Nabeel Rajab

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nabeel Rajab
Bahrain Irish Delegation meet with Nabeel Rajab (cropped).jpg
Nabeel Rajab at his office in July 2011.
Born Nabeel Ahmed Abdulrasool Rajab
(1964-09-01) 1 September 1964 (age 50)[1]
Bahrain
Residence Bani Jamra, Kingdom of Bahrain
Education Bachelor's degree in Political Science and History from the University of Pune
Occupation Human rights activist
Years active 1988–present[2]
Organization Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR)
Board member of
International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
Human Rights Watch
CARAM-Asia[3]
The Arab Working Group for Media Monitoring
Bahrain Rehabilitation and Anti-Violence Organization (BRAVO)
Gulf Center for Human Rights (GCHR)
Religion Islam (Shia)[4]
Spouse(s) Sumaya Rajab
Children

Adam Rajab

Malak Rajab
Parents
  • Rabab Mohamed Hasan (Mother)
  • Ahmed Abdulrasool Rajab (Father)
Relatives Sameera Rajab (paternal cousin)
Mohamed Jawad Parweez (maternal uncle)
Awards
  • Ion Ratiu Democracy Award (2011)
  • Silbury Prize (2011)
  • Freedom of Expression Award (2012)
Website

Bahrain Rights
Facebook
Twitter

Youtube

Nabeel Ahmed Abdulrasool Rajab (Arabic: نبيل أحمد عبدالرسول رجب‎, born on 1 September 1964) is a Bahraini human rights activist and opposition leader. He is president of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR). He is also a prominent international human rights activist. He is a member of the Advisory Committee of Human Rights Watch's Middle East Division, Deputy Secretary General for the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), former chairman of CARAM Asia, member of the Advisory Board of the Bahrain Rehabilitation and Anti-Violence Organization (BRAVO), and president of Gulf Center for Human Rights (GCHR).

Rajab started his human rights activity during the 1990s uprising before going on to become involved in campaigning on behalf of migrant workers in GCC countries. He subsequently became a leading campaigner against civil and human rights abuses in Bahrain including torture and deaths in official custody. He is known for his pioneering use of social networking as an important element in human rights campaigning which has brought him into conflict with the authorities. Front Line Defenders, Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Reporters Without Borders have described him as being targeted by Bahraini authorities for his human rights activities.

During the Bahraini uprising, in which he led numerous protests, he has clashed with the political authorities and security forces. His house has been attacked with tear gas, he has been arrested several times, he has allegedly been beaten, and he has been the target of death threats. As well as criticising the Bahraini government itself, he has also been sharply critical of the role of Bahrain's allies, including the United States.

Following protests during the Formula 1 race in April 2012 that attracted media attention, Rajab was arrested and incarcerated several times. On 9 July, he was detained and sentenced to three months prison for having "insulted Bahrainis" in a Twitter message and most recently on 16 August, while still in detention, Rajab was sentenced to three years' imprisonment on three protest-related charges. The verdict has drawn criticism from Bahrain's western allies and human rights organizations. In December, 2012, the sentence was reduced to 2 years in prison after appeal.[5] In December 2013, a court denied him early release. He was released on 24 May 2014, after serving 2 years in prison.

Rajab's human rights work has been recognized internationally but within Bahraini society he remains a figure of controversy. Labeled as the informal leader of the uprising and a hero to protesters, Rajab is viewed by some Sunnis as a troublemaker.

Biography[edit]

Nabeel Rajab was born on 1 September 1964 in Bahrain to a middle-class family.[6] He is married and has two children. He finished his secondary school education in 1983 in Bahrain, specialising in science. He received his bachelor's of arts degree in Political Science and History from the University of Pune (formerly University of Poona) in India in 1987.[2][6] He earns his living as a "building contractor by trade".[6] In February 2012, Rajab announced his intention to close down his business due to what he called government harassment.[7]

Human rights activism[edit]

Early years[edit]

In an interview with Bahrain Mirror,[2] Rajab spoke about his earliest human rights activities while still a student at Al Hoora secondary school and described two particularly significant formative experiences:

Two events affected me most, one when a colleague dropped himself from second floor to escape under-covered police who stormed school. The second incident was when a dear teacher was arrested. That is when my voice started to rise and become annoying. I was caught vandalizing a school wall by writing apolitical human rights statements on school walls and was given the choice to either be submitted to police or to switch school. So I took the easy way out and since I was the top student back then, I choose to switch to Sheikh Abdul Aziz school.

Rajab traveled to India to study Political Science and History. He received his Bachelor's degree but financial problems after his father became ill prevented him obtaining a Master's degree. He returned to Bahrain to find employment. During his college years, he remained independent of political affiliations. According to Rajab, despite lacking a clear understanding of what constitutes a culture of human rights or knowledge of human rights standards and norms, he was active within the general Bahraini students union, speaking out against all forms of injustice. He also became involved in international campaigning on specific issues.[2]

According to Rajab, he became involved in organized human rights activities during the 1990s uprising in Bahrain. In 1996 Rajab discussed the idea of setting up a human rights organization with Ali Rabea and Ibrahim Kamal Al Den. They introduced him to Salman Kamal Al Den, Sabeeka Al Najjar, Mohammed Al Motawa and other colleagues with whom they held secret meetings. Together they founded the Bahrain Human Rights Society in 2000.[2]

Foundation of Human Rights committees[edit]

With the ending of the oppressive State Security Law period in 2000, Rajab was able to begin working openly in the field of Human rights as one of the founders of the Bahrain Human Rights Society, one of the first human rights organizations in Bahrain.[2] He subsequently fell out with some of the other founders. In 2002, following wide ranging political reforms by the Bahraini government which allowed independent human rights groups to operate, Rajab worked with Abdulhadi al-Khawaja and others to found the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR),[2] a nonprofit non-governmental organization which works to promote human rights in Bahrain.[8] Rajab was Training Program Officer and Senior Researcher at BCHR. He later became Vice President and Head of International Relations until[9] he later took over from Abdulhadi Alkhawaja as BCHR president,[9] a position he still held as of August 2012.[10] In 2011 he along with other found the Gulf Center for Human Rights. Rajab became the president of the newly found rights group.[11]

Migrant workers rights[edit]

External video
Nabeel Rajab defending migrant workers, London, November 2010 on Vimeo

Rajab was one of the founders of the first migrant workers protection committee in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, the Migrant Workers Protection Group (in 2003).[12] On 28 April 2007, the Bahraini Parliament passed a law banning unmarried migrant workers from living in residential areas. BCHR issued a press release condemning this decision as discriminatory and promoting negative racist attitudes towards migrant workers.[13][14] Rajab, then BCHR vice president, said:

It is appalling that Bahrain is willing to rest on the benefits of these people’s hard work, and often their suffering, but that they refuse to live with them in equality and dignity. The solution is not to force migrant workers into ghettos, but to urge companies to improve living conditions for workers – and not to accommodate large numbers of workers in inadequate space, and to improve the standard of living for them.[13][14]

