New York City Subway

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New York City Subway
MTA New York City Subway logo.svg
NYCT R142A.jpg
NYC Subway R160A 9237 on the E.jpg
Top: A number 6 train made up of R142A cars enters the Parkchester station.
Bottom: An E train made up of R160A cars waits for passengers at the 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal station.
Overview
Owner City of New York
Locale New York City
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 34 physical lines
(1 under construction)
24 services
(1 planned)[note 1]
Number of stations 468[1] (MTA total count)[note 2]
421[note 2][1] (when compared to international standards)
5 under construction[note 3]
14 planned[note 1]
Daily ridership 5,465,034 (weekdays, 2013)
3,243,495 (Saturdays, 2013)
2,563,022 (Sundays, 2013)[1]
Annual ridership 1,707,555,714 (2013)
Website MTA Subway
Operation
Began operation October 27, 1904
(first underground section)
July 3, 1868
(first elevated, rapid transit operation)
October 9, 1863
(first railroad operation)[2]
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA)
Number of vehicles 6,325[1]
Technical
System length 232 mi (373 km)[3]
     (route length)
656 mi (1,056 km)[4]
     (track length, revenue)
842 mi (1,355 km)[4]
     (track length, total)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification 625V (DC) third rail[4] (600V third rail for some lines)
System map

NYC subway-4D.svg

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority,[5] a subsidiary agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It is one of the largest public transportation systems in the world by number of stations, with 468 stations in operation (421, if stations connected by transfers are counted as single stations).[1] The New York City Subway is also one of the world's oldest public transit systems. Overall, the system contains 232 miles (373 km) of routes,[3][4] translating into 656 miles (1,056 km) of revenue track;[4][6] and a total of 842 miles (1,355 km) including non-revenue trackage.[4] In 2013, the subway delivered over 1.71 billion rides,[7] averaging approximately 5.5 million rides on weekdays, about 3.2 million rides on Saturdays, and about 2.6 million rides on Sundays. Ridership has been consistently increasing over the last several years, especially because of rising gas prices and the subway's energy efficiency.[1][8][9][10][11][12]

By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in the United States and in the Americas, as well as the seventh busiest rapid transit rail system in the world; the metro (subway) systems in Seoul, Beijing, Shanghai, Moscow, Tokyo, and Guangzhou record a higher annual ridership.[13] It offers rail service 24 hours per day and every day of the year.[14]

Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx. While Staten Island does have a rail line, the Staten Island Railway, it is not officially considered part of the subway, and does not have any direct rail link with the subway system, so any passengers wishing to visit another borough must take a ferry or bus.

All services pass through Manhattan except for the G, Franklin Avenue Shuttle and Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, and a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% is at or above ground.

Many lines and stations have both express and local services. These lines have three or four tracks. Normally, the outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations.

History[edit]

The City Hall station of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line opened on October 27, 1904.

A demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City was first built by Alfred Ely Beach in 1869. His Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet (95 m) under Broadway in Lower Manhattan and exhibited his idea for a subway propelled by pneumatic tube technology. The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons, although extensions had been planned to take the tunnel southward to The Battery and northwards towards the Harlem River.[15] The Beach subway was demolished when the BMT Broadway Line was built in the 1910s; thus, it was not integrated into the New York City Subway system.

The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904, almost 35 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line. The oldest right-of-way, that of the BMT West End Line, was in use in 1863 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road.

Graffiti became a notable symbol of declining service during the 1970s.

By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT, later Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, BMT) and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT). The city was closely involved: all lines built for the IRT and most other lines built or improved for the BRT after 1913 were built by the city and leased to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System (IND) opened in 1932; this system was intended to compete with the private systems and allow some of the elevated railways to be torn down, but kept within the core of the City due to the low amount of startup capital provided to the municipal Board of Transportation, the later MTA, by the state.[5] This required it to be run 'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.[16]

In 1940, the two private systems were bought by the city and some elevated lines closed immediately while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT, and now operate as one division called the B Division. Since the IRT tunnel segments are too small and stations too narrow to accommodate B Division cars, and contain curves too sharp for B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, A Division.

The New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus, and streetcar operations from the city, and placed under control of the state-level Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968.

The Cortlandt Street station partially collapsed as a result of the collapse of the World Trade Center.

In 1934, transit workers of the BRT, IRT, and IND founded the Transport Workers Union of America, organized as Local 100. Local 100 remains the largest and most influential local of the labor union. Since the union's founding, there have been three union strikes over contract disputes with the MTA, 12 days in 1966, 11 days in 1980, and three days in 2005.

By the 1970s and 1980s, the New York City Subway was at an all-time low.[17][18] Ridership had dropped to 1910s levels, and graffiti and crime was rampant on the subway; in general, the subway was very poorly maintained during that time, with delays and track problems common. Still, the NYCTA managed to open six new subway stations during that time, as well as order 1,775 new, graffiti-free subway cars, and things had improved by the early 1990s.[18]

The September 11 attacks resulted in service disruptions on lines running through Lower Manhattan, particularly the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line, which ran directly underneath the World Trade Center between the Chambers Street and Rector Street stations. Sections of the tunnel, as well as the Cortlandt Street station, which was directly underneath the Twin Towers, were severely damaged by the collapse and had to be rebuilt, requiring suspension of service on that line south of Chambers Street. Ten other nearby stations were closed while dust and debris were cleaned up. By March 2002, seven of those stations had reopened. The rest (except for Cortlandt Street on the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line) reopened on September 15, 2002, along with service south of Chambers Street.[19][20]

Construction methods[edit]

An unopened stretch of subway track on the 7 Subway Extension.

When the IRT subway debuted in 1904, the typical tunnel construction method was cut-and-cover. The street was torn up to dig the tunnel below before being rebuilt from above. This method worked well for digging soft dirt and gravel near the street surface. However, mining shields were required for deeper sections, such as the Harlem and East River tunnels, which used cast-iron tubes, segments between 33rd and 42nd streets under Park Avenue, 116th Street and 120th Street under Broadway, and 145th Street and Dyckman Street (Fort George) under Broadway and Saint Nicholas Avenue as well as the tunnel from 96th Street to Central Park North – 110th Street & Lenox Avenue, all of which used either rock or concrete-lined tunnels.[21]

About 40% of the subway system runs on surface or elevated tracks, including steel or cast iron elevated structures, concrete viaducts, embankments, open cuts and surface routes. All of these construction methods are completely grade-separated from road and pedestrian crossings, and most crossings of two subway tracks are grade-separated with flying junctions. The sole exceptions of at-grade junctions of two lines in regular service are the 135th Street junction and the Myrtle Avenue junction, whose tracks both intersect at the same level.

More recent projects use tunnel boring machines (construction with which comes at a higher cost than construction with cut-and-cover does) to build the subway tunnels to minimize disruption at street level, but also to avoid already existing utilities.[22] Examples of such projects include the extension of the IRT Flushing Line[23][24][25][26] and the IND Second Avenue Line.[27][28][29][30]

Expansion[edit]

Second Avenue Subway Community Information Center

Since the opening of the original New York City Subway line in 1904, various official and planning agencies have proposed numerous extensions to the subway system. One of the better known proposals was the "Second System," which was part of a plan by the Independent Subway to construct new subway lines in addition and take over existing subway lines and railroad right-of-ways. Though most of the routes proposed over the decades have never seen construction, discussion remains strong to develop some of these lines, to alleviate existing subway capacity constraints and overcrowding, the most notable being the Second Avenue Subway. Plans for new lines date back to the early 1910s, and expansion plans were proposed in 1910, 1922, 1926, 1929, 1938–40, 1951, 1968, 1996, 1998, and 2007.

The most grandiose plan, conceived in 1929, was to be part of the city-operated Independent Subway System (IND). By 1939, with unification planned, all three systems were included. Many different plans were proposed at one time or another, but the onset of World War II killed nearly all plans for subway expansion.[31] As this grandiose expansion was not built, the subway system is only 34 of what it was planned to be.

Magnificently engineered, almost entirely underground, with 670 feet (200 m) platforms and flying junctions throughout, the IND system tripled the City's rapid transit debt, ironically contributing to the demise of plans for an ambitious expansion proposed before the first line of the first system was even opened.

