LAV III

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LAV III
NZLAV 2009.jpg
New Zealand LAV III
Type Infantry Fighting Vehicle
Place of origin  Canada
Service history
Used by See 'Operators'
Wars See 'Service history'
Specifications
Weight 16.95 t
Length 6.98 m (22.9 ft)
Width 2.7 m (8.9 ft)
Height 2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Crew 3 (+ 6 or 7 passengers)

Main
armament
1 × M242 25 mm chain gun with TIS
Secondary
armament
1 × C6 7.62 mm machine gun
(coaxial)
1 × C9A2 5.56 mm or C6 7.62 mm machine gun
(pintle mount)
Engine Caterpillar 3126 diesel
260 kW (350 hp)
Suspension Hydropneumatic
Operational
range
450 km (280 mi)
Speed 100 km/h (62 mph)

The LAV III armoured vehicle (AV) is the latest in the Generation III Light Armoured Vehicle (LAV) series built by General Dynamics Land Systems, entering service in 1999.[1] It is based on the Swiss MOWAG Piranha IIIH 8x8.[2]

It was developed in Canada and is the primary mechanized infantry vehicle of the Canadian Army and the New Zealand Army.[1]

Development[edit]

By July 1991, the Canadian Forces had identified the need to replace their aging fleet of 1960s and 1970s era armoured personnel carriers. As a result, $2.8 billion was earmarked for the Multi-Role Combat Vehicle (MRCV) project by the sitting Conservative government. The mandate of the MRCV project was to provide a series of vehicles based on a common chassis which would replace the M113 armored personnel carrier, Lynx reconnaissance vehicle, Grizzly armoured personnel carrier, and Bison armoured personnel carrier. The project was, however, deemed unaffordable and cancelled by March 1992.[3]

By 1994 after the Liberal Party had returned to government, the army was still in need of new vehicles. As a result, the army embarked on the Light Armoured Vehicle Project, which would adapt parts of the MRCV Project, and be implemented incrementally to spread out the costs. Also, the requirement to replace the Bisons was dropped. The first phase of the project saw the selection of the Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle to replace the Lynx.

On August 16, 1995, it was announced that General Motors Diesel Division (later renamed GM Defense, and subsequently purchased by General Dynamics Land Systems of London, Ontario, had been awarded the contract to produce the LAV III which would replace the Grizzly and a large portion of the M113 armoured personnel carriers.[3] The LAV III would incorporate the turret and weapon system used with the Coyote (which was produced at the same location), and the latest, heaviest version of MOWAG's Piranha family which would be 'Canadianized' and built locally.

Future[edit]

In July 2009, the Canadian Department of National Defence announced that $5 billion would be spent to enhance, replace and repair the army's armoured vehicles. Part of the spending would be used to replace and repair damaged LAV III's due to wear and tear from operations in Afghanistan. As much as 33 percent of the army's light armoured vehicles were out of service.[4] Furthermore, the LAV III's will be upgraded with improved protection and automotive components.[5] The Canadian Forces has lost over 34 vehicles and 359 were damaged during the mission in Afghanistan. The Canadian army has lost 13 LAV's and more than 159 were damaged by roadside bombs or enemy fire.[6] Of the $5 billion announced, approximately 20% of it will be used to upgrade LAV III models. The upgrade will extend the LAV III life span to 2035. The remaining $4 billion is to be spent on a "new family of land combat vehicles".[7] The Department of National Defence considered the purchase of vehicles meant to accompany the Leopard 2 and to sustain the LAV III into combat. The CV90, the Puma (IFV) and the Véhicule blindé de combat d'infanterie were the most likely candidates for the role. A contract of 108 with an option for up to 30 more was considered,[8][9][10] but a combination of budget cuts and upgrades to the existing fleet of LAV IIIs have led the Canadian Army to cancel its order for 108 CV90s.[11]

On October 21, 2011 the Canadian government announced a $1.1 billion contract to General Dynamics Land Systems to upgrade 550 LAV III combat vehicles. The government said the upgrade is needed to improve protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), which have been the cause of a number of Canadian deaths in Afghanistan. The improvements will also extend the service of the vehicles up to 2035 and will boost troop mobility.[12][13][14] The upgrades include a new and more powerful engine, increased armour protection, steering and brake systems. The turret hatches on the LAV III would be made larger and improved fire control, thermal, day and low-light sights, and data displays. The weight of the vehicle would increase from 38,000 pounds (17,000 kg) to 55,000 pounds (25,000 kg).[15][16] The first of 66 upgraded LAV IIIs was delivered on February 1, 2013.[17] The success of the upgrade program and budget pressures lead to the cancellation of the Close Combat Vehicle replacement program later that year.[18]