In October 2009 Nabeel was elected Chairperson of CARAM Asia for 2 years.[15] CARAM is a regional non-governmental organization, based in the Malaysian capital, Kuala Lumpur, that works to defend the rights of migrant workers, reduce the risks to which their communities are vulnerable, including HIV, and promote their health rights.[15][16] On 24 February 2010, Rajab addressed the "World Congress against the Death Penalty" conference in Geneva on the subject of "Migrant Workers and the Death Penalty in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia".[12][17] He drew attention to the exceptional vulnerability of migrant workers in countries with systemic abuses and rights violations.[17]

Work with other international Human Rights organizations[edit]

Nabeel Rajab's (left) visit to Freedom House along with Abdulhadi Alkhawaja (right)

Since December 2009, Nabeel has been a member of the Board of Advisors of the Middle East and North African division of Human Rights Watch, a position he still held in February 2012.[18] In July 2010 the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) appointed Rajab to the position of Deputy Secretary General and FIDH permanent representative in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.[19][20] He is also a member of the The Arab working group for media monitoring.[3]

Recognition[edit]

In 2011, Rajab received the Ion Ratiu Democracy Award, presented annually by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.[21][22] The award citation praised him for having "worked tirelessly and at considerable personal peril to advance the cause of democratic freedoms and the civil rights of Bahraini citizens".[23] On 13 September, Rajab received the British Silbury Prize to "facilitate his on-going humanitarian and human rights work".[24] In December, the Arabic American organization for democracy and human rights listed him among the fifteen "leaders of the Arab Spring". Other activists from Bahrain included Abdulhadi al-Khawaja and Mohamed al-Maskati.[25]

In 2012, the BCHR led by Rajab won Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Advocacy Award. The award sponsored by Bindmans LLP aims to "recognise campaigners or activists who have fought repression, or have struggled to challenge political climates and perceptions."[26][27] BCHR was also recipient of Roger Baldwin Medal of Liberty given by Human Rights First.[28] and in 2013 it won the Rafto Prize "for their long and courageous fight for fundamental human rights.[29]

Reports of government harassment prior to 2011[edit]

Marks on the back of Nabeel Rajab after allegedly being beaten by police at a 15 July 2005 protest

According to Front Line, Rajab has been the subject of ongoing harassment since 2005, including physical attacks and smear campaigns in the media (official TV, radio channels, Bahrain News Agency and newspapers close to government).[30][31][32] Human Rights Watch and Reporters Without Borders have both described him as being targeted by Bahraini authorities for his human rights activities.[33][34] In a postal campaign targeting Rajab and his wife thousands of letters were allegedly distributed.[35]

According to an Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada report, on 15 July 2005, Nabeel and several others were beaten by Special Forces whilst attending a peaceful demonstration in solidarity with the Committee for the Unemployed.[36][37] BCHR stated that Rajab suffered a spinal injury, a broken finger, a fractured arm and a head injury[37] and was hospitalised for two weeks as a result.

During a government crackdown in the summer of 2010, Rajab's photograph was published a number of times by the pro-government Al-Watan Newspaper accusing him of supporting a terrorist network and being "active in publishing false reports and information".[38] Gulf Daily News also published Rajab's photo naming him as one of the "supporters" of aforementioned network.[39] A few days later, the Bahrain News Agency published a PowerPoint file about the alleged terrorist network.[40][41] According to BCHR and Human Rights Watch, the file referred to Rajab as having been officially accused of involvement in the terrorist network. The claim was removed the following day.[38][42]

During this time, the authorities imposed a ban preventing Rajab from engaging in any new business in Bahrain that made it difficult for him to earn a living. The ban was subsequently lifted without any official explanation.[43][44] In mid-August 2010, a number of opposition activists were again arrested. According to Rajab, an order for his arrest was issued on 8 September but was cancelled on 18 October.[45] Rajab was also subject to a travel ban during this period.[46][47]

Involvement in the Bahraini uprising[edit]

Nabeel Rajab (left) along with Ali Abdulemam (middle) and Abdulhadi Alkhawaja (right) taking part in a pro-democracy march on 23 February 2011

Background[edit]

Beginning in February 2011, Bahrain saw sustained pro-democracy protests, centered at Pearl Roundabout in the capital of Manama, as part of the wider Arab Spring. Authorities responded with a night raid on 17 February (later known as Bloody Thursday), which left four protesters dead and more than 300 injured.[48] Protests continued for a month reaching over 100,000 participants in a nation of about 500,000 citizens,[49][50][51] until more than a thousand troops and police from the Gulf Cooperation Council arrived at the request of government and a three-month state of emergency was declared.[52] Authorities then cracked down on the protests.[53][54] However, smaller-scale protests and clashes continued to occur almost daily, mostly in areas outside Manama's business districts, with some rare marches in the center of the capital city.[55][56] As of April 2012, more than 80 people had died since the start of the uprising[57] and as of January 2013, near-daily clashes between protesters and police are ongoing.[58]

Role in the uprising[edit]

Throughout the uprising Rajab was a "vocal critic of the human rights violations".[27] He was one of the few who kept criticizing the government during state of emergency.[2][59] Unlike other opposition parties who organized protests in Shia villages, Rajab insisted on staging them within the capital.[60] He led many protests,[4] several of them in Manama, putting him in standoffs with security forces.[60] Rajab was named by Al Jazeera English the "unofficial leader of the 14 February movement"[61] and The Atlantic labelled him "the de-facto leader of Bahrain's resurgent uprising."[6] Rajab said he was a normal activist and that he was not engaged in planning for protests. Despite acknowledging it was "dangerous and costly", he expressed happiness about his role in the uprising.[6]

On the other hand Foreign Policy mentioned that a big portion of the Sunni community think of Rajab as a troublemaker.[12] The majority sect in Bahrain is Shia Muslims, Sunni Muslims comprise a substantial minority[62] and hold the top positions of power.[63] The largest opposition party is Al Wefaq which is a Shia Islamist movement[64] (albeit internationally recognized as moderate[65][66] and tightly allied with secular opposition parties[67]). One source of opposition to Rajab (who has taken anti-sectarian stands[68]) and his movement is the fear (particularly among Sunnis[69]) that they could bring Shia Islamists to power.[70]

In the early hours of 20 March 2011, a group of 20 to 25 masked men, some armed with rifles and accompanied by dozens of uniformed Bahraini security forces, broke into Rajab's house. Rajab was detained and his files and a computer were confiscated. He reported that they blindfolded and handcuffed him and put him into the back of a vehicle before verbally abusing, beating and threatening to rape him. He claimed that they kicked him when he refused to say that he loved the prime minister. He was taken to a Ministry of Interior detention facility in Adliya, a suburb of Manama. After being briefly questioned about someone he did not know, he was released.[71][72][73]