Due to this debt, after the IND Sixth Avenue Line was completed in 1940, only 28 new stations were added to the system. Five stations were on the abandoned NYW&B-operated IRT Dyre Avenue Line, fourteen stations were on the abandoned LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch (now the IND Rockaway Line), six were on the Archer Avenue Lines and 63rd Street Lines (built as part of a 1968 plan), two stations (57th Street and Grand Street) were part of the Chrystie Street Connection, and the Harlem – 148th Street terminal.

Current expansion projects include the:

Lines and routes[edit]

A digital sign on the side of an R142 4 train

Many rapid transit systems run relatively static routings, so that a train "line" is more or less synonymous with a train "route". In New York City, however, routings change often because of changes in the availability of connections or the setup of service patterns. Within the nomenclature of the subway, the "line" describes the physical railroad track or series of tracks that a train "route" uses on its way from one terminal to another. "Routes" (also called "services") are distinguished by a letter or a number and "Lines" have names. They are also designations for trains, as exemplified in the Billy Strayhorn song Take the "A" Train.

There are 24 train services in the subway system, including three short shuttles. Each route has a color and a local or express designation representing the Manhattan trunk line of the particular service. The color lime green is exclusively assigned to the Crosstown Line route, which operates entirely outside Manhattan, while the shuttles are all assigned dark slate gray.[40] The current color system depicted on official subway maps was proposed by R. Raleigh D'Adamo, a lawyer who entered a contest sponsored by the Transit Authority in 1964. D'Adamo proposed replacing a map that used only three colors (representing the three operating entities of the subway network) with a map that used a different color for each service. D'Adamo's contest entry shared first place with two others and led to the Transit Authority adopting a multi-colored scheme.[41] The lines and services are not referred to by color (e.g., Blue Line or Green Line).[42][43]

Map of line elevation in relation to the ground. Underground is the segments in red, and aboveground, at grade, embankment, or open cut is the segments in green.
Map of the number of tracks on lines.

The 1, 6, 7, C, G, L, M and R trains are fully local; making all stops. The 2, 3, 4, 5, <6>, <7>, A, B, D, E, F, N and Q trains have portions of express and local service. The J train normally operates local, but during rush hours it is joined by the Z train in the peak direction. Both run local, express or skip-stop on different parts of their route. The letter S is used for three shuttle services: Franklin Avenue Shuttle, Rockaway Park Shuttle, and 42nd Street Shuttle.[44]

Though the subway system operates on a 24-hour basis, some of the designated routes do not run, run as a shorter route (often referred to as the 'shuttle train' version of its full-length counterpart) or run with a different stopping pattern during late night hours (usually indicated by smaller, secondary route signage on station platforms). In addition to these regularly scheduled changes, because there is no nightly system shutdown for maintenance, tracks and stations must be maintained while the system is operating. To accommodate such work, services are usually changed during midday, overnight hours, and weekends.[45]

When a line is temporarily shut-down for construction purposes, the transit authority substitutes free shuttle buses (using MTA Regional Bus Operations bus fleet) in place of it.[46]

The transit authority announces planned service changes through its website,[47] via placards that are posted on station and interior subway-car walls,[48] and through its Twitter page.[49]

Trunk lines[edit]

Primary Trunk line Color[50][51] Pantone [52] Service bullets
IND Eighth Avenue Line Vivid blue PMS 286 NYCS A NYCS C NYCS E
IND Sixth Avenue Line Bright orange PMS 165 NYCS B NYCS D NYCS F NYCS M
IND Crosstown Line Lime green PMS 376 NYCS G
BMT Canarsie Line Light slate gray 50% black NYCS L
BMT Nassau Street Line Terra cotta brown PMS 154 NYCS J NYCS Z
BMT Broadway Line Sunflower yellow PMS 116 NYCS N NYCS Q NYCS R
IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line Tomato red PMS 185 NYCS 1 NYCS 2 NYCS 3
IRT Lexington Avenue Line Apple green PMS 355 NYCS 4 NYCS 5 NYCS 6 NYCS 6d
IRT Flushing Line Raspberry PMS Purple NYCS 7 NYCS 7d
Shuttles Dark slate gray 70% black NYCS S

Routes[edit]

Subway map[edit]

Stations, facilities, and amenities[edit]

Entrance to Broad Street station with its red lamps
An entrance to the Times Square – 42nd Street / Port Authority Bus Terminal station, the busiest station of the New York City Subway.[53]
7 train arriving at Vernon Boulevard – Jackson Avenue station (43s)

Most of the 468 stations are served 24 hours a day.[54]

Station and concourse[edit]

Many stations have mezzanines. These allow for passengers to enter from multiple entrances and proceed to the correct platform without having to cross the street before entering. They also allow for crossover between the uptown and downtown platforms.

Passengers enter a subway station through stairs towards station booths and vending machines to buy their fare, which is currently stored in a MetroCard. After swiping the card at a turnstile, customers continue to the platforms. Some subway lines in northern Manhattan and the other boroughs have elevated tracks to which passengers climb up to the platforms and station houses via stairs, escalators, or elevators.

Globe lamps[edit]

At most of the system's entrances and exits sits a lamp post or two bearing a colored spherical lamp. These lights were once used to indicate the station's availability. A green lamp means that the station is open and running 24 hours a day, while a red lamp means that it is an exit-only or part-time. A yellow lamp once indicated a part-time station, but in an attempt to simplify the system, was eventually phased out and replaced by red lamps, now indicating both a part-time entrance and exit-only. With the introduction of the MetroCard in 1994, some station entrance/exit configurations have been changed by merging some entrances and exits, thus making this light system no longer accurate.[55]

Platforms[edit]

A typical subway station has waiting platforms ranging from 500 to 600 feet (150 to 180 m) long, though some IND platforms may be as long as 660 to 745 feet (201 to 227 m) long.[56] Due to the large number of transit lines, one platform or set of platforms often serve more than one service. Passengers need to look at the overhead signs at the platform entrance steps and over each track to see which trains stop there and when, and at the arriving train to see which one it is.

There are a number of common platform configurations:

  • On a double track line, a station may have one center island platform used for trains in both directions, or 2 side platforms, one for a train in each direction.
  • For lines with three or four tracks with express service, local stops will have side platforms and the middle one or two tracks will not stop at the station. On these lines, express stations have two island platforms, one for the local and express in one direction, and another for the local and express in the other direction. Each island platform provides a cross-platform interchange between local and express services. Almost everywhere expresses run, they run on the inner one (of 3) or two (of 4) tracks and locals run on the outer two tracks. In a 3-track configuration, the center express track can be used toward the center of the city in the morning and away from the center in the afternoon and evening, though not every 3-track line has that express service.

Three four-track express stations have an island platform for the center express tracks and two side platforms for the outside local tracks. These three stations are connected to major railroad stations and the next station along the line is also an express station with the more common platform configuration. The purpose of splitting the platforms is to limit overcrowding by preventing cross-platform interchanges between local and express services. This occurs at Atlantic Avenue – Barclays Center on the IRT Eastern Parkway Line (2 3 4 5 trains) with the adjacent express station Nevins Street, where the connection is to the Atlantic Terminal of the Long Island Rail Road; and 34th Street – Penn Station on both the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line (1 2 3 trains) and IND Eighth Avenue Line (A C E trains), with adjacent express stations at Times Square – 42nd Street and 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal, where a connection is available to Pennsylvania Station, one of the two major Manhattan train stations. This does not occur with the connection to New York's other major station, Grand Central Terminal, at Grand Central on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 5 6 <6> trains), which has no adjacent express station.

There is one notable six-track local station, DeKalb Avenue, where trains to or from the Manhattan Bridge (B D N Q R) either stop at the outer tracks of one of the island platforms, or pass through and bypass the station on the middle tracks ("express tracks") (D N). Trains to or from the Montague Street Tunnel (R) stop across the platform from the respective outer track, between the outer and bypass tracks.

Air conditioning[edit]

In August 2006, the MTA revealed that all future subway stations, which include 34th Street – Hudson Yards, South Ferry, and all Second Avenue Subway stations, will have platforms outfitted with air-cooling systems.[57] [58] The existing Grand Central – 42nd Street station also has these cooling systems; however, for the most part, subway stations lack air-cooling systems due to their expense, and only a few stations have ceiling fans.[59]

Artwork[edit]

Many stations are decorated with intricate ceramic tile work, some of it dating back to 1904 when the subway first opened. The subway tile artwork tradition continues in a Percent for Art program.

