Nadezhda Fyodorovna Olizarenko (Russian: Надежда Фёдоровна Олизаренко; born November 28, 1953 in Bryansk, Bryansk Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is a retired athlete, who competed mainly in the 800 metres. She represented the Soviet Union.
Olizarenko competed for Soviet Union in the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow, Russia, in the 800 metres, where she won the gold medal ahead of country women Olga Mineyeva and Tatyana Providokhina for a Soviet clean sweep of the medals. This added to the bronze medal she won in the 1500 metres at the same games.
In 1980 Olizarenko set a world record and also her personal best over 800 metres with 1:53.43; this record stood until 1983, when it was bettered by Jarmila Kratochvílová. As of 2010 , it is still the all-time number two mark in women's 800 metres. She won the gold medal in the 800 metres at the 1986 European Championships in Athletics.