On 10 April, officials publicly accused Rajab of fabricating photos posted on his Twitter account of the body of Ali Isa Ibrahim Saqer, who died in detention on 9 April. The Ministry of Interior announced that Rajab would be referred to the Military Prosecutor for legal action.[74] The photos showed slash marks all over Saqer's back and other signs of physical abuse, and were also stated to be accurate by an HRW researcher who had seen the body prior to burial.[75][76] Five prison guards were subsequently charged with Saqer's death.[77]

External video
Front Line interview with Nabeel Rajab about attacks on his house on YouTube
Tear gas fired at Rajab's house on 18 April (left) and 21 May (right)

In incidents on 18 April, 21 May and 15 December,[78] tear gas grenades were fired at Rajab's house in the village of Bani Jamra by unknown assailants. In the first incident, HRW identified the grenades thrown into the Rajab family's compound as US-manufactured munitions to which only Bahrain's security forces would have had access. Tear gas penetrated into the adjacent home of Rajab's 78-year-old mother who suffers from respiratory disease, causing her great distress.[75][79] On 21 May, four gas grenades were fired at the house. This time, according to Rajab, the grenades were smaller than those used in the mid-April assault and there were no marks identifying the manufacturer.[73][80][81]

According to the BCHR, authorities organized an anonymous smear campaign targeting Rajab and Maryam al-Khawaja in May 2011.[82] Later in the month Rajab stated that his uncle, Mohammad Hassan Mohammad Jawad (65 years old), an arrested activist, was being tortured because of their relationship.[83] He also stated that he was prevented by Muharraq airport security staff from traveling to Beirut to attend an International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX) meeting in May[84][85][86] and an Amnesty International conference in June.[87]

On 31 May, just after the King of Bahrain had called for dialogue without preconditions to begin in early July[88] the military National Safety Court issued an order for Rajab's arrest along with those of prominent Al Wefaq parliamentarians.[89][90] Rajab was accused of spreading false news and statements about the situation in Bahrain and promoting hatred and disrespect of a specific religious sect, in addition to humiliating the king of Bahrain.[91] All the detainees were released the same day.[92][93]

Irish Delegation meet with Nabeel Rajab at his home on 14 July.[94]

In November, Rajab took part in a six-member international fact finding mission. It released a 27-page report and gave eleven recommendations addressing human rights violations in Bahrain.[95][96] In December, Rajab and two other human rights activists received death threats on Twitter by a retired security official.[97] On 6 January 2012, after leading a night peaceful[26] protest in Fareeq el-Makharqa in Manama, Rajab was hospitalized and briefly detained[98] with injuries from an alleged beating, which the opposition blamed on security forces.[99] Via their Twitter account, the Ministry of the Interior denied the accusation, saying police found Rajab "lying on the ground" and referred him to hospital.[100]

On 12 February, Rajab was briefly detained after he tried to march along with his family to the location of the symbolic Pearl Roundabout in Manama.[101][102] Rajab explained that he took this move to be a model to encourage people from different ages to take part in protests.[102] Following the media attention on protests during the Formula 1 race in April 2012, the government launched a "legal crackdown"[103] in which Rajab was arrested and released several times.

5 May arrest[edit]

On 5 May, Rajab was arrested at Bahrain International Airport on his arrival from Lebanon the day before a scheduled court hearing relating to a march he had attended in March.[104] Julian Assange said he believed Rajab's arrest was linked to his appearance on Assange's World Tomorrow television talk-show[105] and Project on Middle East Democracy (POMED) associated it with an interview with the BBC's HARDtalk.[106] The following day the Ministry of the Interior issued a statement that Rajab had been arrested for "committing a number of crimes".[107] Before the arrest, Rajab had stated he would not attend the trial, because the Judiciary of Bahrain was "a tool used against human rights defenders and people calling for democracy and justice".[60]

On 6 May, Rajab was charged with "insulting a statutory body via Twitter," his lawyer said.[108] The online newspaper Manama Voice identified Rajab's tweets criticizing the Ministry of Interior as the likely cause.[109] The Tweet suggested the ministry did not carry out "proper investigations into civilian deaths,"[110] which was already confirmed by BICI report that labelled the findings of the Interior Ministry, in general, as "in many cases, flawed and biased in its favour."[111]

Rajab pleaded not guilty to the charge against him,[104] but the prosecutor decided to keep him in detention for 7 days.[112] On 12 May,[113] the public prosecution extended his detention by one week.[108] On 16 May, fifty-five lawyers were present in court in solidarity with Rajab who pleaded not guilty again and stated that the charge against him was "malicious".[114] Despite being granted bail on 20 May, Rajab was kept in detention on a further charge of "organizing illegal protests". Activists accused the Bahraini authorities of trying to find any way of keeping Rajab off the streets.[115]

Political cartoon by Carlos Latuff after Rajab was arrested in May 2012

Spokesman of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights said she was concerned at the arrest of Rajab.[116] The Australian Senate unanimously passed a ruling demanding their government to "[m]ake direct representations to Bahraini authorities for the immediate release of Nabeel Rajab."[117] Amnesty International designated Rajab a prisoner of conscience and called for his immediate and unconditional release.[118] Human rights groups Arab Program for Human Rights Activists,[119] BCHR,[120] Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies,[106] FIDH,[104] Freedom House,[106] GCHR,[120] and the political party Al Wefaq[109] demanded his release. Bahrain Forum for Human Rights called Ban Ki-moon, the Secretary-General of the United Nations to intervene for the release of Rajab.[121] Political cartoonist Carlos Latuff created a cartoon about Rajab.[122]

On 28 May, spending twenty four days in detention, Rajab was released on bail and placed on a travel ban.[123]

6 June arrest[edit]

After being briefly released, Rajab was re-arrested on 6 June 2012 on a charge of "publicly insulting residents of a Sunni-dominated neighbourhood for their ties to the ruling dynasty", the fifth charge brought against him in a period of one month.[124] Human Rights Watch and other rights group participating in Bahrain's Universal Periodic Review session demanded release of Rajab.[125] He was released on bail on 27 June still facing three charges relating to Twitter activity and two about organizing "illegal" protests.[126]

9 July arrest[edit]

On 7 July, Rajab was banned from traveling,[127] and two days later he was arrested by more than a dozen of masked security personnel from his house[128][129] few hours after a court sentenced him to three-month prison for a Tweet out of six in which he criticized the prime minister[129] that the court found had insulted Bahrainis.[130] The Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders described the arrest as an "arbitrary detention".[131] In the Tweet Rajab said "everyone knows you [prime minister] are not popular and if it weren’t for the need for money, [the Muharraq residents] would not have welcomed you."[128] The charge was "publicly vilifying the people of al-Muharraq and questioning their patriotism with disgraceful expressions posted via social networking websites."[132]

