||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (September 2013)|
|Owned by||Media Most (1993–2001) Gazprom Media (2001–present)|
|Picture format||16:9/14:9 (576i, SDTV)|
|Headquarters||Moscow, Russian Federation|
|Formerly called||1967–1976: Program 4
1976–1984: Network 4
1984–1991: National Channel 4
1991 – 1993-10-10: Channel 4 Ostankino
|Russian Analogue||Normally tuned to 4|
|Russian digital||MUX 1|
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ) is a Russian television channel. As a subsidiary of Vladimir Gusinsky's company Media-Most, it was a pioneer in the post-Soviet independent television media, but was later taken over by state-owned Gazprom.
Vladimir Gusinsky founded NTV in 1993 attracting talented journalists and news anchors of the time such as Tatiana Mitkova, Leonid Parfyonov, Mikhail Osokin, Yevgeniy Kiselyov, Vladimir A. Kara-Murza, Victor Shenderovich and others. The channel set high professional standards in the Russian television, giving live coverage and sharp analysis of current events. Starting before the dissolution of Soviet Union as Fourth Programme, the channel broadcast a daily news programme Today and a weekly news commentary programme Itogi.
NTV criticized the Russian government with respect to the First and Second Chechen Wars, even going as far as conducting interviews with Chechen rebel leaders. It favourably commented on President Boris Yeltsin's re-election campaign in 1996.
By 1999 NTV had achieved an audience of 102 million, covering about 70% of Russia's territory, and was available in other former Soviet republics.
During parliamentary elections in 1999 and presidential elections in 2000 NTV was critical of the Second Chechen War, Vladimir Putin and the political party Unity backed by him. In the puppet show Kukly in the beginning of February 2000, the puppet of Putin acted as Little Zaches in a story based on E.T.A. Hoffmann's "Little Zaches called Cinnabar", in which blindness causes villagers mistake an evil gnome for a beautiful youth. This provoked a fierce reaction of Putin's supporters. On 8 February, the newspaper Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti published a letter signed by the Rector of St. Petersburg State University Lyudmila Verbitskaya, the Dean of its Law Department Nikolay Kropachyov and some of Putin's other presidential campaign assistants that urged to prosecute the authors of the show for what they considered a criminal offence.
The talk show with people of Ryazan and FSB members
On 24 March 2000, two days before the presidential elections, NTV featured the Ryazan events of Fall 1999 in the talk show Independent Investigation. The talk with the residents of the Ryazan apartment building along with FSB public relations director Alexander Zdanovich and Ryazan branch head Alexander Sergeyev was filmed few days earlier. On 26 March, Boris Nemtsov voiced his concern over the possible shut-down of NTV for airing the talk.
Seven months later NTV general manager Igor Malashenko said at the JFK School of Government that Information Minister Mikhail Lesin warned him on several occasions. Malashenko's recollection of Lesin's warning was that by airing the talk show NTV "crossed the line" and that the NTV managers were "outlaws" in the eyes of the Kremlin.
According to Alexander Goldfarb, Malashenko told him that Valentin Yumashev brought a warning from the Kremlin one day before airing the show promising in no uncertain terms that the NTV managers "should consider themselves finished" if they would go ahead with the broadcast.
Change of management
On 11 May 2000, tax police, backed by officers from the general prosecutor's office and the FSB, stormed the Moscow headquarters of NTV and Media-Most and searched the premises for 12 hours. Critics considered this move politically motivated, as NTV voiced opposition to Putin since his presidential electoral campaign. Putin denied any involvement.
Viktor Shenderovich claimed that an unnamed top government official requested NTV to exclude the puppet of Putin from Kukly. Accordingly, in the following episode of the show, called "Ten Commandments", the puppet of Putin was replaced with a cloud covering the top of a mountain and a burning bush.
On 13 June 2000, Gusinsky was detained as a suspect in the General Prosecutor Office's criminal investigation of fraud between his Media-Most holding, Russkoye Video - 11th Channel Ltd. and the federal enterprise Russkoye Video. At the time, Media-Most was involved in a dispute over the loan received from Gazprom. On the third day, however, he was released under the written undertaking not to leave the country.
