Naheed Nenshi

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His Worship
Naheed Nenshi
Naheed Nenshi cropped.jpg
36th Mayor of Calgary
Incumbent
Assumed office
October 25, 2010
Preceded by Dave Bronconnier
Personal details
Born Naheed Kurban Nenshi
(1972-02-02) February 2, 1972 (age 42)
Toronto, Ontario[1]
Alma mater University of Calgary
Harvard University
Profession Associate professor
Religion Islam

Naheed Kurban Nenshi (born February 2, 1972) is a Canadian politician who is the 36th and current mayor of Calgary, Alberta. He was elected in the 2010 municipal election, becoming the first Muslim mayor of a major North American city. He was re-elected in 2013.[2]

Personal life[edit]

Nenshi was born in Toronto, Ontario, and raised in Calgary.[1] His parents, Noorjah and Kurban, were South-Asian-origin immigrants to Canada from Tanzania, and he has a sister.[3]

Nenshi donated 10% of his 2012 salary, amounting to Cdn$20,000 to a Calgary charity in response to a 6% pay raise approved for city councillors.[4]

Awards[edit]

Nenshi and two other Canadians delegates won a Young Leader award by the World Economic Forum in 2011 for his innovative ideas of urban planning.[5]

Nenshi was awarded the President's Award of the Canadian Institute of Planners in 2012, for implementing progressive ideas such as transparency.[6]

Nenshi was ranked second most important person in Canada next to Prime Minister Stephen Harper by Maclean's magazine 50 top Canadians list for 2013.[7]

Education and career before politics[edit]

He was educated at the University of Calgary, receiving a Bachelor of Commerce in 1993, and completed a Master of Public Policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1998.[3] Nenshi worked for McKinsey & Company for several years before starting his own consulting firm 'Ascend Group' which advised non-profit, private and public sector organizations to grow.[8] The firm also advised the United Nations on ways to encourage wealthy corporations to engage in Corporate Citizenship.[9] As a young professional, he developed his administrative capabilities by joining Canada25, a federal networking organization that mentored professionals under 35 of public policy and leadership.[10] Nenshi was a constant debate opponent of Toronto Sun journalist Ezra Levant, and they continue this relationship as Levant is a recurring critic of Nenshi's policies.[11]

In 2002, Nenshi wrote about how cities can retain young professionals and utilize resources as area effectively in a publication entitled "Building up Making Canada's cities engines of growth and magnets of development"[12][13][14] In 2006, Nenshi was the chief author for 'ImagineCalgary's 100 year plan'.

He has co-founded two citizens' groups aimed at improving Calgary's civic government. In 2009, Nenshi was invited to become a founding member of Civic Camp, an active citizenship forum that encourages and enables Calgarians to actively engage and collaborate ideas in civic affairs.[15][16] He co-founded city hall watch dog group 'Better Calgary Campaign'.[17]

He was an instructor in non-profit management in the Bissett School of Business at Mount Royal University and wrote a regular municipal affairs column for the Calgary Herald.[1]

Electoral record[edit]

Nenshi giving a campaign speech in July 2010
Nenshi speaking to supporters and media shortly after being projected to win

2010 mayoral election[edit]

Nenshi first ventured into politics in 2004, running unsuccessfully for a seat on Calgary's city council.[1] His 2010 campaign for mayor was dubbed the "Purple Revolution"[18] was uniquely a viral campaign which relied heavily on using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to promote his platform and hyper-engage voters.[19] The "Purple Revolution" was so chosen according to Nenshi I.T. campaign specialist Richard Einarson, was for a broad appeal across the socio-economic spectrum of liberal red and conservative blue voters.[20]

Beside viral campaigning, the volunteer body of 'Team Nenshi' were given a great degree of autonomy to exercise creative talent.The team promoted the cause through creative Guerrilla Marketing tactics such as 'Operation Purple Dawn'. Nenshi's supporters converged on the city in a mass rally on the evening before election day. They advertised Nenshi by posting signs and writing platform slogans with chalk graffiti on pavement of high traffic locations.[21] Supporters offered their homes as venues for coffee parties where Nenshi spoke to the gathered about his platform. The coffee parties offered a friendly atmosphere for friends to discuss the volatile nature of sensitive political issues without risking their relationships. Approximately 40 parties were held during the campaign.[22]

A late September poll showed that his campaign was generating interest as he sat third with eight per cent support, although well behind the leaders, alderman Ric McIver (42%) and local media personality Barb Higgins (28%).[23] His growing popularity led to greater scrutiny of his views, including a public dispute with Calgary Police Service chief Rick Hanson over the cost of policing the city.[24]

Days before the election, a Calgary Herald poll showed that Nenshi's grassroots campaign continued to gain momentum as he had 30 per cent support among decided voters, placing him in a statistical tie with McIver and Higgins. He polled the strongest amongst younger voters, believed to be the result of his social media campaign.[25] Nenshi's surge in popularity carried through to the election, when he earned 40 per cent of the vote, finishing nearly 28,000 votes ahead of second-placed McIver.[26]

Being a Shia Ismaili,[19] Nenshi became the first Muslim to become mayor of a major Canadian city.[27][dead link] His win was viewed as a breakthrough for the use of social media as an election tool,[16] and when considered with his faith and background, made international headlines.[28] His election is seen as major signal of the shift in Albertan politics and the demographic of Calgary.[29] He engaged voters with a mutual two-way dialogue as "politics in full sentences."[30]

Vandalism and email attacks[edit]

According to Nenshi's Chief of Staff, Chima Nkendirim, Nenshi's headquarters was vandalized on September 11, 2010, the anniversary of the World Trade Center bombings and Eid al-Fitr the end of Ramadan. Nenshi also received racist emails.[31] Nenshi however believed the vandalism to be an isolated non-racially motivated act.