Rajab's lawyer said the verdict was unexpected because the charge of insult was normally punished by a fine.[133] Human Rights First,[134] Human Rights Watch[128] and nineteen members of the United States Congress called for Rajab's release.[134] Four Bahraini rights group issued a joint statement condemning the sentence[135] and five political parties held a sit-in in solidarity with Rajab.[136] Yousif al-Mahafdha of BCHR said "[t]hey arrested him to send a message to all activists that you will get arrested like him if you talk to the media".[129]

The appeal was scheduled for 23 August,[132] when Rajab was acquitted of the charge, but remained in custody on another sentence.[137] According to the Bahrain News Agency, the judge decided to release Rajab, because "he was not satisfied with the evidence put forward".[138] During the trial, Rajab complained of "physical and psychological torture" in prison and solitary confinement in a "dark cell", his lawyer reported.[139]

16 August sentence[edit]

On 16 August, Rajab was sentenced to one year in prison on each of three charges for a total of three years.[140] Charges were "involvement in illegal practices and inciting gatherings and calling for unauthorized marches through social networking sites", "participation in an illegal assembly", and "participation in an illegal gathering and calling for a march without prior notification."[141] Public prosecutors stated that Rajab's "provocation of his supporters" had incited violence, including the road blockades and petrol bomb attacks.[140] "The Public Prosecution produced evidence that the accused had called in public speeches for a demonstration to confront public security personnel, inciting violence and escalation against law enforcement officers, resulting in deaths during those confrontations", a public prosecutor said.[142] The appeal was scheduled to take place on 10 September.[138] Rajab was placed in Jaw prison.[132] On 20 August, he was allowed to make a two-minute call to his family. He told them he was in solitary confinement with no access to newspapers.[143]

Domestic reactions[edit]

A number of people held a sit-in in solidarity with Rajab on 23 August
Left to right. Mohamed al-Maskati giving a speech in the sit-in and Mohamed Albuflasa listening among the crowd

Samira Rajab, the country's Minister of State for Information (and Rajab's cousin twice over)[144] declared that Rajab had enjoyed a fair trial with unrestricted access to legal assistance.[145] She said that action had been taken against him because although claiming to be a human rights activist he had in fact been engaging in political activity,[146][147] a justification similar to that offered by an officially-appointed MP for the trial of Bahrain health workers.[148]

Rajab's wife accused the minister of lying to the international media and fabricating film footage played during a press conference.[144] She said that the court proceedings had clearly demonstrated the absence of justice and an independent judiciary.[142] Rajab's son quoted his father as saying, "Jail me 3 years or 30, I will never give up".[141] Mr. Jishi, Rajab's lawyer, said the government was "sending a message", further emphasised by the King of Bahrain's speech that week referring to a duty to "protect peaceful, good-natured citizens who do not seek to usurp power".[149]

BCHR said that the only reason Rajab had been targeted was to prevent him from continuing his legitimate and peaceful human rights work.[150] The Al Wefaq political party said Rajab's sentence was further evidence of the government's unwillingness to find a solution to the crisis, noting that political detainees were prisoners of conscience and the regime had no right to use them as hostages "as part of its security solution to the ongoing political crisis".[142] Justin Gengler, a Bahrain researcher based in Qatar,[151][152] remarked that Bahrain's 'reformist' king was unfortunately beginning to sound eerily like his uncle.[153] A number of political and human rights activists held a sit-in in solidarity with Rajab at National Democratic Action Society headquarters on 18 August.[154] On 31 August, thousands of protesters filled a three-kilometer highway chanting for the release of Rajab.[155]

International reactions[edit]

A number of independent United Nations experts including the United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights defenders and the Special Rapporteur on freedom of peaceful assembly and of association expressed serious concern about the government of Bahrain's "campaign of persecution" directed against rights activists and called for Nabeel Rajab's immediate release.[156] They urged the Bahraini authorities to respect the rights to peaceful assembly and freedom of expression and release anyone arbitrarily detained for exercising legitimate freedoms without delay.[156][157]

The United States and European Union criticized the sentence. A United States Department of State spokesperson described the sentence as deeply troubling,[158] affirming the fundamental freedom of all to participate in civil acts of peaceful disobedience. The State Department called on the government of Bahrain "to take steps to build confidence across Bahraini society" and "begin a really meaningful dialogue with the political opposition and civil society" as actions like Rajab's sentencing would cause further divisions within Bahraini society.[142]

Sanjeev Bery of Amnesty International criticized the US reaction as late and insufficient. He highlighted Michael Posner's testimony in which he stated that Rajab's case was "a bit more complicated" and Victoria Nuland's answers to reporters in which "it took [her] so long" to call for Rajab's release.[159] FIDH said the US reaction was "woefully insufficient" and that it was "turn[ing] a blind eye to human rights violations in Bahrain".[160] BCHR criticized the US "silent reaction" towards the arrest. "[T]he lack of pressure from the US administration appears to be linked with the Bahraini government’s willingness to escalate," it added.[10]

The European Union noted the verdict with concern and expected it to be "reconsidered in the appeal process".[161] A spokesperson for the French Foreign Office affirmed the right of freedom of expression and called for dialogue as a mean to solve the political crisis. "We are disturbed by the harsh sentence imposed on Mr. Rajab and hope it will be reviewed on appeal," spokesperson added.[162] A spokesperson for the UK Foreign Office expressed concern at the length of the sentence and called on opposition activists to avoid inciting "violence or other illegal acts". "We urge the Bahraini Government to act proportionately in all cases. The right of individuals to peaceful protest and freedom of expression is a fundamental part of any modern democracy and must be respected," spokesperson added.[163]

The sentence was sharply criticized by rights groups.[140] Forty three rights groups signed a joint appeal to release Rajab.[164] Brian Dooley of Human Rights First found the verdict shocking even by Bahrain's "abysmal" standards on human rights. He added that the regime could not be seen as serious about human rights reform when it jailed one of the world's most prominent activists to prison for three years.[140] Referring to a "dark day for justice" in Bahrain, Amnesty International said that the use of such blatant ruthless tactics to suppress dissenting voices could leave the international community under no illusion that Bahrain was on the path of reform.[165] Human Rights Watch argued that the government had yet to show that Rajab had done any more than exercise his right to free expression and peaceful assembly and demanded his release.[166]

FIDH,[167] Front Line Defenders,[144] Gulf Centre for Human Rights,[168] Index on Censorship,[168] IFEX,[168] Julian Assange,[169] Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights,[170] Reporters Without Borders[171] and World Organization Against Torture[168] criticized the sentence and called for Rajab's immediate release. Avaaz launched a petition addressed to Barack Obama demanding release of Rajab.[172] Jane Kinninmont of Chatham House reported speculation that the case might be used as a political bargaining chip in efforts to prepare the ground for a fresh political dialogue urged by Bahrain's western allies.[173] She added that the verdict sends "a signal that the government is taking a harder line on protests."[174] History professor Toby C. Jones said the sentence "represents the end of any pretense of reforms" in Bahrain.[174]