The "Arts for Transit" program oversees art in the subway system.[60] Permanent installations, such as sculpture, mosaics, and murals; photographs displayed in lightboxes encourage people to use mass transit.[61][62] In addition, commissioned art displayed in stations and "art cards", some displaying poetry, are in many of the trains themselves in unused advertisement fixture slots. Some of the art is by internationally known artists such as Elizabeth Murray's Blooming, displayed at Lexington Avenue / 59th Street station.[63]

Accessibility[edit]

The Crown Heights – Utica Avenue station is one of a group of stations that became accessible after station reconstruction
Street elevator serving as an entrance to the 66th Street – Lincoln Center station

Since the majority of the system was built before 1990, the year the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) went into effect, many New York City Subway stations were not designed to be handicapped-accessible. Since then, elevators have been built in newly constructed stations to comply with the ADA. (Most grade-level stations required little modification to meet ADA standards.) In addition, the MTA identified "key stations", high-traffic and/or geographically important stations, which must conform to the ADA when they are extensively renovated.[64] As of June 2011, there are 89 currently accessible stations; many of them have AutoGate access.[65][66][67]

Entertainment[edit]

Main article: Music Under New York
A typical scene of musicians performing on the platform of the Broadway – Lafayette St station.

Since 1987, MTA has sponsored the "Music Under New York" (MUNY) program[68] in which street musicians enter a competitive contest to be assigned to the preferred high traffic locations. Each year, applications are reviewed and approximately 70 eligible performers are selected and contacted to participate in live auditions held for one day.[69][70][71][72][73]

At present, more than 100 soloists and groups participate in MUNY providing over 150 weekly performances at 25 locations throughout the transit system. For example Natalia Paruz, a musical saw player, plays at Union Square. In addition, any musician/entertainer may perform in subway mezzanines and platforms. On platforms, there may be no amplifications as this is part of MTA policies:[74]

The New York City Transit (NYCT) is a subdivision of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) that operates the city's subways and buses. The NYCT authorizes these types of free expression in subway stations: "Public speaking; distribution of written materials; solicitation for charitable, religious or political causes; and artist performances, including the acceptance of donations."

Performers must not be within 25 feet (7.6 m) of a token booth or 50 feet (15 m) from an MTA office/tower, blocking access to an escalator, stairwell, or elevator, interfering with transit services or passenger movement; or in an area where construction is occurring. In addition, performance is prohibited during public service announcements and may be no louder than 85 dBA at 5 feet (1.5 m) away or 70 dBa at 2 feet (0.61 m) from a token booth. Performances are prohibited in subway cars.

Restrooms[edit]

Restrooms at Church Avenue
Former women's restroom converted into newsstand at Astor Place

Restrooms are rare in the subway system as only 129 open restrooms are in 77 of the system's 468 stations.[75] Most station restrooms previously open to the public have been closed to the public and converted to storage spaces or for employee use only. However, there are a few major stations that have operating restrooms, including on the concourses of 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal; Chambers Street; 57th Street – Seventh Avenue; Coney Island – Stillwell Avenue; and Lexington Avenue/59th Street.[76] The majority of restrooms in the New York City Subway are found in express and transfer stations, at ADA-accessible stations, and at terminals, though not all of the aforementioned types of stations have restrooms.[77]

Future subway stations will have restrooms, including 34th Street on the IRT Flushing Line[78] and the three Second Avenue Subway stations.[79]

Retail[edit]

Some platforms have newspaper stands that sell various items including newspapers and food. The MTA also installed retail spaces within paid areas in selected stations, including the station concourses of the Times Square complex and the Sixth Avenue concourse at 42nd Street – Bryant Park.

According to the MTA, the New York City Subway is home to 345 retail spaces, making over US$70 million in rent and licensing fees in 2009 for the authority. It is continuing to make efforts in attracting more diverse retailers and vendors to set up shop in the subway system.[80]

Connections[edit]

Rapid transit and rail connections are available at designated stations to Amtrak, Long Island Rail Road, AirTrain JFK, Metro-North Railroad, New Jersey Transit and PATH. Connections to the Staten Island Ferry and privately operated ferries such as NY Waterway and New York Water Taxi, as well as intercity and commuter bus lines at the Port Authority Bus Terminal and George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal, are also available. Free MetroCard-only transfers to buses are available to MTA New York City Transit buses (including the bus rapid transit Select Bus Service), MTA Bus Company, NICE buses (Nassau County) and Bee-Line buses (Westchester County).

Rolling stock[edit]

An R train made up of R46 cars in Lower Manhattan
Interior of an R142A train car

As of June 2011, the New York City Subway has 6,292 cars on the roster.[81] A typical New York City Subway train consists of 8 to 11 cars, although shuttles can have as few as two, and the train can range from 150 to 600 feet (46 to 183 m) in length.

Driver’s cab of an R160B series car on the N train

The system maintains two separate fleets of cars, one for the A Division routes and another for the B Division routes. All B Division equipment is about 10 feet (3.05 m) wide and either 60 feet 6 inches (18.44 m) or 75 feet (22.86 m) long whereas A Division equipment is approximately 8 feet 9 inches (2.67 m) wide and 51 feet 4 inches (15.65 m) long. There is also a special fleet of B Division cars that is used for operation in the BMT Eastern Division, consisting of R32/R42 cars in married pairs and R143/R160A cars in four-car sets. Due to clearance issues on various sharp curves, 75-foot (22.86 m) long cars are not permitted on BMT Eastern Division trackage.

Cars purchased by the City of New York since the inception of the IND and the other divisions beginning in 1948 are identified by the letter “R” followed by a number; e.g.: R32. This number is the contract number under which the cars were purchased. Cars with nearby contract numbers (e.g.: R1 through R9, or R26 through R29, or R143 through R160B) may be relatively identical, despite being purchased under different contracts and possibly built by different manufacturers.

The MTA has been incorporating newer subway cars into its stock since the late 1990s. Since 1999, the R142, R142A, R143, R160, and R188 cars have been placed into service.[82][83] These cars feature recorded announcements for station information, closing doors, and other general messages in lieu of conductor announcements, although live conductor announcements can still be made. The recordings began in the late 1990s and featured Bloomberg Radio on-air speakers, who volunteered at the request of their employer and then-future city mayor Michael Bloomberg. Voices include Jessica Ettinger Gottesman, Diane Thompson, Charlie Pellett, and Catherine Cowdery. With regards to why certain messages are voiced by males and others by females, MTA spokesperson Gene Sansone said in 2006 that, “Most of the orders are given by a male voice, while informational messages come from females. Even though this happened by accident, it is a lucky thing because a lot of psychologists agree that people are more receptive to orders from men and information from women”.[84]

On March 24, 2012, the MTA announced that it ordered 300 R179 subway cars from Bombardier.[85][86] The total price of the contract is US$599 million, with the first test train of ten cars arriving in late 2014.[87]

Fares[edit]

NYCTA tokens; from left to right: 1953-1970; 1970-1980; 1979-1980; 1980-1986; 1986-1995; 1995-2003

Riders pay a single fare to enter the subway system and may transfer between trains at no extra cost until they exit via station turnstiles; the fare is a flat rate regardless of how far or how long the rider travels.[88] Thus, riders must swipe their MetroCard upon entering the subway system, but not a second time upon leaving.[89]

As of 2013, nearly all fares are paid by MetroCard; the base fare is $2.50 when purchased in the form of a reusable "pay per ride" MetroCard.[90] Single-use cards may be purchased for $2.75, and 7-day and 30-day unlimited ride cards can lower the effective per-ride fare significantly.[89] Reduced fares are available for the elderly and people with disabilities.[91]

Token and change[edit]