On 15 July, the puppet of Putin acted in the Kukly show as Girolamo Savonarola.
On 19 July, investigators of the office of Prosecutor General of Russia came to Gusinsky's home, distrained and arrested his property.
In a surprisingly informal deal, the charges against Gusinsky were lifted after he signed an agreement with Mikhail Lesin, Minister of Media, on 20 July. Under the agreement, Gusinsky would discharge his debts by selling Media-Most to Gazprom, which had held a 30% share of NTV since 1996, for the price imposed by the latter, and was given a guarantee that he would not be prosecuted. After leaving the country, Gusinsky claimed he was pressured to sign the agreement by the prospect of the criminal investigation. Media-Most refused to comply with the agreement.
Tax authorities brought a suit against Media-Most aiming to wind it up.
On 26 January 2001, Gazprom announced that it had acquired a controlling stake of 46% in NTV. The voting rights of a 19% stake held by Media-Most was frozen by a court decision.
Putin met with leading NTV journalists on 29 January, but the meeting changed nothing. The parties reasserted their positions; Putin denied any involvement and said that he could not interfere with the prosecutors and courts.
Around that time American media mogul Ted Turner (owner and founder of the Turner Broadcasting System subsidiary of Time Warner) appeared to be going to buy Gusinsky's share, but this has never happened.
On 14 April 2001, Gazprom took over NTV by force and brought in its own management team. Its director-general Yevgeniy Kiselyov was replaced by Boris Jordan. Many leading journalists, including Yevgeniy Kiselyov, Svetlana Sorokina, Viktor Shenderovich, Vladimir A. Kara-Murza, Dmitry Dibrov, left the company. Leonid Parfyonov and Tatyana Mitkova remained. Kiselyov's Itogi program was closed down, replaced by Parfyonov's Namedni.
Citizens concerned by the threat to the freedom of speech in Russia argued that the financial pressure was inspired by the Vladimir Putin's government, which was often subject to NTV's criticism. Some tens of thousands of Russians rallied to the call of dissident NTV journalists in order to support the old NTV staff in April 2001. Within the next couple of years, two independent TV channels which absorbed the former NTV journalists, TV-6 and TVS, were also shut down.
In January 2003, Boris Jordan was ousted as director general and replaced by Nikolay Senkevich, son of TV-presenter Yuri Senkevich from Channel One. A few days earlier he was also discharged from Media-Most director-general position, where he had replaced Alfred Kokh in October 2001. As insiders claimed, Jordan was sacked because NTV had carried a live translation of the culmination of the Moscow theater siege in October 2002 and had been too critical of the way authorities handled it.
Since then, entertaining talk-shows have become more prominent on NTV, rather than political programmes. However, unlike other leading TV channels in Russia, NTV went on reporting on-the-fly about some opposition activities and government failures, including the conflagrating fire of the Moscow Manege on the day of Russian presidential elections on 14 March 2004, and the assassination of the pro-Russian President of Chechnya Akhmad Kadyrov on Victory Day 9 May 2004.
On 1 June 2004, Leonid Parfyonov, one of the last leading journalists from the old NTV staff who remained, and who was still critical of the government, was ousted from the channel, and his weekly news commentary programme Namedni was taken off the air. Its last announced episode never aired. Shortly before this, Parfyonov had been forbidden to present an interview with Malika Yandarbieva, widow of Chechen rebel leader Zelimkhan Yandarbiev. Zelimkhan Yandarbiev had been assassinated in exile in Qatar earlier that year. Parfyonov had shared this decision with the public on 31 May.
On 5 July 2004, Senkevich was replaced by Vladimir Kulistikov (b. 1952) as director general of NTV. Tamara Gavrilova, formerly a fellow student with Vladimir Putin at Leningrad State University, was appointed deputy director general.
Soon the political programmes Freedom Of Speech hosted by Savik Shuster (Shuster works in Ukraine since 2005), Personal Contribution hosted by Aleksandr Gerasimov, and Red Arrow were closed down.
From 2006 to 2009, NTV ran weekly news commentary programme Sunday Night in a talk-show format and political talk-show On The Stand, both hosted by Vladimir Solovyov, as well as weekly news commentary programme Real Politics hosted on Saturdays from 2005 to 2008 by political analyst and key Kremlin adviser Gleb Pavlovsky.