Design[edit]

Mobility[edit]

Infantry dismounting from a LAV III at CFB Gagetown

The LAV III is powered by a Caterpillar 3126 diesel engine developing 350 horsepower (260 kW), and can reach speeds of 100 kilometres per hour.[19] The vehicle is fitted with 8x8 drive and also equipped with a central tire inflation system, which allows it to adjust to different terrain, including off-road.[20][21] The LAV III is fitted with a modern anti-locking brake system (ABS) and a traction control system (TCS).[22] Unlike earlier versions of the LAV, the LAV III does not have amphibious capabilities.

The LAV III faces the same concerns that most other wheeled military vehicles face. Like all wheeled armoured vehicles, the LAV III's ground pressure is inherently higher than a tracked vehicle with a comparable weight. This is because tires will have less surface area in contact with the ground when compared to a tracked vehicle. Higher ground pressure results in an increased likelihood of sinking into soft terrain such as mud, snow and sand, leading to the vehicle becoming stuck. The lower ground pressure and improved traction offered by tracked vehicles also gives them an advantage over vehicles like the LAV III when it comes to managing slopes, trenches, and other obstacles.

The LAV III can somewhat compensate for these effects by deflating its tires slightly, meaning that the surface area in contact with the ground increases, and the ground pressure is slightly lowered.

However, wheels offer several advantages over tracked vehicles, including lower maintenance for both the vehicle and road infrastructure, quieter movement for improved stealth, greater speed over good terrain, and higher ground clearance for protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.

The LAV III's turret gives the vehicle a higher centre of gravity than the vehicle was initially designed for. This has led to concerns that the vehicle is more likely to roll over on uneven terrain.

While there have been several recorded rollovers (about 16),[23] the most common cause was found to be unstable terrain, specifically road shoulders unexpectedly giving away beneath the vehicle.[24] The weight balance of the LAV III is taken into consideration during driver training, largely mitigating the chances of a rollover.

Protection[edit]

ELAV with a Nanuk Remotely Controlled Weapon

The basic armour of the LAV III, covering the Standardization Agreement STANAG 4569 level III, which provides all-round protection against 7.62x51mm NATO small calibre rounds. A ceramic appliqué armour (MEXAS) can be added, which protects against 14.5x114mm heavy calibre rounds from 500 meters. In December 2008 the Government of Canada awarded EODC Engineering, Developing and Licencing Inc. C$81.5 million worth of contracts to provide for add-on-armour kits, modules and spares for its LAV III wheeled armoured personnel carriers.[25][26] This armour kit is intended to provide increased protection against improvised explosive devices (IED), explosively formed penetrators and 30 mm caliber armour piercing rounds.[25][27][28][29][30][31] The LAV III can be also fitted with cage armour, which provides protection against shaped charges. The LAV III is fitted with a nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) filtration system accompanied with a GID-3 chemical detector and AN/VDR-2 radiation detector systems.[32] The LAV III was designed to produce a very low and very compact structure to minimize radar and IR-signatures. The LAV III also uses heat-absorbing filters to provide temporary protection against thermal imaging (TIS), image intensifiers and infrared cameras (IR). General Dynamics is in the process of integrating the LAV III with an active protection system[33] based on the Israeli Trophy system.[34]

The majority of Canadian casualties in Afghanistan have occurred during a patrol aboard a LAV III.[35] This can be explained by the fact that the LAV III is the most commonly used Canadian armoured personnel carrier in theatre, and simply represents a normal association between use and likelihood to encounter a mine or improvised explosive device.[36] The LAV III offers comparable or better protection than most other infantry carriers used in Afghanistan. In an effort to improve protection as a result of experiences in Afghanistan, future LAV III upgrades will likely include improved mine and IED protection.[37]

Armament[edit]

