Nakanoshima Station was opened on November 1, 1927, as a station on the Nambu Railway. Freight operations began in 1929. The Nambu Railway was nationalized on April 1, 1944, and the station came under the control of the Japan National Railways (JNR). The station was relocated 400 meters towards Noborito Station in December 1945. Freight operations were discontinued after 1955. After the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, the station was absorbed into the JR East network.