From the inauguration of IRT subway services in 1904[92] until the unified system of 1948 (including predecessor BMT and IND subway services), the fare for a ride on the subway of any length was 5 cents (nickel). On July 1, 1948, the fare was increased to 10 cents (dime), and since then has steadily risen. When the New York City Transit Authority was created in July 1953, the fare was raised to 15 cents and a token issued. Until April 13, 2003, riders paid the fare with tokens purchased from a station attendant. The tokens were changed periodically as prices changed. For the 75th anniversary of the subway in 1979 (also called the Diamond Jubilee), a special token with a small off-center diamond cutout and engraved images of a 1904 subway car and kiosk were issued. Many were purchased for keepsakes and were not used for rides. The last iteration of tokens featured a hole in the middle and phased out in 2003 when the fare rose to $2.[93]

Token sucking[edit]

It was a common scam to circumvent the payment of fares by jamming the token slot in an entrance gate with paper. A passenger would insert a token into the turnstile, be frustrated when it did not open the gate, and have to spend another token to enter at another gate. A token thief would then suck the token from the jammed slot with their mouth. This could be repeated many times as long as no police officers spotted the activity. Some token booth attendants sprinkled chili powder in the slots to discourage "token sucking".[94] Token sucking (also known as stuff 'n' suck) was charged under theft of services, criminal tampering and criminal mischief.[95]

Token War with Connecticut[edit]

Transit riders discovered in the early 1980s that tokens purchased for use in the Connecticut Turnpike toll booths were of the same size and weight as New York City subway tokens. Since they cost less than one third as much, they began showing up in subway collection boxes regularly.[96] Connecticut authorities initially agreed to change the size of their tokens,[97] but later reneged and the problem went unsolved until 1985, when Connecticut discontinued the tolls on its turnpike.[98] At that time, the MTA was paid 17.5 cents for each of more than two million tokens that had been collected during the three-year "token war".[98]

The current MetroCard design

MetroCard[edit]

In 1993, the subway system introduced a fare system called the MetroCard, which allows riders to use cards that store the value equal to the amount paid to a station booth clerk or vending machine. The MetroCard was enhanced in 1997 to allow passengers to make free transfers between subways and buses within two hours; several MetroCard-only transfers between subway stations were added in 2001. With the addition of unlimited-ride MetroCards in 1998 (for 7-day and 30-day periods, later 1-day "Fun Pass" and 14-day periods, both of which have been discontinued), the New York City Transit system was the last major transit system in the United States with the exception of BART in San Francisco to introduce passes for unlimited bus and rapid transit travel.[99]

In January 2014, the MTA stated that it wants to implement a contactless fare system to replace the MetroCard by 2019.[100][101][102]

Modernization[edit]

FASTRACK[edit]

FASTRACK on the IND Eighth Avenue Line

In 2012, the MTA introduced a new maintenance program, FASTRACK, to speed up repair work. This program involves a more drastic approach than previous construction, and completely shuts down a major portion of a line for four consecutive weeknights.[103] According to the MTA, this new program proved much more efficient and quick than regular service changes, especially because it happened at night and not the weekend, when most transit closures had occurred before.[104] In 2012 the program only closed lines in Midtown and Lower Manhattan,[105][note 6] while in 2013 it expanded to other corridors requiring minimal shuttle buses[106][note 7] and in 2014 to even more locations.[107] There are corridors scheduled for 2014 during 24 weeks of the year.[note 8]

Technology[edit]

New train arrival signs on the BMT Canarsie Line
RFID trial on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line

Train arrival "countdown clocks"[edit]

In 2003, the MTA signed a $160 million contract with Siemens Transportation Systems to install digital real-time message boards at 158 of its IRT stations to display the number of minutes until the arrival of the next trains.[108] Payments to the company were stopped in May 2006 following many technical problems and delays[109] and MTA started to look for alternative suppliers and technologies.[108] In January 2007 Siemens announced that the issues had been resolved and that screens would start appearing at 158 stations by the end of the year.[110][dead link] In 2008, the system-wide roll-out was pushed back again, to 2011, with the MTA citing technical problems.[111][112]

An in-house simpler system developed by MTA for the L train was operational by early 2009[108][113] and the first three displays of the larger Siemens system became operational at stations on the IRT Pelham Line (6 <6> trains) in the Bronx in December 2009.[114] Siemens signs were in operation in 110 IRT stations by March 2011[115][116][117][118][119][120] and in 153 IRT mainline and 24 Canarsie Line stations by late 2011.[121] Similar, but simpler countdown clocks are in used at thirteen stations on the IND Queens Boulevard Line, three stations on the BMT Broadway Line, nineteen stations on the IND Eighth Avenue Line[121] and five stations on the BMT Astoria Line.[122] The announcements are voiced by radio traffic reporter Bernie Wagenblast[123] and Carolyn Hopkins.[124]

Real-time station information for 1-6 and S trains was made available through MTA's 'Subway Times' mobile app and as open data to 3rd party developers via a API in 2012, being extended to include the L train in early 2014.[125]

Displays at 22 IRT Flushing Line and 5 IRT Dyre Avenue Line stations are not expected to be operational until 2016, with the delay being attributed to upgrades to the CBTC signal for the IRT Flushing Line stations and to signal modernizations for IRT Dyre Avenue Line stations.[126] Displays at a further 267 B Division stations will be installed as part of the 2015–2019 capital funding program.[126]

2006 PayPass only trial[edit]

The MTA signed a deal with MasterCard in the first few months of 2006 to test out a new RFID card payment scheme.[127] Customers had to sign up at a special MasterCard website and use a MasterCard PayPass credit or debit card/tag to participate. Participating stations included:[128]

Originally scheduled to end in December 2006, the MTA extended the trial due to "overwhelming positive response".[129]

2010 PayPass and PayWave trial[edit]

In light of the success of the first Paypass pilot project in 2006, another trial was started by the MTA. This one started on June 1, 2010, and ended on November 30, 2010. The first two months started with the customer just using the MasterCard PayPass debit or credit card.[130][131][132][133][134] However, this trial was the debut of having a rider use the VISA PayWave debit or credit card to enter the system, which started on August 1, 2010.[135] For six months, a rider could use either a MasterCard Paypass or VISA PayWave credit/debit card to pay for a fare on an expanded list of subway and bus routes. [note 9][136]

The Help Point at the Smith–Ninth Streets station
The On the Go! Travel Station in use at the Bowling Green station

Help Point[edit]

The MTA set up another technology pilot project for the New York City Subway called "Help Point" in April 5, 2011. Help Point is a new digital-audio communications system that lets a rider access it, in case of an emergency or needing subway information for travel directions.[137] The top button is labeled red for emergencies towards the Rail Control Center. The bottom button is labeled green towards a MTA station agent for any inquiries. All units are equipped with a microphone to speak into and a speaker to hear answers to the rider from a MTA worker.[138] Also, the test units were equipped for the hearing impaired (under ADA compliance).

The two subway stations that were part of this trial were on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line. They were the 23rd Street and the Brooklyn Bridge – City Hall stations. The Help Points at the Brooklyn Bridge – City Hall station were wireless and the 23rd Street station ones were hard-wired, to test which type of transmission is best for the subway. If the test project is successful, then this communications system will replace the existing Customer Assistance Intercom (CAI) units on all 468 subway stations in the future.[139][140]

On March 6, 2012, the MTA decided that all CAI units will be replaced with wireless Help Points in all subway stations, with optional cameras to each unit.[141] The Help Point would be installed in 139 stations by 2014, and the remaining 333 stations would have Help Points by the end of 2019.[142]

On The Go! Travel Station[edit]

On September 19, 2011, the MTA set up another pilot project, an online, interactive touchscreen computer program called "On The Go! Travel Station" (OTG). It lists any planned work or service changes occurring on the subway as well as information to help travelers find landmarks or locales near the stations with an OTG outlet. The first station to test this new technology was Bowling Green on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line.[143] Other stations scheduled to participate in this program were Penn Station (with the LIRR), Grand Central Terminal (with Metro-North), Atlantic Avenue – Barclays Center in Brooklyn, and Jackson Heights – Roosevelt Avenue / 74th Street – Broadway in Queens.[144][100]

New and existing On the Go! kiosks will receive an interface overhaul as a result of the MTA's partnership with Control Group, a technology and design consultancy firm. Control Group is adding route lookup, countdown to train arrivals, and service alerts. The next iteration of 47–90 interactive wayfinding kiosks is scheduled for deployment in 2013.[145]

An indoor antenna which is part of the distributed antenna system installed by Transit Wireless inside a station

Cellular phone and wireless data[edit]

New York City Subway began to provide underground cellular phone with voice and data service, and free Wi-Fi to passengers in 2011 at six stations. The new network was installed and owned by Transit Wireless as part of company's $200 million investment. The company expanded the services to 30 more stations in 2013 and signed an agreement with all 4 major wireless network operators to allow their cellular phone customers to use its network. The MTA and Transit Wireless are splitting the fees received from those wireless carriers for the usage of the network. The Wi-Fi service, which operates using antennae,[146] is operated by Boingo Wireless.[147] Transit Wireless expects to provide service to the remaining 241 underground stations by 2017, including the four deep-level subway stations under construction. Work to install the antennas within the next 40 key stations in midtown Manhattan and Queens has already begun, and the antennas are expected to be in service by March 2014.[148][100]

Safety and security[edit]

Crime, train accidents, suicides and threats of terrorism all impact the subway system.