Trial of Appeal[edit]

On 11 December 2012, the court of appeal reduced the sentence of Rajab to two years in prison after it cleared him from insulting police. The court however upheld the charge of "illegal gathering". Rajab had expected to be released, according to his wife. The United States Assistant Secretary of State, Michael Posner called the Bahraini authorities to drop all charges related to non-violent activism. Jeo Stork of HRW criticized the judiciary as being "very politicized" and called the court decision "bizarre".[175]

The Gulf Center for Human Rights said that the defense team had faced many obstacles during the trial of appeal including that the International experts who were introduced to the court as defense witnesses were denied entry at Bahrain international airport, and the defense team were denied access to the evidences submitted by the prosecution.[5] Amnesty International’s director for the Middle East and North Africa commented that “The appeal court’s gesture to reduce Nabeel Rajab’s sentence by one year is completely hollow given that he shouldn’t be serving any time in prison in the first place,”.[176] Other human rights organizations, including Human Rights First, Front Line Defenders, the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) and the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) condemned the ruling of the court of appeal and called for the immediate release of Nabeel Rajab.[177]

In December 2013, a court denied Rajab early release after he had served three quarters of his sentence. According to Bahraini law, a prisoner may be eligible for early release after serving three quarters of the sentence. Rajab's lawyer stated that the court gave no reason for rejecting early release.[178][179]

Release[edit]

On 24 May 2014, Rajab was released from prison after serving his full term of 2 years. FIDH welcomed the move, with its Secretary General Amina Bouayach travelling to Bahrain to meet Rajab as soon as he was released. "It is an immense pleasure to see our friend and colleague Nabeel again. We have been waiting for this moment for a very long time," Bouayach said.[180] Rajab was happy to be out and called for the release of other prisoners and for "respect for human rights".[181]

Criticism of the United States[edit]

Rajab was critical of the US role in Bahrain throughout the uprising. On 26 July 2011, in an interview with Al Jazeera English, he expressed disappointment at US silence and the inconsistent way in which US standards of democracy and human rights were applied to countries which they had problems but not to dictatorships with whom they had good relations.[182] On 21 December 2011, in an interview with National Post, he criticized US support for royal dictatorships in the region and contrasted the hard attitude shown towards Syria and Libya with the soft attitude towards allies.[183]

In a World Tomorrow episode broadcast on 8 May 2012, Rajab accused the US of opposing democracy in Bahrain when it asked Russia not to sell arms for Syria while selling arms to Bahrain,[106] and in July, shortly before Rajab's arrest, he noted that the presence of US Fifth Fleet in Bahrain made the struggle against the monarchy more difficult because US support, accompanied by the support, or silence, of the international community, was seen as giving the green light for repression and attacks on human rights defenders.[149]

Online activity[edit]

Rajab is an active user of online media in his human rights work, in particular social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. He stopped posting in Internet forums in order to encourage support for social network-based campaigning.[184] He devotes significant time and effort to his Twitter account, created in March 2009,[184] posting mostly in Arabic,[6] and in the 2011 Forbes magazine list of the 100 top Arabs on Twitter[184] was ranked number 43, with 36,040 followers[185] (currently about 175,000 - September 2012[168]). He ranked number 2 in Bahrain behind Foreign Minister Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa.[186]

Even though on this occasion Rajab was personally congratulated by the Minister,[186] his use of Twitter to publicise human rights abuses has brought him into repeated conflict with the authorities. In April 2011 he was threatened with prosecution for the publication on his Twitter account of an allegedly fabricated image of the body of Ali Issa Saqer showing signs of torture in custody; the threats were withdrawn after prison guards were charged with Saqer's death.[187][188][189] The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information (ANHRI) described the threat against Rajab of the first ever charge in the Arab world involving "tweeting" (publishing information on Twitter) as an illustration of the Bahraini government's implacable hostility towards freedom of expression and Internet freedom.[190]