Results of the 2010 mayoral election[edit]

Mayor[32]
Candidate Votes  %
Naheed K. Nenshi 140,263 39.6
Ric McIver 112,386 31.7
Barb Higgins 91,359 25.8
Joe Connelly 2,484 0.7
Bob Hawkesworth* 1,513 0.4
Jon Lord 1,461 0.4
Wayne Stewart* 1,360 0.4
Craig Burrows* 994 0.3
Barry Erskine 672 0.2
Bonnie Devine 329 0.1
Amanda Liu 336 0.1
Sandra Hunter 284 0.1
Dan Knight 262 0.1
Oscar Fech 207 0.1
Gary F. Johnston 180 0.1

2013 mayoral election[edit]

Mayor[32]
Candidate Votes  %
Naheed K. Nenshi 193,393 73.6
Jon Lord 56,226
Sandra Hunter 4,181
Carter Thomson 3,157
Larry R. Heather 1,857
Bruce Jackman 1,397
Norm Perrault 1,117
Jonathan Joseph Sunstrum 775
Milan Papez 492

2013 mayoral campaign[edit]

During this fundraising Gala, Nenshi issued a challenge to his opponents to confront him directly and not to engage him in a proxy campaign of lobbying as he warns his supporters that his opponents will likely engage in.[34]

In September 2013 when Nenshi's campaign began in earnest, he revealed the donors of his campaign before the election and urged his opponents to do likewise. Nenshi promised to instigate changes to improve transparency of City Hall's municipal affairs as one of his 2010 campaign statements.[35] According to the documents Nenshi's 1631 supporters derive from a wide range of core supporters. Among Nenshi's larger contributors were contractors from the housing construction industry. According to Nenshi indicating that not all among the trade were antagonistic to Nenshi's anti-urban sprawl policies enacted early in his term.[36]

Abolition of developer subsidy[edit]

For his campaign platform Nenshi proposed to abolish the $4,800 granted to home builders, aiming to save the city $33 million per annum. According to Nenshi, the subsidy over a decade contributed to the municipal debt of $1.5 billion.[37] Nenshi wants the free market factors to take hold of the housing market and developers to contribute to funding infrastructure to far reaching suburbs by paying levies. The Manning Centre for Building Democracy supports the motion for the principle of capitalist free market values. The group however believes developers should pay slightly increased taxes as long as inner city communities equally also contribute their share of growth costs[38]

International Avenue business redevelopment zone[edit]

In October 2013, Nenshi and Counselors Andre Chabot and Gian-Carlo Carra proposed to realize a 2008 plan by then-Mayor Dave Bronconnier to redevelop the International Avenue (17th Ave SE) as a vital transportation hub. Since inception the plan in 2010 the project has been delayed due to costs[39][40] The plan incorporates a C-train line and rapid bus lanes, proposed in Calgary Transit's 'Route Ahead' plan. As well the revitalization incorporates urban renewal projects like renovated apartments and business buildings. Carra studied the circumstances for Forest Lawn's urban decay and planned the neighborhood's restoration as his master thesis. Carra explains that the neighborhood has not been adequately integrated since the neighborhood was incorporated into Calgary since 1961.[41]

Mayoralty[edit]

Positions[edit]

In 2013, Nenshi supported the proposed Keystone XL pipeline network. He explained that opposition and protests were foolish as the pipe network could mitigate environmental damage caused from the transport of oil.[42]

In 2014, Nenshi refused to present musician Neil Young with a white hat. Nenshi stated that he didn't normally present honours to entertainers.[43] Young was performing his 'Honour the Treaties' benefit tour to raise legal funds on behalf of the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation. The ACFN is appealing government approval to expand fracking on their territory.[44]

In 2014 Nenshi delivered a speech to the Calgary Economic Development which held a series of lectures about diversity. Nenshi explained that there was a lack of ethnic and gender diversity among senior city staff. Nenshi stated that although the city had an excellent record hiring minorities and women they may experience a ceiling to promotions and advancement.[45]

Relationship with housing industry[edit]

Nenshi's policies of exercising greater city control over urban grown to manage urban sprawl is one of Nenshi's key campaign promises. It is definitive key pillar issue of Nenshi's political philosophy. As expected Nenshi's council has regularly collided with key associations of Calgary's housing industry. Frictions between the Nenshi council and key housing industry associations are an ongoing, overlapping, and escalating affair. Grievances continuously surfaced during the 2013 election, for example the 'Cal Wenzel video', rumour-mongering about a pro-development slated council, and upcoming Wenzel slander lawsuit of 2014.[46][47][48]

Early in 2013, Nenshi's council suspended relations with the Calgary branch of the Canadian Home Builders' Association. The CHBA as a result was banned briefly from attending planning sessions. This action was conducted after, the Calgary branch president Charron Ungar commented that the city was enacting a policy of "suburban freeze".Ungar commented upon a city plan which scheduled two suburb developments within 10 years.[49]

Nenshi declared that the CHBA and the Urban Development Institute (UDI) were representing the housing industry poorly after a controversial article was published by the UDI. The article suggested that diverse demographic elements within a community might necessarily find suburban living comfortable.[50][51] Nenshi suspended relations with the UDI soon after the article was published. Nenshi also felt that it was more expedient for the city to deal directly with the construction industry.[52]

Cal Wenzel housing lobby video[edit]