Train movement safety[edit]

Safe train operation on the whole New York City Subway is ensured by a combination of interlocking, signalling, wayside train protection and wayside speed control layouts.[149] However, no technical system is free of hazards.

Train protection[edit]

Subway trains are stopped mechanically at all signals showing "stop" aspects by automatic train stops located on the right side of IRT tracks and the left side of BMT/IND tracks; all cars are equipped with tripcocks. Although this is a simple principle of train stops, that wayside trippers must not be moved to trip ("stop") position until it is guaranteed that the train has fully passed the signal with all its cars.

In the middle of all New York City subway platforms is a black-and-white striped board at which all conductors are required to point when the train is stopped at the proper location.[150]

Speed control[edit]

Speed control on the subway is ensured by "Time Signals". A timer is started as soon as the train passes a certain point and will clear the signal ahead as soon as the predefined time elapsed; the minimum time is calculated from the speed limit and the distance between start of timer and signal. "Time Signals" are distinguished into "Grade Timer" for speed supervision at grades, curves or in front of buffer stops, and in "Station Timer" for low-speed entrance into stations in order to reduce train headways.

Interlocking[edit]

Like the railways, the subway used mechanical interlocking in early days and introduced relay interlocking later. Computer-based interlockings are state-of-the-art systems offering additional functions. But independently from the applied technology, the interlocking logic stayed the same: "Control lengths" along the selected route to be set until the target signal plus an additional overlap (safety distance) must be clear of any trains or cars to be able to clear the signal for the according route and target signal. "Single line signal diagrams" show all defined "control lengths" (and routes) for each interlocking tower.

Train accidents[edit]

Including the predecessors of the New York City Subway, at least 56 train accidents have been recorded since 1918, when a train bound for South Ferry smashed into two trains halted near Jackson Avenue on the IRT White Plains Road Line in the Bronx.[151] The deadliest accident, the Malbone Street Wreck, happened November 1, 1918 beneath the intersection of Flatbush Avenue, Ocean Avenue, and Malbone Street (the latter of which is now Empire Boulevard) near the Prospect Park station of the then-BRT Brighton Line in Brooklyn, killing 93 people.[152]

Signalling[edit]

Manual signalling[edit]

New York City Subway generally distinguishes signals into:

  • automatic signals, controlled only by train movements
  • approach signals, like automatic signals, can be forced to switch to stop aspect by interlocking tower
  • home signals, route set by interlocking tower
  • additional signals (call-on, dwarf, marker, sign, time signals)

Common automatic and approach signals consist of one signal head showing one of the following signal aspects:

  • stop (one red light); with special rules for call-on and timer signals
  • clear, next signal at clear or caution (one green light)
  • proceed with caution, be prepared to stop at next signal (one yellow light)

Where different directions are possible, the subway uses both speed and route signalling:

  • upper signal head for speeds
  • lower signal head for routes (with main route shown green and diverging route shown yellow)
Automation[edit]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the MTA began the process of automating the subway. The BMT Canarsie Line, on which the L service runs, was chosen for Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC) pilot testing because it is a self-contained line that does not operate in conjunction with other subway lines in the system. First proposed in 1992 and approved by the MTA in 1997, the installation of the signal system was begun in 2000 and was mostly completed by December 2006.[153] Due to an unexpected ridership increase on the Canarsie Line, the MTA ordered additional cars, the R160s and these were put into service in 2010, enabling the agency to operate 26 trains per hour up from the May 2007 service level of 15 trains per hour—an achievement that would not be possible without the CBTC technology.[154]

After the success of the BMT Canarsie Line automation, the IRT Flushing Line, carrying the 7 <7> trains, was next chosen to be outfitted with CBTC.[155] Eventually, the MTA has plans to eventually automate a much larger portion, using One Person Train Operation (OPTO) in conjunction with CBTC. Siemens Transportation Systems built the CBTC system on the Canarsie line. Thales is building the CBTC system for the Flushing Line. In late winter 2008, the MTA embarked on a 5-week renovation and upgrade project on the 7 <7> trains between Flushing – Main Street and 61st Street – Woodside to upgrade signaling and tracks for CBTC. On February 27, 2008, the MTA issued an Accelerated Capital Program to continue funding the completion of CBTC for the 7 <7> trains and to begin on the IND Queens Boulevard Line (E F trains). The proposed plan is estimated to cost US $1.4 million.[156]

The New York City Subway uses a system known as Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) for dispatching and train routing on the A Division[157] (the Flushing line, and the trains used on the 7 <7> services, do not have ATS.)[157] ATS allows dispatchers in the Operations Control Center (OCC) to see where trains are in real time, and whether each individual train is running early or late.[157] Dispatchers can hold trains for connections, re-route trains, or short-turn trains to provide better service when a disruption causes delays.[157]

Passenger safety[edit]

Yellow platform edges, yellow staircase steps and yellow railings, painted for safety, at the IRT Broadway - Seventh Avenue Line platform at 168th Street

Track safety and suicides[edit]

A portion of subway-related deaths in New York consists of suicides committed by jumping in front of an oncoming train.

Between 1990 and 2003, 343 subway-related suicides have been registered out of a citywide total of 7,394 (4.6%) and subway-related suicides increased by 30%, despite a decline in overall suicide numbers.[158]

In 2013, 151 people were hit by subway trains; 53 people died, compared to 143 strikes and 55 deaths in 2012.[159]

As a result, in late 2013 and early 2014 the MTA started a test program at one undisclosed station, with four systems and strategies to eliminate the number of people hit by trains. Closed-circuit television cameras, a web of laser beams stretched across the tracks, radio frequencies transmitted across the tracks, and thermal imaging cameras focused on the station’s tracks were set to be installed at that station.[100]

The MTA also expressed interest in starting a pilot program to install platform edge doors.[160] Several planned stations in the New York City Subway may possibly feature platform screen doors. This includes the 7 Subway Extension,[161] and Second Avenue Subway.[162]

Crime[edit]

The subway carries over 1.7 billion passengers a year. Crime rates have shown variations over time, with a drop starting in the '90s and continuing today.[163][164]

In order to fight crime, various approaches have been used.[165] A new initiative by the MTA to prevent crime is to ban people who commit one in the subway system from entering it for a certain length of time.[166] In the '60s, for example, mayor Robert Wagner ordered an increase in the Transit Police force from 1,219 to 3,100 officers. During the hours at which crimes most frequently occurred (between 8:00pm and 4:00am), the officers went on patrol in all stations and trains. In response, crime rates decreased, as extensively reported by the press.[167]

By 1977, service had become poor and crime had gone up, with newspaper headlines announcing new crime on the subway daily; as a result, Transit Police Chief Sanford Garelick was fired on September 10, 1979. Crime was at its peak during this time. There were 11 "crimes against the infrastructure" in open cut areas of the subway in 1977. On October 5, 1977, someone threw a paving block from an overpass on the BMT Brighton Line, injuring a motorman and nearly blinding him. Another incident on May 11, 1979 on the BMT Canarsie Line occurred when a 16-year-old boy threw a 16-pound rock near the Wilson Avenue station, critically injuring the motorman. There were other rampant crimes, too. In the first two weeks of December of 1977, "Operation Subway Sweep" resulted in the arrest of over 200 robbery suspects. Passengers were afraid of crime, fed up with long waits for short trains (train lengths were cut during off hours as a cost saving measure), upset over malfunctioning equipment, noise and the condition of stations. The subway also had problems with dark subway cars. In the late 1970s, it was common to have a train with 14 of its cars completely unlit.[168]