The LAV III is fitted with a two-man turret, armed with the M242 Bushmaster 25 mm caliber chain gun and a coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun. One more 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm machine guns is positioned on top of the turret. The LAV III also has eight 76-mm grenade launchers in two clusters of four launchers positioned on each side of the turret. The grenade launchers are intended for smoke grenades.[19] In 2009, a number of LAV III's were modified with a Nanuk remotely controlled weapon station (RCWS) to provide better protection and to increase the chances of survival of the crew against improvised explosive devices and anti-tank mine threats on the battlefield.[38]

Sights[edit]

The LAV III is equipped with a daytime optical Thermal Imaging System (TIS) and Generation III Image Intensification (II). The LAV III is equipped with a Tactical Navigation System (TacNav) to assist in navigation and target location tasks. The LAV III is equipped with a LCD monitor directly connected to the vehicle's external cameras, providing real-time images of the battlefield for the passengers.[19]

Service history[edit]

The LAV III and related versions have been used in the following.

New Zealand[edit]

The New Zealand armed forces purchased 105 LAV. 102 were standard vehicles and 3 were LAV redesigned for recovery. In May 2009 two NZLAVs were deployed to support police during the 2009 Napier shootings. They defended police while they retrieved a fallen officer's body.

In November 2009 it was announced that three NZLAVs would be deployed to assist NZSAS operations in Afghanistan, and they were up-armoured.[39] In 2011 these three LAVs were moved to Bamyan to support the provincial reconstruction team there as they were no longer needed in Kabul due to reduced SAS numbers. Five additional LAVs were also flown to Bamyan. One has since been damaged by a roadside bomb. In May 2012 the New Zealand government announced that it may leave all these LAVs behind in Afghanistan for use by local forces when the New Zealand forces leave in 2013.[citation needed] As at November 2013 all of these deployed LAVs had been returned to New Zealand.

Variants[edit]

  • TOW Under Armour (TUA) – Standard LAV III turret replaced with TOW Under Armour launcher for anti-tank purposes
  • Infantry Section Carrier (ISC) – Surplus LAV TUA hulls fitted with a Nanuk Remotely Controlled Weapon Station.
  • Observation Post Vehicle (OPV) – Standard LAV III equipped for use by forward observation officer (FOO).
  • Command Post Vehicle (CPV) – Standard LAV III equipped for command post duties.
  • Engineer LAV (ELAV) – LAV III equipped with a dozer blade and other engineering equipment.[40]
  • Infantry Mobility Vehicle (IMV) – Standard NZLAV vehicle used in cavalry, reconnaissance, and forward observer roles.
  • Light Obstacle Blade (LOB) – An NZLAV IMV fitted with a small blade for minor earth works and clearing of obstacles.
  • Recovery (LAV-R) – NZLAV vehicle fitted with a TR200 winch and earth anchor for recovery operations.

Operators[edit]

A LAV III during Operation Lotus
  • Colombian Army – On December 27, 2012, the Colombian Army selected the LAV III to equip its mechanized infantry units. The vehicles are on order from General Dynamics Land Systems to partially replace their M113s and gradually replace the EE-11 Urutu. They will be armed with the Samson RWS with M2 Browning machine guns or 25 or 30 mm cannons.[42] The contract was officially signed on January 10, 2013 for the order of 24 vehicles worth $65.3 million. They will have the double v-hull design and add-on armor to provide protection against mine blasts, IEDs, and other threats. Deliveries are to be completed by May 2014.[43] Colombia is considering ordering 9-12 more vehicles.[44] 8 LAV IIIs were acquired in January 2014.[45]