- Igor Malashenko (1993–1997)
Next, the position of the President of the NTV television was completely connected with the post of general director of NTV.
- Igor Malashenko (1993–1997)
- Oleg Dobrodeev (1997–2000)
- Evgeny Kiselev (2000–2001)
- Boris Jordan (2001–2003)
- Nicholas Sienkiewicz (2003–2004)
- Vladimir Kulistikov (2004–present)
Deputy Director General for Information and Socio-political broadcasts
- Evgeny Kiselev (199?–2001)
- Vladimir Kulistikov (April 2001 – fall 2001)
- Tatiana Mitkov (2001–2003, 2004–present)
Aleksandr Gerasimov (2003–2004)
The main producers
- Alexei Tsyvarev (1994–1996)
- Leonid Parfenov (1997–1999)
- Alexander Levin (1999–2001, 2004–2005)
- Alexandra Oleynik (April–October 2001)
- Sergei Shumakov (2001–2003)
- Cyril Nabutov (2003–2004)
Since 2005, the chief producer on the TV channel has been removed.
The chief news producers
- Fayfman Alexander (1997–1998)
- Elena Adruzova (1997–2009)
Chairmen of the Board of Directors
- Evgeny Kiselev (1993–2001)
- Alfred Koch (spring 2001 – fall 2001)
- Dybal Alexander (2003–2004)
- Nicholas Sienkiewicz (2004–present)
The executive director
- Sergey Mkrtchyan (1997-1999)
Editors in Chief of the Information
- Oleg Dobrodeev (1993–1997)
- Vladimir Kulistikov (1997–2000)
- Grigory Krichevsky (2000–2001)
- Tatiana Mitkov (2001–2003)
- Aleksandr Gerasimov (2003–2004)
- Tatiana Mitkov (since 2004)
- Viktor Shenderovich, "Tales From Hoffman" (sic) (48–57), Index on Censorship, Volume 37, Number 1, 2008, p. 50.
- G. Kertman, Star Wars (Political Commentators on Television), The Public Opinion Foundation, 1 March 2000.
- NTV: Timeline of events, CNN, 10 April 2001.
- Viktor Shenderovich, "Tales From Hoffman" (48–57), Index on Censorship, Volume 37, Number 1, 2008, p. 49.
- (Russian) FSB is blowing up Russia: Chapter 5. FSB vs the People, Alexander Litvinenko, Yuri Felshtinsky, Novaya Gazeta, 27 August 2001 (computer translation)
- Caucasus Ka-Boom, Miriam Lanskoy, 8 November 2000, Johnson's Russia List, Issue 4630
- Alexander Goldfarb and Marina Litvinenko, Death of a Dissident: The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB (2007), The Free Press, ISBN 978-1-4165-5165-2, p. 198.
- (Russian) Виктор Шендерович (Viktor Shenderovich), Здесь Было НТВ, ТВ-6, ТВС: Обстоятельства непреодолимой сил (Zdes' bilo NTV, TV-6, TVS: Obstoyatel'ctva nepreodolimoi sil, "Here was NTV, TV-6, TVS: Force Majeure"), 2003, on a site of interviews and articles mainly by TV host Svetlana Sorokina. Computer translation.
- (Russian) Елена Курасова (Elena Kurasova), Телекнязь Кара-Мурза (Telekiyaz' Kara-Murza, "Tele-prince Kara-Murza"), Stringer.ru, 1 March 2003.
- Gazprom Takes Control of NTV, Kagan World Media, Ltd. 26 January 2001. Archived on the Internet Archive 28 March 2006.
- Viktor Shenderovich, "Tales From Hoffman" (sic) (48–57), Index on Censorship, Volume 37, Number 1, 2008, p. 53.
- Viktor Shenderovich, "Tales From Hoffman" (sic) (48–57), Index on Censorship, Volume 37, Number 1, 2008, p. 55. Discusses TV-6.
- Tom Birchenough, Senkevich bounds to top NTV slot, Variety, 23 January 2003.
- Nick Paton Walsh, Television station sacks Kremlin's last critic, The Guardian (UK), 3 June 2004.
