Nadia district

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Nadia district
নদিয়া জেলা
District of West Bengal
Location of Nadia district in West Bengal
Location of Nadia district in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
Administrative division Presidency
Headquarters Krishnanagar, Nadia
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Krishnanagar, Ranaghat Some of area covered with Bangaon, Berhampore
 • Assembly seats Karimpur, Tehatta, Palashipara, Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar Uttar, Nabadwip, Krishnanagar Dakshin, Santipur, Ranaghat Uttar Paschim, Krishnaganj, Ranaghat Uttar Purba, Ranaghat Dakshin, Chakdaha, Kalyani, Haringhata
Area
 • Total 3,927 km2 (1,516 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 5,168,488
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
 • Urban 979,519
Demographics
 • Literacy 75.58 per cent[1]
 • Sex ratio 947
Major highways NH 34
Website Official website

Nadia district (Pron: ˈnədɪə or nəˈdɪə) (Bengali: নদিয়া জেলা) is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India. It borders Bangladesh to the east, North 24 Parganas and Hooghly districts to the south, Bardhaman district to the west, and Murshidabad district to the north.

History[edit]

Nabadwip, a town in Nadia district and the best town in westbengal as well, was the capital of Bengal under Ballal Sen and later Lakshman Sen, kings of the Sena Empire, who ruled from 1159 to 1206.[2] In 1202, Nabadwip was captured by Bakhtiyar Khilji. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal.[3] Nabadwip and some other places in Nadia were centres of learning and intellectual prowess. For five centuries, Nabadwip was referred to as “Oxford of Bengal”.[4] Chaitanyadeb (1486–1533) was born in Nabadwip. The first school of logic (tarkashastra) in India was set up on the Navya Nyaya system in Nabadwip, which produced great logicians in the 15th century. It was the place where Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, a major Hindu saint, was born and lived. The religious atmosphere of Nabadwip is a combination of Baishnaba, Shakta, Buddha, shaiva. The main festival of Nabadwip is "Rash Utsab" (Rasa lila). It is also known as "Pat Purnima" or "Rash Kali Puja" or "Shakta Rash". The varieties of Baishnaba, Shakta, Saiba Pratima (Idols) attracts every one.

Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Maharaja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur (Originated from the name Jeshoreshwaripur). Maharaja Pratapaditya declared independence of South Bengal (Jessore, Khulna in north, Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal in South, Barisal in east and River Ganges in west) against the Mughal Empire of India.

Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur) are some historical structures in the district.

Among the Bengal zamindars Pratapaditya was the first to send his envoy to Islam Khan Chisti with a large gift to win the favour of the Mughals, and then tendered personal submission to the Subahdar (1609). He promised military assistance and personal service in the Mughal campaign against musa khan, a pledge that he did not keep. To punish Pratapaditya for his disloyalty as a vassal and to subjugate his territory, a large expedition was launched under the command of Ghiyas Khan, which soon reached a place named Salka, near the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati (1611). Pratapaditya equipped a strong army and a fleet and placed them under expert officers including Feringis, Afghans and Pathans. His eldest son Udayaditya made a big fort at Salka with natural barriers on three sides rendering it almost impregnable. In battle the Jessore fleet gained an initial advantage. But the imperial army cut off the Jessore fleet, made a breach in its ranks and broke its unity and discipline. In the melee that followed, the admiral Khwaja Kamal was killed. Udayaditya lost heart and hastily fled to his father, narrowly escaping capture. Jamal Khan evacuated the fort and followed Udayaditya.

Pratapaditya prepared himself to fight a second time from a new base near the confluence of Kagarghat canal and the Jamuna. He made a big fort at a strategic point and gathered all his available forces there. The imperialists began the battle by an attack on the Jessore fleet (Jan 1612) and compelled it to seek shelter beneath the fort. But their further advance was checked by the heavy cannonade of the Jessore artillery. A sudden attack of the imperialists completely defeated the Jessore fleet and they fell upon the fort with the elephants in front, thereby compelling Pratapaditya to evacuate the fort and retreat.

The second defeat sealed the fate of Pratapaditya. At Kagarghat he tendered submission to Ghiyas Khan, who personally escorted Pratapaditya to Islam Khan at Dhaka. The Jessore king was put in chains and his kingdom was annexed. Pratapaditya was kept confined at Dhaka. No authentic information is available regarding his last days. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi, as a prisoner.[5]

Geography[edit]

Important towns[edit]

Nabadwip was the capital of Bengal under Ballal Sen and later Lakshman Sen, the famous rulers of the Sena Empire, who ruled from 1159 to 1206.[2]

Krishnanagar is the district headquarters of Nadia. It is located on the bank of river Jalangi. Krishnanagar is named after Raja Krishna Chandra Rai (1728–1782).

Bethuadahari Bethuadahari is an important town of this district.This place is very much famous for Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary.

Kalyani is another important city and only smart city of this district. It was identified (and named) by B. C. Roy to act as an alternative to the city of Kolkata, from which it is about 50 km away. Kalyani also known of education hub & medical hub in this district.

