Angerer was born in Lohr am Main. Her career began with ASV Hofstetten, where she played as a forward. When she substituted for the injured goalkeeper during a youth scouting game, she was discovered as a goalkeeping talent. In 1995, she moved to 1. FC Nürnberg and one year later to FC Wacker München. While at Wacker, she was given the opportunity to play for an American college soccer team, but declined.
After seven years at Potsdam, Angerer left Germany in 2008 to play at Djurgårdens IF Dam in Sweden, replacing Bente Nordby. She returned to Germany after only one season to join 1. FFC Frankfurt. She won the German Cup for a fourth time with Frankfurt in 2011. Following Birgit Prinz's retirement she was appointed Frankfurt's new captain.
On January 13, 2014, Portland Thorns FC announced Angerer's acquisition to play for Portland for the National Women's Soccer League 2014 Season, replacing Karina LeBlanc who was traded to the Chicago Red Stars. She made her debut for Portland with a shutout against the Houston Dash on April 12 and went on to start 22 games for the Thorns, adding another three saves while compiling 74 saves (both ranking fourth in the league). After the season, Nadine was loaned to the Brisbane Roar with plans to return to Portland for the start of the 2015 season.
When Rottenberg suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury, Angerer was picked as the starting goalkeeper for the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. During the entire tournament she did not concede a single goal, setting the record for most consecutive minutes played without conceding a goal in World Cup play to 540 minutes. This included blocking a penalty kick by Marta in the final against Brazil. She was named the best goalkeeper of the tournament.