In 2013, a video was leaked of Cal Wenzel the CEO and founder of Shane Homes speaking to panel of Calgarian home builders about a plan to influence the decisions of the city council after the upcoming elections. In the video Wenzel spoke of plans to raise $1.1 million to enlist the support of Preston Manning's conservative foundation the Manning Centre for Building Democracy. According to the speech, former Mayor Dave Bronconnier counselled Wenzel on how to control council motions with eight votes. “So for whatever and however, we have to ensure that we end up with the eight votes.” Wenzel proposed as a solution to circumvent direct confrontation with Nenshi's popularity.[53] Wenzel named councillors the industry could rely on to support motions in favor of the lobby and he supported with donations.[54][55] Nenshi has ordered a probe into what he described as distasteful and shadowy possible violations of electoral laws. In the wake of the release of this video,[56] and violations of campaign fund limits set at $5,000,[57] the Manning Centre has come under scrutiny.[56]

In late 2013, Wenzel filed a $6 million slander lawsuit against Nenshi after he stated that Nenshi did not apologize after sufficient time given. Wenzel stated that his reputation was tarnished and he was vilified as a subject of political opportunism during Nenshi and his allied counselor's platform campaigning.[58] Wenzel stated that his comments in the video were taken out of context and manipulated by Nenshi to promote an agenda. Wenzel also complained of Nenshi tentatively comparing him to 'Godfather', as a reference to the titular character of Mario Puzo's novel and screenplay The Godfather. Nenshi in an interview with David Gary, host of CBC Radio's Calgary Eyeopener',' described the meeting as scene from the film The Godfather. When asked to clarify if called Wenzel the 'Godfather', Nenshi ambiguously responded 'maybe'.[59]

Pro-development candidate slate[edit]

Preston Manning, founder of the Manning Centre for Building Democracy, responded in an interview with CBC News about the foundation being referred to in the Cal Wenzel lobbist video. He stated that Calgarians don't want lobby slates of any position in municipal politics. That voters wanted independent candidates who will represent them. Manning explained that the purpose of the 'municipal government program' is to train fiscal conservative candidates for the election, but to respect the democratic process and not to interfere with city politics. Manning stated that he didn't believe in intimidation.[60] Manning also states that the foundation is also to function as a research think tank that conducts research in social issues.

However according to a paper entitled "Managing the Cost of Growth" published by the Manning Centre in October 2013 the report's recommendations coincided with Nenshi's campaign policy to abolish the subsidy to home building companies As long as inner city communities are likewise subjected to contributing to growth costs. The study also advocated increased taxes for newer outlying communities that need specialized utilities such as water and roads.[61]

Calgary-Tsuu T'ina Nation relationships[edit]

Throughout his term Nenshi has met extensively with Chief Roy Whitney leader of neighbouring Tsuu T'ina Nation, and former Chief Sandford Big Plume to discuss matters of mutual assistance with growth.[62] In 2011, the Nenshi and Big Plume has negotiated tentative agreements to ensure the security of greater access safety services such as emergency medical services, police, and fire.[63]

The city agreed to provide utilities such as water to support the expansion of the Grey Eagle Casino to possibly serve as water works extension throughout the Tsuu T'ina community in the future.[64][65]

Comparison to Rob Ford[edit]

The press has made many comparisons dubbed as 'Nenshi vs Ford' comparing the Mayors Naheed Nenshi of Calgary and Rob Ford of Toronto.,[66] because of the similarities of both mayors being first term and the uncanny similar circumstantial challenges Toronto and Calgary faced[citation needed]. The most recent comparison being a flood during the summer of 2013. Nenshi became the first Calgarian mayor to marshal the Calgary Pride parade. Ford declined to marshal the Toronto Pride Parade citing that visiting his family cottage was an unbreakable tradition.[67] They compare the stellar rise of Nenshi to the controversies surrounding Ford[68][69][70][71]

Although the comparisons are allegorical examples of the differences of the administration, there was an actual 'Nenshi vs Ford' challenge issued by Nenshi. Nenshi challenged Ford to a friendly bet during the 2012 Grey Cup where the Calgary Stampeders played the Toronto Argonauts.[72] In 2012 Ford challenged Nenshi among other mayors to a fitness weight loss challenge.[73][74]

Public works and infrastructure projects[edit]

Soon after assuming the office, Nenshi's council implemented many developments to revitalize Calgary's viability with capital infrastructure projects, such as redevelopment of the East Village neighbourhood with a new central library and the National Music Centre. Through a partnership with the local arts community, the city will preserve the historic King Edward School as an arts hub.[75][76][77][78][79] Funding for these projects will mainly draw upon the Community Investment Fund, a fund created from tax revenue sources such as a 42M annual refund from the provincial government[80]

The goals of urban revitalization are realized through projects such as 'Supporting Partnership for Urban Reinvestment' (SPUR) initiative. Nenshi's council debuted SPUR's pilot project as the restoration of the Kingsland neighborhood. The city solicited feedback from the community and will expect to budget $230,000.[81] However, the project was delayed until August by the floods of 2013.

The Nenshi administration completed capital public works projects approved by his predecessor Dave Bronconnier, including the westerly extension of the C-Train line, Peace Bridge, and the construction of a traffic tunnel to the Calgary International Airport commenced.