Santipur is a very popular city in Nadia district. This small town has been declared a city recently. The fort area of this city, also known as Daak-Gharh (calling or gathering room) is thought to have been built by Raja Krishnachandra of Nadia.

Ranaghat, situated 74 kilometres north of Kolkata, is famous for its railway communication.

Tehatta is another important subdivisional town. It is the newest subdivision in the district of Nadia.

Dhubulia has biggest TB hospital in Asia and also has an airport, which used to be in use before 1947 in British Period.

Chakdaha is also an important city of this district.

Important Villages[edit]

A painting of a man with shaved head and dressed in saffron robes sitting cross-legged
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534), the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, born in Mayapur, Nadia
The temple at the birthplace of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Mayapur, Nadia, established in the 1880s by Bhaktivinoda Thakur.

It has been reported that the following list of Villages are in Nadia District[6]

  1. dattapulia
  2. payradanga

Madanpur

  • Palsunda

Bamunpukur

Divisions[edit]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

The district comprises four subdivisions: Krishnanagar Sadar, Kalyani, Ranaghat and Tehatta. Krishnanagar Sadar subdivision consists of Krishnanagar municipality, Nabadwip municipality and seven community development blocks: Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar–I, Krishnanagar–II, Nabadwip and Krishnaganj. Kalyani subdivision consists of Chakdaha municipality, Gayespur municipality, Kalyani municipality and two community development blocks: Chakdaha and Haringhata. Ranaghat subdivision consists of Shantipur municipality, Ranaghat municipality, Birnagar municipality and four community development blocks: Hanskhali, Shantipur, Ranaghat–I and Ranaghat–II. Tehatta subdivision consists of four community development blocks: Karimpur–I, Karimpur–II, Tehatta–I and Tehatta–II.[7] Krishnanagar is the district headquarters. There are 19 police stations, 17 development blocks, 8 municipalities, 187 gram panchayats and 2639 villages in this district.[7][8]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 29 urban units: 8 municipalities and 15 census towns and two notified areas.[9] Ranaghat, Aistala, Satigachha, Nasra and Cooper's Camp together forms Ranaghat urban agglomeration. Nabadwip, Char Maijdia and Char Brahmanagar forms Nabadwip UA. Chakdaha, Gopalpur and Parbbatipur forms Chakdaha UA. Krishnanagar and Baruihuda together forms Krishnanagar UA. Birnagar, Phulia and Taherpur together forms Birnagar UA.

Krishnanagar Sadar subdivision[edit]

Kalyani subdivision[edit]

Ranaghat subdivision[edit]

Tehatta subdivision[edit]

Santipur is about 16 km from Krishnanagar, the headquarters of Nadia District, in West Bengal. The place has a prominent place in the history of Bengali literature. It is famous as the birthplace of Krittibas, who first translated the epic Ramayana from Sanskrit to Bengali in verses.

The residence of Krittibas is now converted into Krittibas Memorial Community Hall cum Museum Library. Adjacent to this is a Gofa, the place of worship of Thakur Haridas. The old banyan tree situated nearby; it is said that the poet had translated the Ramayana into Bengali sitting under the tree.

The Ganges River flows close to the town. Santipur is also famous for producing Tangail Saree and Raas Utsaab.

The town of Plassey has a memorial of the Battle of Plassey (Bengali: পলাশীর যুদ্ধ, Pôlashir Juddho), which took place on 23 June 1757, on the riverbanks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta, near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal. The battle was a decisive victory for the British East India Company over Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal and his French allies. This established the company's rule in India which expanded over much of South Asia for the next 190 years.

Assembly constituencies[edit]

The district is divided into 15 assembly constituencies:[10]

  1. Karimpur (assembly constituency no. 69),
  2. Palashipara (assembly constituency no. 70),
  3. Nakshipara (assembly constituency no. 81),
  4. Kaliganj (assembly constituency no. 72),
  5. Chapra (assembly constituency no. 73),
  6. Krishnaganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 74),
  7. Krishnanagar East (assembly constituency no. 75),
  8. Krishnanagar West (assembly constituency no. 76),
  9. Nabadwip (assembly constituency no. 77),
  10. Shantipur (assembly constituency no. 78),
  11. Hanskhali (SC) (assembly constituency no. 79),
  12. Ranaghat East (SC) (assembly constituency no. 80),
  13. Ranaghat West (assembly constituency no. 81),
  14. Chakdaha (assembly constituency no. 82) and
  15. Haringhata (assembly constituency no. 83).

Krishnaganj, Hanskhali and Ranaghat East constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Along with six assembly constituencies from Murshidabad district, Karimpur assembly constituency forms the Murshidabad (Lok Sabha constituency). Palashipara, Nakashipara, Kaliganj, Chapra, Krishnaganj, Krishnanagar East and Krishnanagar West constituencies form the Krishnagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Nabadwip, Shantipur, Hanskhali, Ranaghat East, Ranaghat West, Chakdaha and Haringhata assembly constituencies form the Nabadwip (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates.

