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According to the Hanafi and some other schools Nafilah salah (Arabic: صلاة نفل) is a type of optional salah(formal worship) in Islam. Like Sunnah salat, they are not considered obligatory but are thought to confer extra benefit on the person performing them. For example, offering Duha prayers. Praying Nafl not only draws one to Allah, but can also draw him closer to Prophet Muhammad, according to the following Hadith:
"Rabi'ah ibn Malik al-Aslami reported that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ask (anything)." Rabi'ah said: "I ask of you to be your companion in paradise." The Prophet said: "Or anything else?" Rabi'ah said: "That is it." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said to him: "Then help me by making many prostrations (i.e., supererogatory prayers)."" (Muslim)- Sahih
Praying 12 Rakat Nafl each day be a great benefit for the afterlife as reported in the following Ahadith: “Allah will build house in Jannah for whoever is diligent in obsering 12 sunnah rakat (as follows) 4 rakat before and 2 after Dhur, 2 after the Maghrib, 2 after Ishaa, and 2 before Fajr.” [Tirmidhi] (Sahih)
Tahiyatul Wudu 
TAHIYATUL WUDHU (Nafl prayer after doing Wudu)
Abu Hurairah narrates that once Nabi asked Bilal at Fajr Salat:
Tell me that deed of yours which is most hopeful (for reward) after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise (in my dream).
I have not done anything extroadinary except that
whenever I perform Wudu during the day or night, I Salat (Tahiyatul-Wudu) after that, as much as was written or granted for me.(Bukhari)
Abu Huraira narrated that Prophet Muhammad said to Bilal “Tell me about the most hopeful act (i.e one which you deem the most rewarding with Allah) you have done since your acceptance of Islam because I heard the sound of the steps of your shoes in front of me in paradise.” Bilal said : “I do not consider any act more hopeful than that whenever I make ablution (wudoo) at any time of night or day, I offer salah (prayer) for as long as was destined for me to offer.” Narrated by Al-bukhari and Muslim.
After completion of the wudhu of two Rakaats is full of blessings (sawaab).
It is related in the Hadith that performance of the two Rakaats of Tahiyatul wudhu Namaaz makes paradise obligatory (wajib) for the performer (ref:Muslim Sharif) There are also many other benefits.
It should not be performed during the Improper (makruh) times.
(When the sun rises, when it is at Zenith and when it sets.)
Ishraq prayer 
The time for the Ishraq prayer begins ten to twenty minutes after sunrise and consists of two Raka'ahs. Praying ishraq is considered to yield greater rewards than performing the lesser Umrah according to some traditions.“According to majority of scholars of Hadith and Fiqh, Duha Prayer and Al-Ishraq Prayer are all names of the same salah (ritual Prayer). It is a recommended Prayer without any fixed number of raka'ahs, and its time proper starts a little after sun rise (approximately fifteen minutes after sunrise) and extends up to the time of the declining of the sun from the meridian.
A minority of scholars[who?], however, have made a distinction between Al-Ishraq Prayer and Duha Prayer. According to them, Al-Ishraq Prayer is done after sun rise (around fifteen minutes after) while Duha Prayer is done much later.
Imam Ibn Al-Qayyim has cited the various views about the importance of this prayer. Some say[who?] that one should not exaggerate its importance, and therefore do it only sparingly and not consistently, while others[who?] insist that it should be performed consistently.
Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said, 'He who performs Fajr Salat with Jamaat and remains seated in the same place while engaging in Dhikr until after sunrise and thereafter performs 2 Rakaats Nafil Salat, (Ishraq), he will obtain the thawaab of one Hajj and one Umrah.' (Tirmidhi). In another hadith,Prophet Muhammad also is reported to have said that Allah says, 'O son of Aadam, perform 4 Rakaats of Salat (Ishraq) in the early part of the day. It shall help you in accomplishing all your responsibilities during the rest of the day' (Mishkat)(Mishkat is Hasan-chain).
As for the precise intention to be formulated while praying Duha Prayer or Al-Ishraq Prayer, or others, there is no hard and fast rule to follow. Since it is an optional Prayer, it is enough to say in one’s mind that one is praying nafl or sunnah of Duha or Ishraq. One may perform any number of raka`ahs from a minimum of two raka`ahs up to preferably eight raka`ahs.