Nenshi's council voted to discontinue fluoridating Calgary's water supply.[82]

As part of his campaign, Nenshi advocates to legalize "secondary housing" as a solution to housing shortage. The proposed bylaw is intended to safety-standardize the estimated 10,000–40,000 secondary suites.[83] As one of the last decisions of Nenshi's term in 2013, the city motioned to waive the $4,485 application fee for secondary suites. However, the decision will have to be enacted during the next government to enact.[84]

In 2013 the city approved a project to convert a block of derelict heritage buildings adjacent to the Central United Church into a first-of-its-kind robotic carpark.[85] The facility will accommodate 338 cars and incorporate the renovated buildings, which the managing firm agrees to restore.[85] Nenshi states this will improve the aesthetics of the eyesore skid-row like buildings. The project is self-funding as Calgary firm 'Heritage Property Corporation', will attempt to raise the $40 million through private investment.[86]

Nenshi ordered an investigation to find cost-effective solutions for a sanitary capacity issues affecting residents of northwest Calgary. If the $50 million expansion of the at-capacity Bowness sanitary line is not implemented, development in new and established communities in the quadrant may be delayed until 2017. The sanitary line also provides the town of Cochrane contributing to the strain.[87]

Nenshi shared many Calgarians' distaste of the free-standing public art project entitled the "Travelling Light" completed in 2013. He described the work as "awful and not the best use of tax dollars". The sculpture was sited along Airport Trail and drivers could not appreciate the "Big O" according to Nenshi. Travelling Light is described as a balanced 17-metre circle ring topped with balanced street lights. As the motif of Travelling Light is to represent transportation.[88] Travelling Light cost Calgary $471,000 and was paid through a grant from the Public Art Program which reserves 1% of annual budget for public art projects.[89] The sculpture was chosen during Bronconnier's term by a panel of 5 Calgarians out of a pool of 55 submissions. Travelling Light's submission was German, although three submissions were from Calgarians.

City consultation with environmental research group[edit]

Mounting international, domestic, and celebrity criticism[90][91][92] of Alberta's underdeveloped Green technology infrastructure prompted former Premier Ed Stelmach's government to commit $4 billion to a province-wide green capital projects plan in 2009.[93]

In 2009 former Calgary Mayor Dave Bronconnier and Pembina Institute were awarded the 'Reaching Out to Global Energy Award' at theUN Climate Change Summit for the technical and engineering collaboration with Calgary's 'Greening the Grid' program.[94] city consulted with Pembina for technical advice.[95] Pembina scholars compiled the 'Options for Reducing GHG Emissions in Calgary'[96] to advise the city on how to implement infrastructure projects for environmental protection. The city acted on these recommendations through city owned company Enmax decided on a series of public works facilities such as the 'Shepard Energy Centere, and a 12-turbine wind farm that supplies wind power for Calgary Transit's C-trains, and the District Energy Centre, a heat capture energy plant providing heat and energy for the downtown core.[97] The city publication of the 'Greening the Grid' was entitled 'Calgary Climate Change Action Plan: Target (down arrow) 50' (Target Minus 50)[98]

The 'Greening the Grid' program's objectives are to empower city facilities by renewable sources by 2012. Calgary Transit's C-trains' electrical needs were partially provided by wind power in 2001, by 2009 the inception year of 'Greening the Grid', the C-train were fully empowered by 'Ride the Wind' a program launched by Enmax and wind power engineers 'Vision Quest Windlectric.[99] committed $250 million on the 'Greening the grid' program.[100]

In 2013, Sun Media journalist Ezra Levant accused Nenshi of contracting $340,000 to Pembina which he accused of being an anti-oil lobby group, despite the organization's role as the city's environmental engineering advisor since 2007, and as consultants for oil companies.[101][102] The primary source of the $340,000, however, were contracts given to Pembina during Bronconnier council's initial inquiries in 2007.

Sun Media journalist Renato Gandia described the environmental engineers as 'left winged whigs', and questioned the ethics of tax payers funds given to a politically active group.[103] Because of the organization's professional working with the city in the past Nenshi defended the environmental scholars as being the "best guy in the business" regardless of personal political values.

Derek Fildebrandt of the Canadian Taxpayers Federation called for the city to enact an ethics by-law forbidding public advocacy groups from receiving city funds.[104] The federation conducted an investigation under the regulations allowed by the Freedom of Information and Privacy Act. The findings revealed that Pembina advocated environmental reform, as such is the mandate of the research group. The group advised the city on the 'Greening the Grid' program. The Federation, on its blog, released its accounting findings of Pembina and the city within a span of three years as reported by the press. Most of the transactions between the city of Calgary and Pembina however occurred during 2008-2010, before Nenshi assumed office in November 2010.[105][106][107][108][109] According to the federation's findings, $210,694 funded early Pembina research during the Bronconnier's term as Nenshi's term $130,306 was funded to finish a 100-page document compiled by Pembina.

The affair concluded with a Twitter argument between Levant and Nenshi went viral after Nenshi responded to Levant's questioning. Levant questioned Nenshi about the ethics of city funds going to Pembina as a conflict of interest, especially regarding potential anti-oil sands lobbyists among Pembina's staff according to Levant. Both debaters engaged in an argument of sarcastic remarks that degraded into ad hominem attacks. Nenshi asked Levant rhetorically 'when did you stop beating your wife?'[110] Nenshi apologized for his remark.