On July 13, 1977, a blackout cut off electricity to most of the city and to Westchester. Because the IRT and BMT had their own power plants, many IRT and BMT trains were able to make their way to the nearest station to discharge passengers, but the IND got their power directly from Con Edison, so they were out of luck. There was rampant looting in parts of the Bronx and Brooklyn and to this day, parts of the affected neighborhoods never completely recovered from the looting.[168]

Due to a sudden uptick of violent crimes on the subway in the last week of 1978, police statistics about crime in the subway were being questioned. In 1979, six murders on the subway occurred in the first two months of the year, compared to nine during the entire previous year. The IRT Lexington Avenue Line was known to frequent muggers, so in February 1979, a group headed by Curtis Sliwa, began unarmed patrols of the 4 train during the night time, in an effort to discourage crime. They were known as the Guardian Angels, and would eventually expand their operations into other parts of the five boroughs. By March 6th, 1979, Mayor Ed Koch asked the city's top law enforcement officials to devise a plan to counteract rising subway violence and to stop insisting that the subways were safer than the streets. Everything was relative; street crime was not exactly hovering near zero, either. Two weeks after Koch's request, top TA cops were publicly requesting Transit Police Chief Sanford Garelik's resignation because they claimed that he lost control of the fight against subway crime. Finally, on September 11th, 1979, Garelik was fired, and replaced with Deputy Chief of Personnel James B. Meehan, reporting directly to City Police Commissioner Robert McGuire. Garelik continued in his role of chief of security for the MTA.[168]

By September 1979, around 250 felonies per week (or about 13,000 that year) were being recorded on the subway, making the crime rate the most of any other mass transit network anywhere in the world. Some police officers alleged that they were not asked to prosecute less-serious "quality of life" crimes, and that they should only be on the lookout for high-profile crimes. Additionally, MTA police radios and New York City Police Department radios transmitted at different frequencies, so they could not coordinate with each other. Subway patrols were also adherent to tight schedules, and felons quickly knew when and where police would make patrols. Public morale of the MTA police was low at the time. By October 1979, additional decoy and undercover units were deployed in the subway.[168]

By February 13, 1980, the Guardian Angels grew to include 220 subway and bus patrollers trying to deter crime.[169] During a City Council meeting where members of safety and transportation committees met jointly to discuss transit crime, the founder of the Guardian Angels, Curtis Sliwa, night manager of a McDonalds on East Fordham Road in the Bronx, appeared to be more in tune with the level of crime than Transit Police Chief James Meehan. While Meehan testified that he could provide sufficient protection to straphangers with the 2,300 members of his police force, Sliwa was advocating additional policemen to patrol the subways. While the City Council received Mr. Sliwa's remarks very favorably, statistics would seem to backup Mr. Meehan's comments. In a one-year period between March 1979 and March 1980, felonies per day dropped from 261 to 154.58 While these figures were still at very unacceptable levels, at least the trend was in the right direction. Yet The New York Times reported that between the summer of 1979 and 1980, crime on the subway rose 70%.[170]

On the IRT Pelham Line in 1980, a sharp rise in window-smashing on subway cars caused $2 million in damages; it spread to other lines during the course of the year. When the broken windows were discovered in trains that were still in service, they needed to be taken out of service, causing additional delays; in August 1980 alone, 775 vandalism-related delays were reported.[171] Crime was such a problem that senior City Hall and transit officials considered raising the subway fare from 60 to 65 cents to fund additional transit police officers.

On January 20, 1982, MTA Chairman Richard Ravitch spoke during a breakfast meeting of the Association for a Better New York, a business group. He told the group that he would not let his teenage sons ride the subway at night, and that even he, as the subway chairman, was nervous riding the trains.[172] This anxiety translated into lost revenue, and this startling revelation by the head of the MTA prompted the organization to study how this drop in ridership could be turned around. October 1982 saw a record low ridership, mostly due to fears about transit crime, poor subway performance and some economic factors, ridership on the subway. The ridership was at levels last seen in 1917, before the IND even existed.[173]

To counteract a 60% jump in crime in 1982, a plan to have uniformed police officers ride the subway between 8:00pm and 4:00am was instituted. By 1985, the crime and vandalism epidemic had not subsided at all. TA shop employees on the late shift were often used to replace broken glass in subway car windows. Between January 27 and February 2, 1985, 1,129 pieces of glass were replaced on subway cars on the 1, 6, CC, E, and K trains.[174] In May of 1984, even the Nostalgia Train IND cars were hit by vandals.

Meanwhile, enterprising criminals would steal bus transfers from bus drivers and sell the transfers on the street for 50 cents. The criminals would concentrate on areas where free bus to subway or subway to bus transfers were available, such as Third Avenue – 149th Street in the Bronx.[175] Mayor Koch even proposed to put a subway court in the Times Square subway station to speed up arraignments, as there were so many subway-related crimes by then. In June of 1985, Operation High Visibility began, where at least one transit policeman rode every train between 8:00pm and 6:00am in an attempt to restore public confidence in the transit system.[176]

Within less than ten years, over 300,000,000 people annually stopped riding the subway, mainly because of fears of crime. In July 1985, the Citizens Crime Commission of New York City published a study showing this trend, fearing the frequent robberies and generally bad circumstances.[177] To counter these developments, policy that was rooted in the late 1980s and early 1990s was implemented.[178][179] In line with this Fixing Broken Windows philosophy, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) began a five-year program to eradicate graffiti from subway trains in 1984.[180]

In 1989 the Metropolitan Transportation Authority asked the transit police (then located within the NYCTA) to focus on minor offenses such as fare evasion. In the early nineties, the NYCTA adopted similar policing methods for Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal.

In 1993, Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office and with Police Commissioner Howard Safir the strategy was more widely deployed in New York under the rubrics of "zero tolerance" and "quality of life". Crime rates in the subway and city dropped,[181] prompting New York Magazine to declare "The End of Crime as We Know It" on the cover of its August 14, 1995 edition.

Giuliani's campaign credited the success to the zero tolerance policy.[182] The extent to which his policies deserve the credit is disputed.[183]

Incoming New York City Police Department Commissioner William J. Bratton and author of Fixing Broken Windows, George L. Kelling, however, stated the police played an "important, even central, role" in the declining crime rates.[184] The trend continued and Giuliani's successor, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, stated in a November 2004 press release that "Today, the subway system is safer than it has been at any time since we started tabulating subway crime statistics nearly 40 years ago."[185]

Photography[edit]

After the September 11 attacks in New York, the MTA was extremely wary of anyone taking photographs or recording video inside the system and proposed banning all photography and recording in a meeting around June 2004.[186] However, due to strong response from both the public and from civil rights groups, the rule of conduct was dropped. In November 2004, the MTA again put this rule up for approval, but was again denied,[187] though many police officers and transit workers still confront or harass people taking photographs or video.[188]

On April 3, 2009, the NYPD issued a directive to officers stating that it is legal to take pictures within the subway system so long as it is not accompanied with suspicious activity.[189]

Currently, the MTA Rules of Conduct,[74] Restricted Areas and Activities section states that anyone may take pictures or record video, provided that they do not violate MTA regulations:

Section 1050.9 Restricted areas and activities. Photography, filming or video recording in any facility or conveyance is permitted except that ancillary equipment such as lights, reflectors or tripods may not be used. Members of the press holding valid identification issued by the New York City Police Department are hereby authorized to use necessary ancillary equipment. All photographic activity must be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Part.[190]

Terrorism prevention and foiled plot[edit]

On July 22, 2005, in response to bombings in London, the New York City Transit Police introduced a new policy of randomly searching passengers' bags as they approached turnstiles. The NYPD claimed that no form of racial profiling would be conducted when these searches actually took place. The NYPD has come under fire from some groups that claim purely random searches without any form of threat assessment would be ineffectual. "This NYPD bag search policy is unprecedented, unlawful and ineffective," said Donna Lieberman, Executive Director of the NYCLU. "It is essential that police be aggressive in maintaining security in public transportation. But our very real concerns about terrorism do not justify the NYPD subjecting millions of innocent people to suspicionless searches in a way that does not identify any person seeking to engage in terrorist activity and is unlikely to have any meaningful deterrent effect on terrorist activity."[191] The searches were upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in MacWade v. Kelly.