Two Wheeler Market[edit]

Impact of delimitation of constituencies[edit]

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 17 assembly constituencies:[11]

  1. Karimpur (assembly constituency no. 77),
  2. Tehatta (assembly constituency no. 78),
  3. Palashipara (assembly constituency no. 79),
  4. Kaliganj (assembly constituency no. 80),
  5. Nakshipara (assembly constituency no. 81),
  6. Chapra (assembly constituency no. 82),
  7. Krishnanagar Uttar (assembly constituency no. 83),
  8. Nabadwip (assembly constituency no. 84),
  9. Krishnanagar Dakshin (assembly constituency no. 85),
  10. Santipur (assembly constituency no. 86),
  11. Ranaghat Uttar Paschim (assembly constituency no. 87),
  12. Krishnaganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 88),
  13. Ranaghat Uttar Purba (SC) (assembly constituency no. 89),
  14. Ranaghat Dakshin (SC) (assembly constituency no. 90),
  15. Chakdaha (assembly constituency no. 91),
  16. Kalyani (SC) (assembly constituency no. 92) and
  17. Haringhata (SC) (assembly constituency no. 93).

Krishnaganj, Ranaghat North East, Ranaghat South, Kalyani and Haringhata constituencies will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Along with six assembly constituencies from Murshidabad district, Karimpur assembly constituency will form the Murshidabad (Lok Sabha constituency). Tehatta, Palashipara, Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar North and Nabadwip constituencies form the Krishnanagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Krishnanagar South, Shantipur, Ranaghat North West, Krishnaganj, Ranaghat North East, Ranaghat South and Chakdaha assembly constituencies will form the Ranaghat (Lok Sabha constituency), which will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Kalyani and Haringhata, along with five assembly segments from North 24 Parganas district, will form the Bangaon (Lok Sabha constituency), which will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Nabadwip Dham is 65 km from Bandel, 105 km from Howrah and 112 km from Sealdah on the Bandel-Katwa-Azimganj (B.A.K Loop Line) section of Eastern Railway.[12] It has three Railway Stations as Nabadwip Dham (NDAE), Bishnupriya (VSPR) of Howrah Division and Nabadwip Ghat (NDF) of Sealdah Division. It has very good railway communication with North Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Kolkata. Important express trains which has stoppage at Nabadwip Dham are
15643 UP/15644 DN Puri-Kamakhya Express
15959 UP/15960 DN Howrah-Tinsukia-Dibrugarh Kamrup Express
13141 UP/13142 DN Sealdah-New Alipurduar/Haldibari Teesta Torsha Express
13164 UP/13165 DN Sealdah-Barauni-Katihar-Saharsha Hatey Bazare Express
13145 UP/13146 DN Sealdah-Radhikapur Radhikapur Express
13011 UP/13012 DN Howrah Maldah Intercity Express
13421 UP/13422 DN Nabadwip Dham- New Frakka Express
15721 UP/15722 DN New Jalpaiguri-Digha Paharia Express
12517 UP/12518 DN Kolkata Guwahati Garib Rath Express.

Krishnanagar City Junction is 100 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah-Lalgola Section of Eastern Railway. It has very good railway communication with Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and Kolkata. Important express trains which has stoppage at Krishnanagar City Junction are
Bhagirathi Express
Hazar Duari Express
Dhano Dhanno Express.

Ranaghat Junction is 74 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah-Lalgola Section of Eastern Railway. It has very good railway communication with Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and Kolkata. Important express trains which has stoppage at Ranaghat Junction are
Bhagirathi Express
Hazar Duari Express
Dhano Dhanno Express.

Santipur Junction is well connected by rail by EMU services running from Sealdah North section.

Bethuadahari Bethuadahari Railway Station is an important Railway Station in Nadia District.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Nadia district has a population of 5,168,488,[13] roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates[14] or the US state of Colorado.[15] This gives it a ranking of 18th in India (out of a total of 640).[13] The district has a population density of 1,316 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,410/sq mi) .[13] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.24%.[13] Nadia has a sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males,[13] and a literacy rate of 75.58%.[13]

Schools[edit]

List of schools in Nadia

Colleges[edit]

List of Colleges in Nadia

Educational Hubs[edit]

Adobe Learners :Situated in Krishnagar, Working since 2013. It's an Unit to provide education to the underprivileged students.

Culture[edit]

(AN INDIAN MUSIC CULTURE UNIT :- CHAITALI MUSIC COLLEGE OF BETHUADAHARI.)

Flora and fauna[edit]

In 1980 Nadia district became home to the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 0.7 km2 (0.3 sq mi).[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Registrar General, India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Official district website
  3. ^ Tourist Department
  4. ^ Cotton, H.E.A., Calcutta Old and New, 1909/1980, p1, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  5. ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)
  6. ^ Cities and villages in Nadia District.
  7. ^ a b "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  8. ^ "District Profile". Official website of the Nadia district. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  9. ^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 12 November 2008. [dead link]
  10. ^ "General election to the Legislative Assembly, 2001 – List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies". West Bengal. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  11. ^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission". Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  12. ^ Eastern Railway time table.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  14. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. United Arab Emirates 5,148,664 
  15. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Colorado 5,029,196 
  16. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal". Retrieved 25 September 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 23°24′N 88°30′E / 23.4°N 88.5°E / 23.4; 88.5