Enmax[edit]

Nenshi ordered a corruption graft probe into the finances of city-owned utility company Enmax after an unknown senior employee revealed lavish spending by former Enmax CEO Gary Holden in 2010 in an email report. Holden was reported to have organized extravagant house celebrations entertained by rock stars, using Calgarian taxpayers' funds. Holden also gradually raised his salary from $700,000 to $2.7 million[111] Holden resigned in 2011 after CBC News revealed a business trip to Monaco in 2008. Holden was a guest of German software company SAP and conducted business and watched the Monaco Grand Prix. Holden violated Enmax ethics policy to discuss with the company incidents of gifts over $100.[112] Holden earned the 5th place distinction of Forbes top 10 CEO screw ups for 2010.[113] By the terms of contract Holden was granted a significant severance pay of $4.6 million.[114]

Prior to the 2010 election, mayoral candidates McIver and Nenshi debated the justification for extravagant privileges of senior Enmax staff in their debates. Candidate Nenshi warned that Enmax was a city-run company and funds were taxpayers'. McIver described Enmax as a 'Air of Entitlement'[115] In 2011, in the wake of Holden's resignation, Nenshi's council and Enmax's board implemented reforms such as decreasing the salaries of senior staff, and a higher meritorious standard for bonuses. Enmax hired new management and a new CEO Gianna Manes, who is experienced in mass project completion such as the Shepard Energy Centre which Holden advocated for.[116][117]

In 2011, Nenshi performed the ground breaking ceremony for Enmax's Shepard Energy Centre, a natural gas power plant capable of generating 800MW, more than half the electrical needs of Calgary. The facility is scheduled to come on line in 2015. The facility is described as Calgary's biggest project and will cost $1.3 billion. Nenshi's council approved of the project which was planned during Bronconnier's term.[118] The Shepard Energy Centre is connected to the Albertan power grid.[119]

Public works of second term[edit]

Nenshi's council granted $5.5 million to build the 200-seat "Decidedly Jazz Danceworks Dance Centre" in the Belt Line neighbourhood. The new facility will address the expansion requirements of the Decidedly Jazz dance academy. The council decided that the facility would address the need to provide a permanent venue for the distinguished academy that served Calgary for many years.[120] According to Nenshi, the facility will also help to fill the need in Calgary for more performing arts venues. Nenshi also hopes that this development would help stimulate development in the Beltline.

Transportation[edit]

The city constructed its first of many bicycle lanes in the downtown core. By 2020, it is estimated that the city will have 30 km of cycle lanes. In 2014, a plan will be submitted to begin to extend the network and enact a bylaw.[121]

In late 2013, the city has entered into speculative agreement with the Tsuu T'ina to resume negotiating the extension of Stoney Trail through a portion of Tsuu T'ina land for a ring road. The band members will vote in a referendum in October to decide on the issue. The city was in negotiations for over 50 years, with the last proposal in 2009 being rejected. Nenshi described the proposal as 'win-win-win', however, should the band decide to ratify the agreement, construction won't commence for two years.[122] On October 24, 2013 Tsuu T'ina tribe members voted in a referendum to permit the construction of the ring road on their territory. In exchange for 450 hectares of land, the nation will be compensated with 2,150 hectares of Crown land to expand their territories. The nation will also receive $340 million.[123]

Calgary Transit[edit]

Calgary Transit presented Nenshi's administration with the 'RouteAhead' plan for review.[124] The plan calls for $13 billion to be invested over 30 years to expand and upgrade Calgary Transit's capabilities, for which funding is still pending. To address the problem of congestion of rush hour ridership, the city is upgrading busy C-train platforms to accommodate four-car trains.[125] The city council has approved $200 million for the acquisition of 60 new four-car trains to replace obsolete U2 units which have served Calgary Transit since 1981. It is expected that the increased frequency of the trains will relieve crowded and full trains.[126]

Nenshi abolished the $3 park-and-ride fees to encourage more commuters to use Calgary's Public Transit.[127] February they also chose to charge a $70 monthly fee for reserved parking. [128]

Relationship with Canadian Pacific Railway[edit]

After Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) cancelled an environmental study of the expansion of Alyth train yard, the city approved to continue funding the study environmental impact the yard causes the residents of adjacent Inglewood and Ramsay neighborhoods.[129] Nenshi attacked Canadian Pacific over the reassignment of the company's night crew. The company decided to close the 'Locomotive Reliability Centre' of the Alyth train yard. As the Canadian Transportation Agency ordered it to relocate 400m away, as residents complained of the noise.[130]

Nenshi rebuked CP over the collapse of the 101-year-old Bonnybrook Bridge. The bridge was weakened by the 2013 Alberta floods, as its structural supports were washed away by surging flood waters. He blamed a massive layoff prior to the accident for lax inspection standards and called for cities to have greater management of CP affairs within their cities.[131]

Nenshi and CP agreed to improve communication in the future and improve relationships after several cars transporting petroleum derailed in late September 2013.[132]

Social initiatives and amendments to bylaws[edit]

The Nenshi administration initiated many programs to improve civic administration and clarify transparency of city political affairs, organized around themes such as "transforming government" and "cutting red tape". These initiatives are intended to improve the business and quality of life for Calgarians.[133] The Cutting red tape initiative was estimated to have saved Calgarians 33,000 in hours and $1.12 million in productivity.[134] Nenshi sought the advice of Calgarians for further feedback and ideas of how to make city services easier to access in 2012 for its 3rd phase of cutting red tape.[135]

The term "alderman" was changed to the gender-neutral "councillor".[136]

In 2011, Nenshi was advised by civil advocacy group Civic Camp to challenge the citizens of Calgary with an initiative to personally take responsibility and encourage their neighbours do three things to improve their community for '3 Things for Calgary Program'.[137]

In 2013, Nenshi implemented the 'Enough for All' program to half the demographic of 50,000 Calgarians living in poverty by 2023. The plan doesn't call for more spending, but to uncover and administer effective solutions to connect disadvantaged Calgarians with resources and the community.[138] Nenshi made implementing this solution as one of his campaign promises.