Related vehicles[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "LAV III/NZLAV". Deagel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  2. ^ "Army-Technology – Piranha III / LAV III Wheeled Armoured Vehicles". Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  3. ^ a b Stone, Major J. Craig (Summer 2001). "An Examination of the Armoured Personnel Carrier Replacement Project" (PDF). Canadian Military Journal. pp. 59–65. 
  4. ^ "LAV-III out of service". CTV. 
  5. ^ Pugliese, David (2009-06-02). "Military wants $5B for army's fleet". Ottawa Citizen. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Canadian military lost 34 vehicles in Afghanistan, 359 damaged". Canada.ca. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  7. ^ "Military to get $5B for armoured vehicles". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-07-07. 
  8. ^ "Close Combat Vehicle" (Press release). Department of National Defence. 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  9. ^ "Canada Looks to Upgrade Its Armor". Defense Industry Daily. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  10. ^ David Pugliese (2010-01-21). "Plans for new fleet of armoured combat vehicles back on track". Global News. 
  11. ^ Brewster, Murray; Rennie, Steve (20 December 2013), "Military scraps plans for new light-armoured combat vehicles", Globe and Mail, retrieved 21 December 2013 
  12. ^ "Un milliard $ pour moderniser la flotte de véhicules blindés des Forces canadiennes". Radio-Canada. 2011-10-21. 
  13. ^ "1 milliard $ pour moderniser des véhicules blindés". Agence QMI. 2011-10-21. 
  14. ^ "Ottawa investit un milliard pour les blindés légers canadiens". Le Devoir. 2011-10-21. 
  15. ^ "LAV-3 Upgrade Still a Priority for Canada". Defense News. 2011-10-21. 
  16. ^ "Government Makes It Official: General Dynamics Land Systems Awarded LAV-3 Upgrade Contract". Ottawa Citizen. 2011-10-21. 
  17. ^ Canadian army receives first of 66 upgraded LAV III vehicles - Armyrecognition.com, February 1, 2013
  18. ^ "Canada cancels $2.1B armored vehicle purchase". defensenews.com. AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Canadian Army > LAV III - LIGHT ARMOURED VEHICLE". Department of National Defence (Canada). Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  20. ^ "Stryker Light Armored Vehicle III (LAV III) > LAV III - LIGHT ARMOURED VEHICLE". Tony rogers. Retrieved 2003. 
  21. ^ "Canadian Army > LAV COMPANY TACTICS". Department of National Defence (Canada). Retrieved 2003-10-14. 
  22. ^ "Piranha III / LAV III Wheeled Armoured Vehicles, Switzerland". Army Technology. 
  23. ^ "Light armoured vehicle rollovers led to more than 50 casualties". 
  24. ^ "Reviewing the LAV III – Rollovers and Suicide Bombers, Are Criticisms of the CF’s Armoured Vehicles Warranted?". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  25. ^ a b "Canada Up-Armoring its LAV-IIIs". Defense Industry Daily. 2008-12-13. 
  26. ^ "Government of Canada Contract Will Help Support Canadian Forces Armoured Vehicle Fleet". Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2008-11-26. 
  27. ^ "Next Generation IED-Protection" (Press release). IBD Dieisenroth Engineering. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  28. ^ http://www.3-4cav.asn.au/canada_up_armouring_its_lav_111.pdf
  29. ^ "Government of Canada Contract will help support Canadian Forces Armoured Vehicle Fleet" (Press release). Governmetn of Canada. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  30. ^ "LAV III Kodiak Armoured Personnel Carrier". Military-Today.com. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  31. ^ "Canada develops supplemental armour kits for its LAV III vehicles". defpro.com. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  32. ^ "To Fix and Strike The LAV III in Mobile Defence" (Press release). Department of National Defence (Canada). 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  33. ^ General Dynamics Developing LAV III with Fully Integrated Active Protection System - Deagel.com, May 29, 2013
  34. ^ US-Israeli Team To Demo APS for Canada - Defensenews.com, 15 October 2013
  35. ^ http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_10/iss_1/CAJ_vol10.1_08_e.pdf
  36. ^ "Hard Numbers – CF Afghanistan Casualties vs Vehicle Type". Canadian American Strategic Review. February 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-27. [dead link]
  37. ^ "Light Armoured Vehicle (LAV) III Upgrade Project" (Press release). Department of National Defence (Canada). 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  38. ^ "New LAV variant to provide better protection". DND. Retrieved 2011. 
  39. ^ Gower, Patrick (14 November 2009). "Army vehicles on Afghanistan mission". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  40. ^ "LAV III – LIGHT ARMOURED VEHICLE". 2009-07-20. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  41. ^ http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2012/02/23/canadian-arms-exports-hit-12-billion-last-year-4-billion-sent-to-saudi-arabia/
  42. ^ Army of Colombia has selected the LAV III 8x8 armoured vehicle for its mechanized infantry units – Armyrecognition.com, December 29, 2012
  43. ^ General Dynamics Awarded $65 Million by the Colombian Ministry of National Defence for Light Armoured Vehicles – General Dynamics press release, January 10, 2013
  44. ^ Colombia; Mod mulls order of additional LAV-III armored vehicles – Dmilt.com, May 10, 2013
  45. ^ Colombia; Armored vehicles procurement programs summary – Dmilt.com, 3 January 2014

External links[edit]