In 2012 Rajab's Twitter-based campaigning led firstly to his detention for three weeks (two weeks on the charge of "insulting a statutory body via Twitter" and another week for "organizing illegal protests") after he published tweets critical of the Ministry of Interior (leading to criticism of the authorities by international human rights organizations), then to a three-month prison sentence for a Tweet criticizing the prime minister, and eventually in August 2012 he was given three further consecutive one year prison sentences for illegal political activities involving the use of social networking sites.[109] On 23 August, spending more than half of his sentence, Rajab was acquitted of Twitter charge in which he criticized the prime minister, but remained in jail while appealing the other prison sentence.[191]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Arabic). "المغردون يحتفلون بطريقتهم بعيد ميلاد نبيل رجب "#كل_عام_وأنت_حر_يا_نبيل"". Manama Voice. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Staff writer (7 June 2011). "Special interview with Nabeel Rajab" (in Arabic). Bahrain Mirror. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "Events Archive – Fall 2011". George Washington University. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  4. ^ a b " Bahraini activist jailed for three years". Al Jazeera English. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  5. ^ a b http://www.bahrainrights.org/en/node/5553
  6. ^ a b c d e f "The Agony of Nabeel Rajab". The Atlantic. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  7. ^ (Arabic). "نبيل رجب يصفِّي أعماله التجارية: لن اسمح للنظام الظالم بإبتزازي". Bahrain Mirror. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  8. ^ "About us". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  9. ^ a b "Nabeel Rajab". WAN-IFRA. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  10. ^ a b "Bahrain, emboldened by international silence, sentences Nabeel Rajab to 3 years imprisonment". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  11. ^ Staff writer (6 January 2012). "Bahrain: Vicious Attack on Human Rights defender Nabeel Rajab". Gulf Center for Human Rights. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c Jane Kinninmont (15 August 2012). "Bahrain's still stuck". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  13. ^ a b Staff writer (28 April 2007). "Bahraini parliament moves to segregate migrants from citizens". Migrant rights. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Staff writer (28 April 2007). "Parliament's law to ban migrant workers who are unmarried from living in residential areas is discriminatory attitudes". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "CARAM Asia Elects New Board of Directors". CARAM Asia. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  16. ^ "President of BCHR elected to be the Chairperson of CARAM Asia for 2 years". BCHR. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  17. ^ a b Staff writer (24 February 2010). "Migrant Workers and the Death Penalty in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "Middle East and North Africa Division - Advisory Committee Members". Human Rights Watch. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  19. ^ "Nabeel Rajab Appointed as the Deputy Secretary-General for the International Federation for Human Rights". BCHR. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  20. ^ "Interview of Nabeel Rajab president of Bahrain center for human rights, deputy secretary general of FIDH". International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH). 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  21. ^ "Bahraini Human Rights Activist Nabeel Rajab to Receive 2011 Ion Ratiu Democracy Award". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Bahrain/Washington: Nabeel Rajab Awarded the 2011 Ion Ratiu Democracy Award by the Washington based Woodrow Wilson Intemational Center for Scholars". Front Line Defenders. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  23. ^ Staff writer (28 July 2011). "Bahrain/Washington: Nabeel Rajab Awarded the 2011 Ion Ratiu Democracy Award". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  24. ^ BCHR: "Bahraini human rights activist Nabeel Rajab receives the Silbury Prize". BCHR. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  25. ^ (Arabic). "المنظمة العربية – الأميركية للديموقراطية إختارت 15 شخصية في مجال حقوق الانسان للعام 2011". NOW Lebanon. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  26. ^ a b "Freedom of Expression Awards 2012". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  27. ^ a b Sara Yasin (6 May 2012). "Index condemns the arrest of prominent rights activist Nabeel Rajab". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  28. ^ "Nabeel Rajab’s Verdict in Appeal of Twitter Case Due Sunday". Human Rights First. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  29. ^ http://rafto.no/article/923/The_2013_Rafto_Prize_to_Bahrain_Centre_for_Human_Rights_BCHR_the_fight_for_inconvenient_human_rights_in_the_Gulf/tags:News%20
  30. ^ "Bahrain: Media harassment campaign against BCHR and its president Nabeel Rajab". Front Line. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Newly Elected Chair of CARAM Asia Faces Unfounded Media Accusations". CARAM Asia. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  32. ^ Staff writer (18 February 2009). "Bahrain: Charges against human rights defender Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja". Front Line. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  33. ^ "Bahrain: End Harassment of Prominent Rights Defender". Human Rights Watch. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  34. ^ Internet enemies report 2012 (report). Reporters Without Borders. pp. 8 and 14. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  35. ^ "Human Rights Defenders at Risk in Bahrain". Front Line. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  36. ^ "Bahrain: Demonstrations held in Manama on 29 and 30 October 2004; numbers and treatment of those arrested and detained; whether those detained have been released; any court or legal action taken against those who participated in these demonstrations or whether they currently face any related charges (September 2004 - October 2005)". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 31 October 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  37. ^ a b "Front Line Human Rights Defenders beaten in Bahrain". BCHR. 16 July 2005. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  38. ^ a b "Letter to His Majesty Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Regarding Torture of Human Rights Activists". Human Rights Watch. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  39. ^ Alexandra Sandels (7 September 2010). "Bahrain arrests dozens of Shiite Muslims accused of plotting coup". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  40. ^ (Arabic). "المخطط الإرهابي". Bahrain News Agency. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  41. ^ (Arabic). "«الأمن الوطني»: تفكيك شبكة سرية لقلب نظام الحكم وتهديد الاستقرار وتقويض الوحدة الوطنية". Al-Wasat. 5 September 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  42. ^ "On the Threshold of the Parliamentary Elections: Bahrain Enters a Battle to Abolish the Work of Human Rights Defenders". BCHR. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  43. ^ "HRW: Bahrain: Rescind Travel Ban on Rights Defenders". BCHR. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  44. ^ "Appeal Letter to the King of Bahrain". CARAM Asia. September 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  45. ^ "Order issued to arrest Nabeel Rajab and another order issued not to arrest". Nabeel Rajab Twitter page. 14 November 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  46. ^ "Bahrain: Rescind Travel Ban on Rights Defenders". Human Rights Watch. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  47. ^ "Bahrain imposes De-facto Ban on travel against Human Rights Defenders". BCHR. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  48. ^ "Bahrain protests: Police break up Pearl Square crowd". BBC News. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  49. ^ Slackman, Michael (22 February 2011). "Bahraini Protesters' Calls for Unity Belie Divisions". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  50. ^ Staff (22 February 2011). "Bahrain King Orders Release of Political Prisoners". The Independent (UK). Associated Press. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  51. ^ Michael Slackman (25 Feb 2012). "Protesters in Bahrain Demand More Changes". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  52. ^ Staff writer (15 March 2011). "Bahrain King Declares State of Emergency after Protests". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  53. ^ Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'. Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  54. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown – Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  55. ^ Staff writer (25 January 2012). "Bahrain live blog 25 Jan 2012". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  56. ^ Staff writer (15 February 2012). "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  57. ^ Gregg Carlstrom (23 April 2012). "Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  58. ^ Reporting by Rania El Gamal; Editing by Sami Aboudi and Pravin Char/Mark Heinrich (7 January 2013). "Bahrain top court upholds sentences against uprising leaders". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  59. ^ Philip Kennicott (22 April 2011). "In Bahrain, government crackdown hits middle-class Shiites hard". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  60. ^ a b c "Bahrain arrests prominent rights activist". The Daily Telegraph. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  61. ^ English JSC People & Power: Anniversary of Bahrain Revolution (in English). 15 February 2012. Event occurs at 20:00. 