The town of Airdrie passed an anti-bullying bylaw that was advocated by Airdrie teen Mackenzie Murphy in 2013 after she survived a suicide attempt in December 2012. She was persecuted for two years by online bullying and at school as her classmates suggested that she should kill herself. Airdrie Mayor Peter Brown who was sympathetic to her distress tasked his council to investigate the legal precedence to enact the bylaws.

She hopes to meet Nenshi to advocate for similar laws in Calgary and spread public awareness of bullying.[139] Nenshi and Premier Redford expressed interest in her activism.[140] Nenshi Chief of staff Chima Nkemdirim, suggests that Nenshi is open to dialog should she decide to take the initiative by scheduling an appointment.[141]

In 2013, the city council enacted a bylaw banning smoking in playgrounds and other places where family and children play.[142]

The length of council terms was extended three years to four years.[143]

Calgary Police and crime[edit]

Continuing on a downward trend of violent crimes since 1991, Calgary together with Canada's crime rate has dropped. As of 2013 the national crime rate has dropped below levels since 1971. It is unknown what has caused the decline in violent crimes, however StatsCan analyst Mary Allen correlates that communities with higher standards of socio-economic conditions tend to have low crime rates.[144] Many other urban areas have experienced similar decreases in crime rates, and recent studies suggest this may primarily be due to decreased environmental levels of lead.[145][146] Calgary has experienced significant percentage drops since 2011, such as a 23% drop in robberies. In 2012 Calgary's Crime Severity Index of 60.5 is below national rating of 75.[147]

In 2013, community service groups and the Calgary Police Service banded together to form the Safe Communities Opportunity and Resource Centre (SCORCe) as a cooperative effort to improve effective services for vulnerable Calgarians.[148] Nenshi opened the center in a ceremony.

In September 2013, the city extended the contract of Police Chief Rick Hanson until 2017. Nenshi credits his leadership as a factor for Calgary's low crime fortunes.[149]

Enterprise and financial initiatives[edit]

The city created the Community Investment Fund to grant $252 million between 2012 and 2016 to renovate and construct new Calgarian public recreation and community facilities such as libraries. The fund provide funding for community groups to renovate their facilities that provide services to Calgarians.[150] The fund is composed from major sources such as annual rebate of $42 million from the Alberta government, $4 million from GST refund, and $150 million from a fund created by urban developers for community growth. The fund was a response to address the need for access for recreational services, especially sports and physical facilities for children. Such as ice rinks and swimming pools. The fund also addresses the need for renovations for many aging facilities providing essential services for Calgarians. The city will construct four new facilities providing access for 84,000 Calgarians.[151]

Nenshi approved a pilot project in 2011 for mobile food van servers. The project debuted during the first "YYC Taste the Trucks" an annual festival in 2011. After a two year pilot trial, the city council approved a process draft a bylaw to permit the food truck industry permanently in late 2013.[152]

The Calgary Economic Development (CED) organized a trade mission for Nenshi to showcase Calgary to meet with Chinese business and government officials to forge and reassert ties between China and Calgary.[153] Through the CED, Nenshi launched a campaign entitled 'Be Part of the Energy' aimed to promote tourism and encourage businesses and professionals to settle in the city.

Address the problem of inaccessibility of housing for families and attain success with the Plan to End Homelessness which began before his term. The city operates non-tax non-profit corporation, 'Attainable Homes' which partners up businesses to help provide for impoverished Calgarian families. However the corporation was not initially Nenshi's initiative as it was founded in 2009. Mass building projects were completed and initiated during his term.[154][155]

Taxation and city finances[edit]

Increases of property tax[edit]

As Calgary grew into a metropolis with challenging needs the city experienced typical increased incremental costs of living such as rises in property taxes. Taxes began to rise before Nenshi's government as both the provincial and city governments have increased taxes since 2007 for several years and Mayor Dave Bronconnier commissioned civic work projects, as Ctrain extension.[156] Tax rates increased on average 5-10%/year for city taxes and 3-8%/year for provincial taxes. The increase in taxes was a source of frustration for many Calgarians over the years, especially rising 30% during Nenshi's three year term.

Nenshi has encountered frustrations as his council finds it difficult to budget yearly with unsecured sources of provincial and federal funding.[157] Nenshi with other Canadian mayors rebuked the Federal government for lack of capital funding for necessary projects such as transportation infrastructure projects such as public transit and improved highways as they have in the United States.[157]

The lack of fiscal clarification from the federal and provincial government has economically damaged the city causing debt and raised erratic municipal taxes as the city struggles to secure funding for projects to maintain the city. Dave Bronconnier faced similar challenges as Nenshi managing a growing city.[158] Nenshi is tasked with completion of Bronconnier's necessary projects such as extension of the C-train.[159]

However, Nenshi together with Stephen Mandel attempted to negotiate with Premier Alison Redford to enact a charter to replace the decades old ambiguous Municipal Act, to better define the roles of provincial and municipal governments.[160] As the uncertain nature of non-municipal funding is unpredictable. Redford was forced to resort to Austerity measures such as educational cutbacks early in her term.[161][162] Her government is experiencing a 5 year deficit, and will go into debt as it continues infrastructural spending.[162]

Nenshi stated that taxes remained the lowest in Canada when compared to other major Canadian municipalities.[163]

Taxation of second term[edit]

For the 2014 budget the city voted to return the initial $52 million provincial tax refund as debated early in 2012. The refunded tax gap afforded the city to reduce an initial planned 6% increase in residential property tax to a 5% increase.[164]

In December 2013, Nenshi warned of prospective tax raises of 5% over the next four-year budget. He suggested that the best way to avoid or mitigate the increases was to implement a policy diversified sources of funding besides property taxes. Nenshi disfavors property tax as being archaic and unable to effectively collect revenue for capital civil works such as upgrading transportation. He favors a mixture of sources such as business taxes.[165] Nenshi states that currently only the province have the authority to enact legislature that fundamentally defines sources of revenue.[166] Nenshi and his Edmontonian mayor counterparts Stephen Mandel and Don Iveson have been negotiating with the Albertan government to enact a city charter. The charter would clarify the responsibilities of the Municipal and Provincial governments such as taxation. Nenshi anticipates the ratification of the charter in 2014[167]

Financial decisions[edit]

The city implemented a 10-year plan to merge the business tax together with the non-residential property tax. Until then Calgary was one of last cities to have a stand-alone business tax.[168] It is estimated that taxes will decrease 65% for Calgarian business over the decade and save the city $1.3 million in operational overhead.