On April 11, 2008, MTA received a Ferrara Fire Apparatus Hazardous Materials Response Truck, which went into service three days later. It will be used in the case of a chemical or bioterrorist attack.[192]

Najibullah Zazi and others were arrested in September 2009 and pled guilty in 2010 to being part of an al-Qaeda plan to undertake suicide bombings on the New York City subway system.[193][194]

Challenges[edit]

28th Street station after the W train was discontinued in mid-2010. Note the dark grey tape masked over the W bullet.

2009–2010 budget cuts[edit]

The MTA faced a budget deficit of US$1.1 billion in 2009. Fare increases (three times from 2008 to 2010) and service reductions (including the elimination of two part-time subway services, the V and W). Several other routes were modified as a result of the deficit. The N service was made a full-time local in Manhattan (in contrast to being a weekend local/weekday express before 2010), while the Q service was extended nine stations to Astoria – Ditmars Boulevard, both to cover the discontinued W service. The M was rerouted to cover the former V service, so that it would go to Forest Hills – 71st Avenue on weekdays instead of to Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn. The G service was truncated to Court Square full-time. Construction headways on eleven routes were lengthened, and off-peak service on seven routes were lengthened.[195]

This budget deficit also resulted in the shortening, rerouting, or elimination of many bus routes to balance the deficit.[196]

The interior of an F train during morning rush hour

Capacity constraints[edit]

Several subway lines have reached their operational limits in terms of train frequency and passengers, according to data released by the Transit Authority. As of June 2007, all of the A Division services except the 42nd Street Shuttle, as well as the E and L trains were beyond capacity, as well as portions of the N train.[197][198] In April 2013, New York magazine reported that the system is more crowded than it has been in 66 years.[199]

The Second Avenue Subway, which will have communications-based train control (CBTC), will relieve pressure on the Lexington Avenue Line (4 5 6 <6> trains) when the Second Avenue Subway's first segment begins operating in 2016, and CBTC installation on the Flushing Line is expected to increase the rate of trains per hour on the 7 <7> trains, but little relief will come to other crowded lines until later. The L train, which is overcrowded during rush hours, already has CBTC operation.[200]

The MTA is seeking funding for implementation of CBTC on the IND Queens Boulevard Line. CBTC is to be installed on this line in five phases, with phase one (50th Street to Forest Hills – 71st Avenue) being included in the 2010-2014 capital budget. Estimated cost for phase one is 483.7 million dollars with 125 million dollars being provided in the capital budget.[201] Funding for CBTC on the IND Eighth Avenue Line is also provided in the 2015-2019 capital project.[202] The MTA projects that 355 miles of track will receive CBTC signals by 2029, including most of the IND, as well as the IRT Lexington Avenue Line and the BMT Broadway Line.[203] The MTA also is planning to install CBTC equipment on the IND Crosstown Line, the BMT Fourth Avenue Line and the BMT Brighton Line before 2025.[204]

The Long Island Railroad East Side Access project is expected to bring many more commuters to the Lexington Avenue Line at about the same time, further overwhelming its capacity. Because new subway construction can require years to plan and complete, the Transit Authority can only turn to increased bus service to manage demand in the short run, until automation of the subways using CBTC allows trains to run with less headway.

Subway flooding[edit]

Service on the subway system is occasionally disrupted by flooding from rainstorms, even minor ones.[205] Rainwater can disrupt signals underground and require the electrified third rail to be shut off. Since 1992, $357 million has been used to improve 269 pump rooms. As of August 2007, $115 million has been earmarked to upgrade the remaining 18 pump rooms.[206] Despite these improvements, the transit system continues to experience flooding problems.

On August 8, 2007, after more than 3 inches (76 mm) of rain fell within an hour, the subway system flooded, causing almost every subway service to either be disabled or seriously disrupted, effectively halting the morning rush. This was the third incident in 2007 in which rain disrupted service. The system was disrupted on this occasion because the pumps and drainage system can handle only a rainfall rate of 1.75 inches (44 mm) per hour; the incident's severity was aggravated by the scant warning as to the severity of the storm.[207] (p. 10) In late August 2007, MTA Engineer Phil Kollin announced new plans to create a system that would pump water away from the third rail.

In addition, as part of a $130 million and an estimated 18-month project, the MTA began installing new subway grates in September 2008 in an attempt to prevent rain from overflowing into the subway system. The metallic structures, designed with the help of architectural firms and meant as a piece of public art, are placed atop existing grates but with a 3-to-4-inch (76 to 102 mm) sleeve to prevent debris and rain from flooding the subway. The racks will at first be installed in the three most flood-prone areas as determined by hydrologists, including Jamaica, TriBeCa and the Upper West Side. Each neighborhood is scheduled to have its own distinct design, some featuring a wave-like deck which increases in height and features seating (Jamaica), others with a flatter deck that includes seating and a bike rack.[208][209]

On August 27, 2011, due to the approach of Hurricane Irene, the MTA suspended subway service at 12:00 noon in anticipation of heavy flooding on tracks and in tunnels. It was the first weather-caused shutdown in the history of the system.[210] Service was restored by Monday, August 29.[211][212]

Hurricane Sandy[edit]

On October 29, 2012, another full closure was ordered before the arrival of Hurricane Sandy. All services on the subway, the Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North were gradually shut down that day at 7:00 P.M., to protect passengers, employees and equipment from the coming storm. The storm caused serious damage to the system, especially the IND Rockaway Line, which had many sections between Howard Beach – JFK Airport and Hammels Wye on the Rockaway Peninsula heavily damaged, leaving it essentially isolated from the rest of the system. This required the NYCTA to truck in 20 R32 subway cars to the line to provide some interim service (temporarily designated the H). Also, several of the system's tunnels under the East River were flooded by the storm surge.[213] South Ferry suffered serious water damage and did not reopen until April 2013 by restoring service to the older loop-configured station that had been replaced in 2009; the stub-end terminal tracks remain out of service pending extensive repairs and the new island-platformed station is not expected to open until June 2016.[214][215]

Litter and rodents[edit]

Further information: Rats in New York City

Litter accumulation is a perennial problem in the subway system. In the 1970s and 1980s, dirty trains and platforms, as well as graffiti were a serious problem. The situation has improved since then, but the 2010 budget crisis has threatened to curtail trash removal from the subway system.[216][217]

The New York City Subway system is infested with rats.[218][219][220] Rats are sometimes seen on platforms,[221] and are commonly seen foraging through garbage thrown onto the tracks.[222] They are believed to pose a health hazard, and on rare instances have been known to bite humans.[223] Subway stations notorious for rat infestation include Chambers Street, Jay Street – MetroTech, West Fourth Street, Spring Street and 145th Street.[224][225]

Decades of efforts to eradicate or simply thin the rat population in the system have been unsuccessful. In March 2009, the Transit Authority announced a series of changes to its vermin control strategy, including new poison formulas and experimental trap designs.[226] In October 2011, the MTA announced a new initiative to clean 25 subway stations, along with their garbage rooms, of rat infestations.[227] Also in October 2011, the MTA announced a pilot program aimed at reducing levels of garbage in the subways by removing all garbage bins from the subway platforms. The initiative is being tested at the Eighth Street – New York University and Flushing – Main Street stations.[228]

Noise[edit]

Rolling stock on the New York City Subway produce high levels of noise that exceed guidelines set by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[229] In 2006, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health found noise levels averaged 95 decibel (dB) inside subway cars and 94 dB on platforms.[229] Daily exposure to noise at such levels for as little as 30 minutes can lead to hearing loss.[229] Noise on one in 10 platforms exceeded 100 dB.[229] Under WHO and EPA guidelines, noise exposure at that level is limited to 1.5 minutes.[229] A subsequent study by Columbia and the University of Washington found higher average noise level in the subway (80.4 dB) than commuter trains including the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) (79.4 dB), the Metro-North (75.1 dB) and Long Island Railroad (LIRR) (74.9 dB).[230] Since the decibel scale is a logarithmic scale, sound at 95 dB is 10 times more intense than at 85 dB and 100 times more intense than at 75 dB, and so forth.[230] In the second study, peak subway noise registered at 102.1 dB.[230]

Public relations[edit]

The Board of Transportation and then New York City Transit Authority (MTA New York City Transit) has had numerous events that promote increased ridership of their transit system.

