|Date of birth||17 March 1884|
|Place of birth||Warsaw, Russian Empire|
|Year of aliyah||1925|
|Date of death||10 July 1968(aged 84)|
|Place of death||Tel Aviv, Israel|
|Knessets||1, 3, 4, 5|
|Faction represented in Knesset|
|1959||Speaker of the Knesset|
Dr Nahum Nir (Hebrew: נחום ניר, born Nahum Rafalkes; 17 March 1884 – 10 July 1968) was a Zionist activist, Israeli politician and one of the signatories of the Israeli declaration of independence. He is the only Speaker of the Knesset to date not to have been a member of the ruling party.
Born in Warsaw, then part of the Russian Empire, Nir studied at a Heder in the city before studying natural sciences at university in Warsaw, Zurich and St Petersburg. He also studied law at St Petersburg and Dorfat, gaining a LL.D in 1908.
In 1903, during his time a student, he joined the Zionist student's organisation Kadima, and was a delegate to the sixth Zionist congress that year. Two years later he joined Poale Zion, and was also involved in the founding of World Poale Zion. Nir also served as head of the Polish Waiter's Union, and in 1906 led what he claimed to be the world's first successful strike against tipping. That year he was sent to prison for political activities, but still attended the seventh Zionist congress the following year. In 1919 he was elected to Warsaw City Council.
When Poale Zion split, Nir joined the left-wing faction. He served as secretary of the Left World Union of Poale Zion, and was involved in negotiations to allow it to join Comintern.
In 1925 he immigrated to Mandate Palestine and worked as a lawyer. He continued to play a prominent role in Left Poale Zion and was a member of the Jewish National Council and the Assemnly of Representatives prior to independence. A member of Moetzet HaAm (later the Provisional State Council), Nir signed the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948.
Nir lost his seat in the 1951 elections. In 1954, Ahdut HaAvoda (a faction related to the Left Poale Zion) broke away from Mapam, and Nir assumed membership of the new party. He was returned to the Knesset on its list in the 1955 elections, and again chaired the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee.
He was initially re-appointed Deputy Speaker of the Knesset, but following the death of the incumbent Yosef Sprinzak in January 1959, Nir stood in the election for a new speaker against a Mapai (Ben-Gurion's party) candidate. Nir won the election due to the support of the right-wing opposition and several minor left-wing parties, marking the only time to date in which a candidate not from the ruling party has been elected Speaker.
Nir retained his seat in the November 1959 elections, and chaired the committee for public services, but was demoted back to Deputy Speaker upon the new Knesset's term starting. After being re-elected in 1961 he served again as Deputy speaker and chairman of the committee for public services. He lost his seat in the 1965 elections.
- Chapters of life - The scope of the generation and the movement 1884-1918 (1958)
- Call for Reinforcements TIME, 16 March 1959
- Nahum Nir on the Knesset website