Towards the end of first Nenshi's term, the Manning Centre published a study entitled "Growing the Democratic Toolbox: city council vote tracking" by: Jeromy Anton Farkas.[169] The research measured the performance of 2010 city council on: the economic stances of councilors (taxpayer friendly scale), frequency of open meetings, and attendance of council meetings. According to the study these topics were of importance to Calgarians.[170] Contrary to Nenshi's critics, who were frustrated with tax increases and capital spending and had nicked named Nenshi as 'Spendshi'. Farkas gauged Nenshi to be a moderate spender. Nenshi scored 50.7% and was ranked 5th/14 counselors on the 'Taxpayer Friendly Scale'.Nenshi's score was based on how many times he voted against motions of capital spending with a sample of 73 motions pertaining to city finance.[169]

Property tax surplus[edit]

The city council asked Calgarians for their opinion of how to invest a $52 million surplus from an over collection of property taxes. A debate was held on May 2013 and offered five options: return the money to Calgarians as a rebate, invest in revitalizing older neighborhoods, improve Calgary Transit, reduction in taxes for businesses, and reducing the city's debt.[171] A live debate inspired by the reality show "Dragon's Den" was held at the Devonian Gardens. In the wake of the devastating flood of 2013, the city council voted to implement Nenshi's proposal to use the surplus towards flood relief.[172] However, the Canadian Taxpayer Federation warns that motion could become a permanent tax grab. That the money was intended to be returned to citizens.[173]

During deliberations of the 2014 budget majority of the councilors voted in favor of returning the 2013 provincial $52 million tax refund.[174] The council has allocated the future $52 million per year tax refunds for the next decade towards transit options such as an express bus route entitled the 'Green Line'. The 'Green Line' is optioned for upgrading to a C-train line at a later date. The rebate will amount to $100 returned to each Calgarian household.

Financial decisions of second term[edit]

Nenshi's council have voted to halt council salary raises, and limit salaries of non-unionized city staff to 1.8% raises for 2014.[175] According to councilors Shane Keating and Diane Colley-Urquhart economic factors decided the austerity measures.[176] City unionizes however remains skeptical as Calgary city council have employed such austerity measures in the past prior to renegotiating term contracts and awarding themselves with opulent raise increases.

Key events of mayoralty[edit]

As an avid reader, Nenshi hosted a series of videos on his YouTube account entitled 'Nenshi Reads'. He read children's stories on special occasions such as reading ' Pete the Cat: I love my white shoes'. By:Eric Litwin for the 2013 International Children's Day Festival.[177]

In 2011, Nenshi was grand marshal of Calgary Pride, the city's gay pride parade. He was the first mayor of Calgary to do so.[178] In 2013 Nenshi proclaimed a day of "Trans Day of Visibility" as an awareness day for the challenges transgender and transsexual Calgarians face.[179] Nenshi together with Albertan Premier Alison Redford who became the first Premier to Grand Marshal the parade, opened the 23rd Calgarian Pride parade.[180] In his speech Nenshi addressed Québécois, inviting them to come to Calgary as the city didn't discriminate. He criticized Quebec's proposed 'Charter of Quebec Values' legislature as contrary to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[181]

Nenshi presided over the 100th anniversaries of many important city institutions and traditions, including the Calgary Public Library, Calgary Stampede, Mount Royal University, and Calgary recreation. He proclaimed March 29, 2012 a 'dress Western day' as a prelude to the 100th Calgary Stampede.[182][183] The city was assisted in preparations for these celebrations with a $1.6 million grant from the federal government.

Nenshi proclaimed the week of November 7–14, 2011 as 'Town Planning Week', to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Calgary Planning Commission's achievements. He presented David Watson the Chair of the Commission with a commemorative scroll honoring the names of past and present members.[184]

Nenshi donated $660 to two Toronto food banks, after the Calgary Stampeders lost the 2012 Grey Cup as per the terms of a friendly bet made with Toronto mayor Rob Ford.[185]

In 2012 Nenshi greeted Craig Hardy, Calgary Transit's 100,000,000th passenger of the year, the first on record for Calgary Transit.[186]

In 2012 the federal government designated the city for the inaugural "Cultural Capital" program.[187]

In 2013 Nenshi was invited as part of the Canadian delegation attend the World Economic Forum to share his ideas of sustainable urban growth, a rarity for a mayor.[188] At forum Nenshi supported the controversial Keystone Pipeline by commenting that protesters were foolish and that transporting Bitumen by conventional transportation such as trains would cause more atmospheric pollution.[189]

Nenshi closed the 2013 inaugural 'Tour of Alberta' cyclist marathon with a speech thanking Calgarians who have banded together after the 2013 summer flood.[190]

