, phosphine, carbon monoxide, sarin, hydrofluoric acid)

Instability/Reactivity (yellow)
0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium)
1 Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures (e.g. propene)
2 Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water (e.g. white phosphorus, potassium, sodium)
3 Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked (e.g. ammonium nitrate, chlorine trifluoride)
4 Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures (e.g. nitroglycerin, chlorine azide, chlorine dioxide)

Special notice (white)
The white "special notice" area can contain several symbols. The following symbols are defined by the NFPA 704 standard.
OX Oxidizer, allows chemicals to burn without an air supply (e.g. potassium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide).
 W  Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner (e.g. cesium, sodium, sulfuric acid).
SA Simple asphyxiant gas. Specifically limited to the following gases: nitrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon.[2]
Non-standard symbols (white)
These hazard codes are not part of the NFPA 704 standard, but are occasionally used in an unofficial manner. The use of non-standard codes may be permitted, required or disallowed by the authority having jurisdiction (e.g. fire department).
COR
ACID, ALK
Corrosive; strong acid or base (e.g. sulfuric acid, potassium hydroxide)
Acid or alkaline, to be more specific
BIO or Biohazard symbol.svg Biological hazard (e.g. smallpox virus)
POI Poisonous (e.g. strychnine)
RA, RAD or Radiation warning symbol2.svg Radioactive (e.g. plutonium, uranium)
CYL or CRYO Cryogenic (e.g. liquid nitrogen)

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