Duha prayer 
Duha prayer begins after sunrise and ends at meridian, and is generally thought to include at least two raka'ahs, though in some traditions the number is four or even twelve. It is generally prayed when one-fourth of the day has passed. According to the Sunni thought, performing this prayer is believed to be effective in seeking forgiveness for one's sins.
The supererogatory morning prayer has been narrated from the Prophet, through paths that have reached mass-narration levels - from 19 to over 30 Companions - according to Imam al-Tabari, al-`Ayni in `Umdat al-Qari, al-Haytami, al-Munawi, and al-Qari in Sharh al-Shama'il, Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari, al-Kattani in Nazm al-Mutanathir, and as per the monographs compiled by al-Hakim and al-Suyuti as well as the recensions of Abu Zur`a al-`Iraqi in Tarh al-Tathrib, Ibn al-Qayyim in Zad al-Ma`ad, and al-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar. According to the vast majority of the Ulema of the Salaf and Khalaf it is a desirable and recommended prayer.
Four Rak'aah Sunnah of Zuhr
Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that Whoever performs the four rakaats before and after the Zuhr salat with constancy, Allah Ta'ala makes the fire of Hell haram (forbidden) for him. [Mishkat,(Hasan-Chain) p. 104; Tirmizi, Abu Da'ud, Nisai, Ibn Majah]
Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that after the worshipper prays the four rakaats of Zuhr salat, the doors of heaven are opened, i.e. the salat becomes accepted by Allah, and the cause of its acceptance comes down on the worshipper as rays of mercy. [Mishkat, p. 104]
4 Rak'aah Sunnah of Asr Prophet Muhammad said: "May Allah (swt) have Mercy on the one who offers four (rak'ahs) before 'Asr prayer." (Abu Dawud)
Tahiyyatul Masjid (Nafl prayer when entering Masjid)
Abu Qatada narrated that Prophet Muhammad said : “If any one of you enters a mosque, he should pray two raka’ats before sitting.”
Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. (Sahih)
This is a 2 Rak'aah Nafl prayer which one should perform as
one enters the Masjid and on proper times.
The supererogatory morning prayer has many names. Among them:
- Salat al-Duha or Sibhat al-Duha - Sibha meaning a supererogatory prayer in general and Duha meaning morning, mid-morning, or late morning. This is the name that reoccurs the most in the narrations. It is the late morning prayer when the sun is very hot. The reason for this name is that one leaves dunya at that time to return to Allah Most High and makes up for the Night prayer that he missed. Hence Salat al-Duha is even more stressed for those who miss tahajjud and is its replacement.
- Salat al-Awwabin - is the "prayer of the Oft-Returning" as specified by Prophet Muhammad and is offered between Maghrib prayer and Isha prayer.
- Salat al-Ishraq - is the "sunrise prayer" or the prayer performed very shortly after sunrise.
- Salat al-Fath - is the "victory prayer" as it was established that the Prophet prayed it the morning he entered Makka (in al-Bukhari and Muslim) and this has become the Sunna of military leaders upon entering a newly-conquered region.
The word "Khawf" means fear. Khawf is a type of prayer that is prayed during time of fear. This prayer was performed by Prophet Muhammad in the Battle of Uhud. It is considered to be a substitute for normal prayers while on a battlefield.
See also 
- Mohammad, Mamdouh N. (2003). Salat: The Islamic Prayer from A to Z. Dr Mahmdouh N Mohammad. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-9652877-4-6.
- Targhib p. 427. vol. I ref. Abu Yate ba Isnad-e-Sahib
- Al-Sunan al-Sughra #1,659
- Sahih Muslim #1,175
- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal #23,317
- Sunan Ibn Majah #1,371
- Mishkaat pg.116
- Sunan al-Tirmidhi #438
- Kanz al-Ummal #23437, 23461
- Ibn al-Qayyim, Zad al-Ma`ad (1:356)
- Itr, I`lam al-Anam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram, p. 628
- Abu’l-Hasan Ahmad al-Quduri, "Mukhtasar al-Quduri"