Miss Subways[edit]

Main article: Miss Subways
An advertisement for Miss Subways at the New York City Transit Museum

From 1941 to 1976, the Board of Transportation/New York City Transit Authority sponsored the "Miss Subways" publicity campaign. In the musical On the Town, the character Miss Turnstiles is based on the Miss Subways campaign.[231][232] In one scene, the musical shows three sailors taking an uptown train at Times Square.

The campaign was resurrected in 2004, for one year, as "Ms. Subways". It was part of the 100th anniversary celebrations. Featuring young models, entertainers and others, the monthly campaign, which included the winners' photos and biographical blurbs on placards in subway cards, featured such winners as Mona Freeman and prominent New York City restaurateur Ellen Goodman. The winner of this contest was Caroline Sanchez-Bernat, an actress from Morningside Heights.[233]

Subway Series[edit]

Main article: Subway Series

Subway Series is a term attributed to any series of baseball games between New York City teams, called thus as opposing teams can travel to compete merely by using the subway system along with the fact that stations are adjacent and visible to their respective stadiums. Subway Series is a term long used in New York, going back to series between the Brooklyn Dodgers or New York Giants and the New York Yankees in the 1940s and '50s. Today, the term is used to describe the rivalry between the Yankees and the New York Mets. During the 2000 World Series, cars on the 4 train (which stopped at Yankee Stadium) were colored white with blue pinstripes, while cars on the 7 train (which stopped at Shea Stadium) were colored orange and blue, the Mets' team colors.

Holiday Train[edit]

Since 2003, the MTA has operated a Holiday Train on Sundays in November and December, from the first Saturday after Thanksgiving to the Saturday before Christmas Day.[234] This train was made of cars from the R1 through R9 series. The route made all stops between Second Avenue in Manhattan and Queens Plaza in Queens via the IND Sixth Avenue and IND Queens Boulevard Lines. In 2011, the train operated on Saturdays instead of Sundays.[235]

The contract, car numbers (and year built) used were R1 100 (1930), R1 381 (1931), R4 401 (1932), R4 484 (1932) – Bulls Eye lighting and a test P.A. system added in 1946, R6-3 1000 (1935), R6-1 1300 (1937), R7A 1575 (1938) – rebuilt in 1947 as a prototype for the R10 subway car, R9 1802 (1940).[236]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b There are 13 stations on the IND Second Avenue Line and 1 station on the IRT Flushing Line planned.
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ One of these stations is an existing IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line station being completely rebuilt. The other four stations are truly new stations.
  4. ^ There are 3 stations under construction and 13 planned stations on the IND Second Avenue Line, as per the Final Summary Report.
  5. ^ There is one station (34th Street) under construction on, and one station (10th Avenue) planned as a future infill station. See "Outcry emerges for 41st St. stop on new 7-line".
  6. ^ The corridors repaired in 2012 were:
  7. ^ The corridors repaired in 2013 were:
  8. ^ Corridors planned for 2014 include:
  9. ^ The following bus routes and subway stations participated in the trial: Two options were available during this second trial for fare payment:
    • "pay-as-you-go" RFID card scan at select turnstiles or locations; or,
    • pre-funded fares via a pilot website called the "NY/NJ Transit Trial" for multiple and unlimited ride discounts. Effective October 16, 2010, pre-funded fares are not available in the trial website.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ The IRT main line, which is considered to be the first New York City "subway" line, opened in 1904; however, the Ninth Avenue Line, a predecessor elevated railroad line, operated its first trial run on July 3, 1868, according to Facts and Figures 1979–80, published by the New York City Transit Authority See also nycsubway.org, and the West End Line railroad opened in 1863. A small portion of the latter line's original right-of-way is still in daily use near Coney Island. thethirdrail.net
  3. ^ a b "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010" (pdf). Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). May 2, 2012. p. 150. Retrieved March 9, 2014. 
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  200. ^ Chan, Sewell (2005-01-14). "Subways Run by Computers Start on L Line This Summer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-24. 
  201. ^ Pages 11–12
  202. ^ pages 46-47
  203. ^ Twenty-Year Capital Needs Assessment
  204. ^ chapter 2
  205. ^ Latest Rainstorm No Match For City's Subway Pumps NY1 local news channel. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
  206. ^ Donohue, Pete (August 9, 2007). "Downpour swamps subways, stranding thousands of riders". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 23, 2007. 
  207. ^ "August 8, 2007 Storm Report" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York). September 20, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  208. ^ Dunlap, David W. (September 19, 2008). "New Subway Grates Add Aesthetics to Flood Protection". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2008. 
  209. ^ Lee, Jennifer (October 1, 2008). "Three in One — Flood Protection, Benches and Bike Parking". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2008. 
  210. ^ Aaron Feis, Sabrina Ford and Jennifer Fermino (August 27, 2011). "Hurricane Irene halts NY, NJ mass transit". The New York Post. Retrieved August 28, 2011. 
  211. ^ "NYC's subway service running OK Monday after Irene". The Washington Post. August 29, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
  212. ^ Clark, Roger (August 29, 2011). "Straphangers Have Relatively Easy Monday Morning Rush". NY1. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  213. ^ Raw: Sandy Leaves NYC Subways Flooded on YouTube
  214. ^ Restoring South Ferry Station
  215. ^ MTA NYC Transit Reopens the Old South Ferry Loop Station
  216. ^ MTA Staff Cuts May Boost Transit Trash – NY1 local news channel. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  217. ^ "MTA Falls Behind On Trash Collection". NY1. June 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011. 
  218. ^ "NYC takes aim at subway rats". United Press International. March 24, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  219. ^ Transit Officials To Tackle Growing Subway Rat Problem – NY1 local news channel. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
  220. ^ Farinacci, Amanda (January 5, 2012). "Transit Workers Call For Action Against Rats In Subway Stations". NY1. Retrieved January 8, 2012. 
  221. ^ "Rats rule the subway rails, platforms", Matthew Sweeney, Newsday, August 13, 2008
  222. ^ Straphangers' Habits Feeding Subway Rat Population, Officials Say NY1 local news channel. Made November 25, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  223. ^ Beja, Marc (September 8, 2011). "Rat bites woman in subway station as she waits for train". amNewYork. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  224. ^ "Rats in subway are health hazard for New Yorkers", Pamela Branch, Brooklyn Today, January 12, 2010
  225. ^ Redwine, Tina (June 19, 2012). "Subway Riders Want Rats Booted From Harlem Platform". NY1. Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  226. ^ Namako, Tom (March 24, 2009). "You Dirty Rats! New Traps Target Subway Vermin". New York Post. Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  227. ^ Redwine, Tina (October 5, 2011). "MTA To Launch New Cleaning Initiative To Combat Rat Infestations". NY1. Retrieved October 5, 2011. 
  228. ^ Epstein, Emily (October 24, 2011). "MTA removes bins hoping to reduce trash". Metro. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  229. ^ a b c d e "New York Subway Noise Levels Can Result In Hearing Loss For Daily Riders" Science Daily October 15, 2006
  230. ^ a b c "Got Ear Plugs? You May Want to Sport Them on the Subway and Other Mass Transit, Researchers Say" Columbia Mailman School of Public Health News June 18, 2009
  231. ^ Bayen, Ann (March 29, 1976). "Token Women". New York Magazine (New York Media, LLC). p. 46. 
  232. ^ Klein, Alvin (June 6, 1993). "'On the Town' in Revival at Goodspeed Opera". New York Times. 
  233. ^ Ms. Subway 2004 Crowned
  234. ^ MTA New York City Transit's Holiday Nostalgia Train
  235. ^ The Vintage train runs every Saturday, November 26 to December 24
  236. ^ Holiday Subway – Forgotten NY.

Further reading[edit]

  • Most, Doug, The race underground : Boston, New York, and the incredible rivalry that built America’s first subway, First edition, New York : St. Martin’s Press, February 2014.ISBN 9780312591328

External links[edit]

Media related to New York City Subway at Wikimedia Commons

General information
Historical information