  62. ^ Reese Erlich (13 December 2012). "Bahrain’s monarchy stokes divisions between Sunni and Shiite". Global Post. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  63. ^ Primoz Manfreda. "Why the Crisis in Bahrain Won't Go Away". About.com. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  64. ^ Joost Hiltermann (8 May 2012). "Bahrain: A New Sectarian Conflict?". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  65. ^ Down to the wire in Bahrain: Last chance for real political reform (Report). European Parliament. December 2012. p. 6. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=79690. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  66. ^ Frank Gardner (13 December 2012). "Bahrain opposition seeks UK support as tension simmers". BBC. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  67. ^ "A field guide to Bahraini political parties". The Telegraph. Wikileaks. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  68. ^ Anonymous activist (6 May 2012). "Bahrain: The stories that aren't being covered". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  69. ^ Jason Stern (13 September 2012). "Iran Demonstrates Hypocrisy On Bahrain Policy". Inside IRAN. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  70. ^ "Bahrain jails activist for 3 years over protests - lawyer". Reuters. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  71. ^ "Bahrain: New Arrests Target Doctors, Rights Activists". Human Rights Watch. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  72. ^ "Bahrain briefly detains human rights activist". Reuters. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  73. ^ a b "Attack Against Mr. Nabeel Rajab's house". FIDH. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  74. ^ Nabil Rajab to be referred to military prosecutor for fabricating photo (Report). Ministry of Interior Media Center. 10 April 2011. http://www.policemc.gov.bh/en/news_details.aspx?type=1&articleId=6696. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  75. ^ a b "Bahrain: Attack on Rights Defender’s Home". HRW. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  76. ^ "Bahrain accuses human rights leader of faking pictures of beating". The Guardian. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  77. ^ "Uncertainty Reigns in Bahrain Amid Mix of Normalcy, State of Siege". PBS NewsHour. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  78. ^ Staff writer (16 December 2011). "نبيل رجب يتهم السلطات باستهداف منزله". Bahrain Mirror. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  79. ^ "Bahraini activist's home tear gassed". CNN. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  80. ^ "Home of a Bahraini activist is attacked, again, rights group says". CNN. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  81. ^ Roy Gutman (21 May 2011). "Bahrain's top human rights activist targeted two days after Obama speech". McClatchy Newspapers. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  82. ^ "The Observatory: Slandering campaign against Mr. Nabeel Rajab and Ms. Maryam Al Khawaja", Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, 30 June 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  83. ^ "Focus on torturing activist Moh'd Hassan Moh'd Jawad (aged 65) because he is my uncle". Nabeel Rajab Twitter page. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  84. ^ "I was prevented from traveling again to attend a meeting for IFAX in Beirut". Nabeel Rajab Facebook page. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  85. ^ "I was stopped by security forces in airport just now". Nabeel Rajab Twitter page. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  86. ^ "I was prevented from traveling, going home now". Nabeel Rajab Twitter page. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  87. ^ "Today I was prevented from traveling for the third time in 2 months, I was invited by Amnesty international to a conference in Cairo", Nabeel Rajab Facebook page, 18 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  88. ^ "His Majesty calls Executive and Legislative to promote national harmony through dialogue". Bahrain News Agency. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  89. ^ (Arabic). "استدعاء أمين عام الوفاق الشيخ علي سلمان و3 برلمانيين مستقيلين ونبيل رجب". Bahrain Mirror. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  90. ^ "I was called by the military court today evening". Nabeel Rajab Twitter page. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  91. ^ "They added a new charge to me that wasn't on the paper: humiliating king of Bahrain", Nabeel Rajab Twitter page, 1 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  92. ^ "Summons for Mr. Nabeel Rajab for interrogation", FIDH, 3 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  93. ^ "I was released from military court building by 11:30 pm and they were respectful during investigation", Nabeel Rajab Twitter page, 1 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  94. ^ "Irish delegation at my home". Nabeel Rajab. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  95. ^ Wafa Ben Hassine (24 January 2012). "Nabeel Rajab, Bahraini Human Rights Activist: Tunisia’s Support is a “Moral Obligation”". Tunisia-live.net. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  96. ^ "International Mission to Bahrain Report says promises for reform unfulfilled, while situation deteriorates". IFEX. 24 January 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  97. ^ Staff writer (7 December 2011). "Bahrain: Death threats against Messrs. Mohammed Al-Maskati, Nabeel Rajab and Yousef Al-Mahafdha". World Organization Against Torture. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  98. ^ Dorothy Parvaz (6 January 2012). "Bahraini activist beaten by 'riot police'". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  99. ^ "Bahrain activist Nabeel Rajab 'beaten by police'". BBC News. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  100. ^ Staff writer (6 January 2012). "MOI statement regarding attack on Nabeel Rajab". Ministry of the Interior (Bahrain). Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  101. ^ "Bahrain: Human rights activist Nabeel Rajab detained at protests". IFEX. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  102. ^ a b "Nabeel Rajab explains why he is taking his family to the Pearl Roundabout". Witness Bahrain. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  103. ^ "Factbox: Key political risks to watch in Bahrain". Reuters. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  104. ^ a b c "Bahrain: FIDH Demands the Immediate Release of its deputy secretary general Nabeel Rajab". FIDH. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  105. ^ "Bahrain arrests main human rights activist Nabeel Rajab". Russia Today. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  106. ^ a b c d "Nabeel Rajab: “Americans are Against Democracy in Bahrain Now”". Project on Middle East Democracy. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  107. ^ (Arabic). "القبض على المدعو نبيل رجب لارتكابه عدداً من الجرائم". Police Media Center. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  108. ^ a b "Bahrain extends detention of human rights activist". The Daily Telegraph. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  109. ^ a b c (Arabic). "إعتقال نبيل رجب بسبب تغريدات "مهينة" لـ"الداخلية"". Manama Voice. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  110. ^ "Bahrain activist gets bail but still detained". Al Jazeera English. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  111. ^ Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (Report). Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. 23 November 2011. p. 224. http://files.bici.org.bh/BICIreportEN.pdf.
  112. ^ (Arabic). "محمد الجشي: النيابة العامة تقرر حبس نبيل رجب لمدة 7 أيام". Al Wasat. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  113. ^ (Arabic). "حبس نبيل رجب سبعة أيام بتهمة الدعوة والمشاركة في تجمهر". Al-Wasat. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  114. ^ (Arabic). Ali Turaif (17 May 2012). "نبيل رجب ينفي «إهانة قوات الأمن»... ويؤكد: القضية كيدية". Al-Wasat. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  115. ^ "Bahraini activist granted bail but not released". Reuters. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  116. ^ (Arabic). "الأمم المتحدة تعلق على اعتقال الناشط البحريني نبيل رجب". United Nations Radio. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  117. ^ "Australian Senate offers support for jailed Bahraini activist". Australian Greens. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  118. ^ "Bahraini activist Nabeel Rajab is 'prisoner of conscience'". Amnesty International. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  119. ^ (Arabic). "’البرنامج العربي للنشطاء’: اعتقال رجب مخالفة صارخة للمادة 13 من العهد الدولي". Bahrain Mirror. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  120. ^ a b "Bahrain Authorities Continue to Detain, Target and Harass Human Rights Defenders". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  121. ^ (Arabic). "الإفراج بكفالة عن حقوقي بحريني". Al Jazeera. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  122. ^ "Bahraini human rights activist Nabeel Rajab arrested at airport". WL central. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  123. ^ (Arabic). Ali Turaif (29 May 2012). "الإفراج عن الناشط نبيل رجب ومنعه من السفر". 'Al-Wasat. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  124. ^ "Bahrain rights activist Nabeel Rajab back in detention". BBC News. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  125. ^ (Arabic). "منظمات حقوقية دولية تطالب البحرين بالإفراج عن نبيل رجب". Al-Wasat. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  126. ^ "Bahrain releases leading activist, pays uprising victims". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  127. ^ (Arabic). Ali Turaif (9 July 2012). "المحكمة تقضي بحبس نبيل رجب 3 أشهر بتهمة سب أهالي المحرق". Al Wasat. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  128. ^ a b c "Bahrain: Rights Activist Jailed for ‘Insulting’ Tweets". Human Rights Watch. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  129. ^ a b c Linda Gradstein (10 July 2012). "Jailed for tweeting in Bahrain". The Media Line (The Jerusalem Post). Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  130. ^ Andrew Hammond and Ralph Boulton (9 July 2012). "Bahrain court jails protest leader over tweets: lawyer". Reuters. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  131. ^ "Bahrain: Arrest of Mr. Nabeel Rajab". FIDH. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  132. ^ a b c "Urgent action: Bahraini activist sentenced to three years". Amnesty International. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  133. ^ "Jail for Bahrain protest leader over tweet". Al Jazeera English. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  134. ^ a b "Group of US lawmakers call on Bahrain king to release prominent rights activist". Associated Press (The Washington Post). 11 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  135. ^ (Arabic). "4 جمعيات حقوقية بحرينية تستنكر حبس رجب وحل جمعية «أمل»". Al-Wasat. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  136. ^ (Arabic). Zainab al-Tajer (18 July 2012). "جمعيات سياسية تتضامن مع الناشط الحقوقي نبيل رجب". Al-Wasat. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  137. ^ (Arabic). Ali Turaif (23 August 2012). "براءة الناشط الحقوقي نبيل رجب من سب أهالي المحرق". Al-Wasat. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  138. ^ a b "Bahrain appeals court acquits protest leader of Twitter insult". Reuters. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  139. ^ "Bahrain activist acquitted but remains in jail". AFP (France 24). 23 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  140. ^ a b c d "Bahrain jails activist for three years over protests: lawyer". Reuters. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  141. ^ a b "Bahrain jails prominent activist Rajab for 3 years". Russia Today. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  142. ^ a b c d "US, European Union criticize 3 years’ prison term handed down to Bahrain activist". Associated Press (The Washington Post). 16 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  143. ^ "Update: Human Rights defender Nabeel Rajab subjected to ill-treatment in prison and placed in a solitary confinement". Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  144. ^ a b c (Arabic). "زوجة نبيل رجب تتهم سميرة رجب بـ"الكذب" و"الفبركة"". Manama Voice. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  145. ^ "Bahraini teenager killed in clash with police". Reuters. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  146. ^ (Arabic). Hussain al-Wasti (19 August 2012). "سميرة رجب: إدانة نبيل رجب ليست بـ «التجمهر» فقط بل التحريض على التظاهر وسط العاصمة". Al-Wasat. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  147. ^ (Arabic). "سؤال: لماذا إستهدفتم نبيل رجب؟... سميرة رجب: ترك العمل الحقوقي وتوجه للعمل السياسي". Manama Voice. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  148. ^ "Bahrain says charged medics 'attempted coup'". Al Jazeera. 1 October 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  149. ^ a b Robert Mackey and Kareem Fahim (16 August 2012). "Bahrain Sentences Activist to 3 Years in Prison for ‘Inciting’ Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  150. ^ "Bahraini activist sentenced to prison". CNN. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  151. ^ Andrew Hammond (13 June 2012). "Bahrain economic reforms takes hit as hardliners battle uprising". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  152. ^ Andrew Hammond (4 June 2012). "Bahrain says group follows violent Shi'ite cleric". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  153. ^ Justin Gengler (14 August 2012). "Why Bahrain's Sunni Political Societies Are Unpopular—Among Sunnis". Religion and Politics in Bahrain. Blogspot. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  154. ^ (Arabic). Zainab al-Tajer (20 August 2012). "سياسيون وحقوقيون ونشطاء يتضامنون مع نبيل رجب". Al-Wasat. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  155. ^ "Thousands join Bahrain rally to call for release of rights activist". Associated Press (The Washington Post). 31 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  156. ^ a b "Independent UN experts call for end to persecution of rights defenders in Bahrain". UN News Centre. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  157. ^ "Bahrain: UN experts demand end to campaign of persecution against human rights defenders". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  158. ^ Hammond, Andrew; El Gamal, Rania (16 August 2012). "Bahrain jails activist for three years over protests". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  159. ^ Sanjeev Bery (21 August 2012). "Nabeel Rajab: Why Did the U.S. State Department Drag Its Feet?". Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  160. ^ "U.S government turns a blind eye to human rights violations in Bahrain: Nabeel Rajab jailed for three years over ’illegal gatherings’, but U.S reaction is delayed and weak". FIDH. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  161. ^ "Statement by the Spokesperson of EU HR Ashton on the sentencing of Mr Nabeel Rajab in Bahrain". European Union and the United Nations. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  162. ^ (French) "Point de presse du 17 août 2012". Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (France). 17 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  163. ^ "UK expresses concern at sentence for Bahraini opposition activist". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  164. ^ "Release Bahraini human rights activists now, say international groups". IFEX. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  165. ^ "'Dark day for justice' in Bahrain as activist receives three-year prison sentence". Amnesty International. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  166. ^ "Bahrain sentences prominent activist to 3 years prison for instigating, partaking in protest". Associated Press (The Washington Post). 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  167. ^ "Bahraini rights activist jailed for three years". AFP (France 24). 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  168. ^ a b c d e (Arabic). "6 منظمات حقوقية دولية تدعو إلى الإفراج عن نبيل رجب". Al-Wasat. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  169. ^ (Arabic). "مؤسس ويكيليكس: يجب الإفراج عن نبيل رجب". Manama Voice. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  170. ^ (Arabic). "مؤتمراً صحفياً للحكومة اليوم بشأن نبيل رجب وسط إدانات واسعة.. والشيخ علي سلمان: النظام يصرخ كالطفل". Manama Voice. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  171. ^ "Rights activist Nabeel Rajab give three-year jail sentence". Reporters Without Borders. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  172. ^ "Free Nabeel Rajab from the Al Khalifa dictatorship in Bahrain". Avaaz. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  173. ^ Louisa Loveluck and agencies (16 August 2012). "Bahraini human rights activist gets three-year sentence for demonstration". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  174. ^ a b Catherine Cheney (21 August 2012). "Bahrain Shuts the Door on Reform". Worldpoliticsreview.com. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  175. ^ "Bahrain activist Nabeel Rajab's prison sentence reduced". BBC. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  176. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/bahrain-must-release-activist-after-hollow-appeal-verdict-2012-12-11
  177. ^ http://bahrainrights.org/en/node/5554
  178. ^ "Bahraini activist Nabeel Rajab denied early release". BBC. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  179. ^ "Bahrain court rejects jailed activist's request for release". Reuters. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  180. ^ "Bahrain: Nabeel Rajab free, after more than 600 days of arbitrary detention". FIDH. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  181. ^ "Top Bahrain activist released from prison". Associated Press. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  182. ^ "The US and the new Middle East: The Gulf", Al Jazeera English, 26 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  183. ^ Adrian Humphreys (21 December 2011). "The Arab Awakening: A Bahraini activist struggles to keep protests alive". National Post. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  184. ^ a b c (Arabic). "نبيل رجب: تويتر فضاء الربيع العربي". Bahrain Mirror. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  185. ^ List of top 100 Arabs on Twitter, Forbes, 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  186. ^ a b "Congratulating my compatriots @NABEELRAJAB (43)", Khalid Al-Khalifa, 4 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  187. ^ "Government accuses activist of fabricating photo in Bahrain". CNN. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  188. ^ "Nabeel Rajab to Appear Before the Military Public Prosecutor". Bahrain News Agency. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  189. ^ "Nabil Rajab to be referred to military prosecutor for fabricating photo". Police Media Center. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  190. ^ "Bahrain: First Arabic Case Over Publishing on Twitter". Arabic Network for Human Rights Information. 11 April 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  191. ^ "Bahrain court overturns Twitter conviction for jailed rights activist, lawyer says". Associated Press. The Washington Post. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 

External links[edit]