Born in Vijayawada (Bezwada) which, in 1941, was part of Madras Presidency till 1953. Nadeem, along with artists Talat Hussein, M. Zaheer Khan, Aftab Azeem, Saleem Jafry, and TV producer Iqbal Haider, were all discovered at the club. He and his friends, Ameer Ahmed Khan and Qasim Siddiqui, won several music competitions. At one of those musical competitions, he was noticed by the then famous singer Ferdausi Rahman. She was impressed by his singing talent and encouraged him to try playback singing in Dhaka's film industry.
Nadeem’s film career spans more than 40 years. He started his career in 1967 and appeared in his first film Chakori in a leading role with Shabana as opposite actress. The film was produced and directed by Captain Ehtesham, who, in real life, became his father-in-law in 1968. The film did well in both circuits of Pakistani film industry, i.e., West and East. He achieved Nigar Award in the best actor's category for Chakori. Nadeem's films include Nadan (1973), Anari, Pechan (1975), Talashi (1976), Aina (1977), Hum Donon (1980), Lajawab, Qurbani (1981), Sangdil (1982), and Dehleez (1983). He made a screen pairing with actress Shabnam with whom he acted in most of his films. Besides acting, Nadeem has sung many songs for films.