Nenshi proclaimed April 5, 2013 as Ralph Klein Day to honour the contributions Klein made to Calgary as mayor: the founding of the Calgary Economic Developmen,t an agency that promotes the prosperity of Calgary, the construction of the C-Train LRT, and host of the 1988 Winter Olympics. His widow Colleen Klein was presented with the civic flag of Calgary.[191] Klein's life was remembered in a city organized gala entitled "Celebration of Life" that celebrated his contributions as a public servant and adopted son of the Siksika Nation. Nenshi along with other Canadian politicians past and present spoke at the gala reflecting on the life of Klein.[192]

2013 flood and reconstruction[edit]

Nenshi's rally to boost morale in the wake of a devastating flood that ravaged Southern Alberta in 2013 was well received by the press and Calgarians. He urged Calgarians to seek assistance for mental distress urged support for their neighbors mental and emotional well being during the disaster recovery.[193][194] Calgarian approval from his supporters has made him the subject of internet memes parodying him as Supermayor as 2013 Summer blockbuster movie Superman. His name was used as a verb for a parody of the British WWII morale slogan "Keep Calm and Carry On", as 'Keep Calm and Nenshi On'.[195] The likeness of Nenshi wearing Scuba gear, was designed by Calgarian artist 'Mandy Stobo' on T-shirts, to raise relief funds for the Red Cross.[196]

Nenshi co-launched book published by the Calgary Herald entitled The Flood of 2013: A Summer of Angry Rivers in southern Alberta, whicharchived the paper's coverage of the flood. Proceeds from the book supported The Calgary Foundation’s Flood Rebuilding Fund which helped victims most devastated.[197] Nenshi wrote a forward describing the events.

Some of his supporters urge him to rest from his nonstop organization by taking a nap as he coordinated relief efforts non-stop over a period of 43 hours.[198][199][200] For an episode of his YouTube vlog series 'Nenshi Reads', Nenshi read to children at a fundraising launch of children's story 'The River Throws a Tantrum' by: Rona Altrows.[201]

Nenshi tasked former City transportation director Gordon Stewart with overseeing the reconstruction efforts.[202] The flood caused an estimated $250 million in damages. Nenshi, commissioned a panel of engineering and environmental experts as well the community to recommend measures to mitigate damage from future floods.[203]

Senior city staff were compensated for overtime work directing the emergency efforts with $307,000. Nenshi believed the compensation to be unwarranted and called to change the compensation regulations for compensation in the future.[204]

In September Governor General David Johnston, presented the people of Calgary with the 'Governor General Commendation of Outstanding Service'. As the community effort Calgarians banded together for the city and surrounding region after the 2013 Alberta floods.[205] Nenshi accepted the award on behalf of the city.

In November 2013, the Government of Alberta granted the City of Calgary $250,000 to study the viability of constructing a water diversion tunnel. Nenshi suggested that the city acquire the tunnel-boring machinery. After the project the machinery could be used for future infrastructure projects the city has planned in the future.[206]

Key events of second mayoralty[edit]

Soon after winning the 2013 mayoral elections in October, Nenshi chaperoned disabled Calgarian children to Disneyland for Air Canada's 21st annual 'Dreams take Flight' charity service.[207]

Early in November 2013, Nenshi delivered a comic 'roasting' speech to outgoing Edmontonian mayor Stephen Mandel highlighting the joys and frustrations of a colleague, mentor, and rival relationship. Nenshi made light remarks alluding to Rob Ford's narcotic addictions, their religious heritage as mayors of 'redneck' cities, and Mandel's council decision to construct massive public works projects such as the Edmonton Downtown arena.[208]

For the two weeks duration of the 2014 Winter Olympics, decided that city hall would fly the rainbow gay pride flag to protest the anti-gay stance of the Russian government.[209]

Cal Wenzel slander lawsuit[edit]

In November 2013 Cal Wenzel CEO of Shane Homes, attempted to sue Nenshi for $6 million, alleging slanderous remarks to his character promote his campaign agenda.[58] In particular Wenzel was offended when Nenshi compared him to the Godfather during an interview with David Grey of CBC One.[210]

In his defence statement, Nenshi explains reasons for comparing Wenzel's personae to fictional mobster Vito Corleone, the Godfather. Nenshi described Wenzel as being benevolent but ruthless when faced with opposition. Nenshi's defence lawyers also noted that Wenzel referred Nenshi as being 'dark sided' in a video which Wenzel addresses an audience of home builders.[211]

Calgary Street Church and accusations of anti-Christian bigotry[edit]

The City of Calgary has ongoing friction with the Calgary Street Ministries since 2005, although this relationship has existed prior to Nenshi taking office, Nenshi is accused of being an anti-Christian bigot by journalist Ezra Levant. He wrote an article condemning Nenshi after members of the church trespassed in city hall to Christmas carol and were escorted out in 2012.[212]

The church accused Nenshi of anti-Christian-Judeo discrimination.[213] Nenshi partook in the lighting the fifth light of the menorah ceremony in 2011 as the Calgarian Jewish community celebrated the 23rd Menorah lighting ceremony.[214] Other groups are free to celebrate at City Hall and other venues on city property provided they apply for permission such as agreeing not to celebrate during business hours.

City Charter[edit]

To address the challenges of evolving into metropolises Nenshi and Edmonton mayor Stephen Mandel negotiated a memorandum of understanding with the Alberta government.[215] This motion will enable both mayors to work with the provincial government to draft city charters, effectively articulating the powers and responsibilities the municipalities have to deal with unique issues of development such as taxation. Nenshi and Mandel wanted to seek the approval for the new city council's approval after the elections of the 2013 before proceeding to resume discussions.[216]

However these motions are opposed by tax watchdog groups. They warn that such legislatures may grant municipal governments the ability to levy additional taxes.[217]

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