- Leonid Parfenov Sacked from NTV, Kommersant (Russia), 2 June 2004.
- Maria Luisa Tirmaste, "It Was a Request We Couldn't Refuse", Kommersant (Russia), 31 May 2004.
- Simon Saradzhyan, Kulistikov Appointed New Chief of NTV, The Moscow Times, 6 July 2004.
- (Russian) Виктор Шендерович (Viktor Shenderovich), Венеролог Басаев, однокурсница президента, а также — почему Зюганов пожаловался Путину на него самого, (Venerolog Basayev, Odnokurisnitsa prezidenta, a takzhe — pochemu Zuganov pochalovalsya Putinu na nego samogo, "Venerolog Basayev, president of Odnokurisnitsa and — why Zuganov complained to Putin himself") Novaya Gazeta, 19 July 2004.
- Savik Shuster: I’m the only thing to remain after "orange revolution" , Novaya Gazeta, (2 February 2008).
- Russia’s free media find a haven in Ukraine, Financial Times (11 July 2009).
- NTV official website
- NTV fact file: From Gusinsky to Gazprom, CNN, 10 April 2001, covers the period 1993–2001.
- NTV: Timeline of events, CNN, 10 April 2001, covers the period 1993–2001.
- Analysis: Russian media troubles, BBC News, 14 April 2001.
- in quotes: NTV takeover, BBC News, 15 April 2001.
- Спецпроект: Апрель 2001 (Spetslproyekt: Aprel' 2001, "Special Project: April 2001"), TV-6 Russia (history of the defeat as seen by the journalists and viewers). (Russian)
- Chamber judgment in the case of Gusinskiy v. Russia, European Court of Human Rights, 19 May 2004.
- Е. В. Трегубова (Yelena Tregubova), Байки кремлевского диггера (Baiki kremlevskogo diggera, "The Kremlin Digger's Tales"), The Centre for Journalism in Extreme Situations, undated. (Russian)
- Виктор Шендерович (Viktor Shenderovich), Здесь Было НТВ "NTV was here, part 1". (Russian)
- Виктор Шендерович (Viktor Shenderovich), Куклиада (Kukliada, "The Kukliad". (Russian)
- Владимир Прибыловский (Vladimir Pribylovsky) & Юрий Фельштинский (Yuriy Felshtinsky), Операция "Наследник" (Operatsya "Naslednik", "Operation 'Successor'"), Biblioteka Maxima Morcova. (Russian)
- Алла Боссарт (Alla Bossart) Защита Буратино (Zashita Buratino, "The Buratino Defence"), Novaya Gazeta, 12 April 2001, No 26.] (Russian)
- Евгения Альбац (Yevgenia Albats), Кому Продали НТВ: Чекисты подминают под себя СМИ (Komu Prodali NTV: Chekisti podminaut cebya SMI), "To whom NTV has been sold: FSB (literally, 'Chekists') is taking over NTV"), Novaya Gazeta, 2 October 2002, No 72. (Russian)
- Юлия Латынина (Yuliya Latynina), Я Сам Буду Вашим Цензором (Ya sam budu vashim tsenzorom, "I will be your censor myself"], Novaya Gazeta, 20 January 2003, No 4. (Russian)
- Место Парфенова. Вместо Парфенова (Myosto Parfyonova. Vmyosto Parfyonova, "The place of Parfyonov; Instead of Parfyonov"), Izvestia, 5 June 2004. (Russian)
- Александр Рыклин (Alexander Ryklin), Если звезды гасят, значит, это кому-нибудь нужно (Yesli zvezdi gasyat, znayait, zhto komy-nibud' nuzhno, "As the stars are extinguished, someone needs it"), EJ 123 (Ежедневный Журнал / Yezhednevni Zhournal), 8 June 2004. (Russian)
- Александр Рыклин (Alexander Ryklin), Нарушитель этических норм (Narushitel' zticheskich norm, "Transgressor of ethical norms"), EJ 123 (Ежедневный Журнал / Yezhednevni Zhournal), 8 June 2004. (Russian)
- David Warsh, In Which, At Last, We Meet, Perhaps, Andrei Shleifer’s Evil Twin, Economic Principles, 16 April 2006.