|— City & Municipality —|
|• Total||15 km2 (6 sq mi)|
|• Land||14.2 km2 (5.5 sq mi)|
|• Water||0.8 km2 (0.3 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AZT (UTC+4)|
|• Summer (DST)||AZT (UTC+5)|
The city of Nakhchivan (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan) is the capital of the eponymous Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located 450 km west of Baku. The municipality of Nakhchivan consists of the city of Nakhchivan and the villages of Başbaşı, Qarağalıq, and Daşduz. It is spread over the foothills of Zangezur chain, on the right bank of the Nakhchivan River at an altitude of almost 1000 m.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary notes that according to legend the city of Nakhchivan was founded by Noah, and the date of the town on the Persian sources in 1539 BC. Originating from Armenian, the name itself signifies as the first settlers, since 'Nakh' means first and 'ichevan' means settlers. And according to the name and its history, Armenians were the first settlers of the region and it has been an important part of the Kingdom of Armenia and Ararat since its discovery.
Traditionally, Nakhchivan was home to trade industry, handicraft, shoemaking and hatmaking. These industries have been largely replaced. The restoration enterprises and development industry, liberalization of foreign trade and the extension of the customs infrastructure, which has been largely responsible for Nakchivan's growth in the last two decades, are now major parts of Nakchivan's economy.
The city has a wide range of cultural activities, amenities and museums. It has a cultural center called Heydar Aliyev Palace, which has a permanent local painting exhibition and a theatre hall for an audience of 1000 people, and a recently restored Soviet-time Opera Theatre where the Naxçıvan Dövlət Musiqili Dram Teatrı (Nakhchivan State Musical Drama Theatre) realises theatre plays, concerts, musicals and opera.
Museums and galleries 
The main sight in the city is the heavily restored 12th century Momine Khatun Mausoleum, also known as 'Atabek Gumbezi'. Momine Khatun was the wife of Eldegizid Atabek Jahan Pahlivan, ruler of the Atabek Eldegiz emirate. The 10-sided monument is decorated with intricate geometrical motives and Kufic script, it uses turquoise glazed bricks. It shares the neighbourhood with a statue of its architect - Ajami Nakhchivani - and a bust of Heydar Aliyev. Also from the 12th century and by the same architect, is the octagonal Yusuf Ibn Kuseir tomb, known as Atababa, half abandoned near the main cemetery.
More recent (1993) is the white marble mausoleum of Hussein Javid. The Azeri writer died in the Gulag under Joseph Stalin. Both the mausoleum and his house museum are located east of the theatre. Although being a recent construction, Huseyn Javid's mausoleum is of great iconic importance, representing the ability of the exclave to live despite the Armenian embargo and becoming a symbol of Nakhchivan itself.
The city also has many historical museums, the literature museum of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Nakhchivan State History Museum, The Nakhchivan State Carpet Museum, and the house museums of Jamshid Nakhchivanski and Bahruz Kangarli. There is also an archaeological museum found on Istiqlal street. The city has a few interesting mosques, particularly the Juma mosque, with its large dome.
Modern museums in Nakchivan include the Museum under Open Air, the Memorial Museum (Xatıra Muzeyi), dedicated to the national strife between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and Heydar Aliyev Museum.
|Climate data for Nakhchivan|
|Average high °C (°F)||0.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||19
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||83.7||117.6||189.1||204.0||254.2||324.0||365.8||337.9||303.0||217.0||147.0||120.9||2,664.2|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory|
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
Nakhchivan Airport (NAJ), in the north of the city, serves a number of domestic and international destinations including Turkey, mainland Azerbaijan, Iran and Russia.
There are 3 professional, 6 musical, 22 secondary schools and a military cadet school in Nakchivan administered by the city council.
Universities and colleges 
Nakchivan is one of the Azerbaijan's main centre of education and home to numerous universities:
Football and Futsal are the most popular sports in Nakhchivan. The city's Araz Naxçivan is one of the top futsal clubs in the European futsal arena and regularly participates in UEFA Futsal Cup.
Sister cities 
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Notable natives 
- Afiyaddin Jalilov — Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Nakhchivan ASSR (1989–1990), Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan ASSR (1990), Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (1990–1991).
- Ajami Nakhchivani — architect. He is also the founder of the Nakhchivan school of architecture.
- Amiraslan Aliyev — National Hero of Azerbaijan.
- Aziz Sharif — specialist in literature, translator, Honored Worker of Science of Azerbaijan SSR (1963).
- Bahruz Kangarli — painter, graphic artist and painter. Was one of the founders of Azerbaijani realist easel painting.
- Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski — general Governor proclaimed in 1918 the Republic of Araks.
- Gamgusar — poet.
- Jalil Mammadguluzadeh — writer.
- Jamshid Nakhchivanski — Russian Imperial, Azerbaijani and Soviet military commander. He rose to the rank of Combrig in the Soviet army.
- Heydar Aliyev — First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan SSR (1969–1982), president of Azerbaijan (1993–2003).
- Heyran Khanim — poetess.
- Huseyn Javid — poet and playwright, founder of the progressive romanticism in Azerbaijani literature.
- Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski — Russian Imperial Cavalry General and General-Adjutant of the Emperor of Russia. He was the only Muslim to serve as General-Adjutant of the Russian Emperor.
- Kalbali Khan Nakhichevanski — Russian, Azerbaijani and Iranian military commander, General.
- Nicholas Zolotarevski — Hero of Socialist Labor.
- Rza Tahmasib — film director and actor, People's Artist of Azerbaijan SSR (1964).
- Sakina Aliyeva — Minister of Education of Nakhchivan ASSR (1961–1963), Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan ASSR (1964–1990).
Face Pattern of the Momine Khatun Mausoleum
- The State Statistical Committee of the Azerbaijan Republic
- Belediyye Informasiya Sistemi[dead link]
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Nakhichevan
- "." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. 2003. (ISBN 0-87779-809-5) New York: Merriam-Webster, Inc.
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Nakhichevan
- Flavius Josephus and the Flood of Noah
- Plant Genetic Resources in Central Asia and Caucasus: History of Armenia
- Hewsen, Robert H (2001). Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-226-33228-4.
- Elisabeth Bauer, Armenia: Past and Present, p.99 (ISBN B0006EXQ9C).
- Kazemzadeh, Firuz. The Struggle For Transcaucasia: 1917-1921. p. 255 (ISBN 0-8305-0076-6).
- Ibid. p.267.
- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона. Нахичевань. — С.-Петербург:1890—1907 (Russian)
- Herodotus. History, I 202; V 52
- The economy of Nakchivan
- National cuisine of Nakchivan
- The Museums of Nakchivan City
- "Climatological Normals of Naxcivan". Hong Kong SAR Government. Retrieved 2011-01-06.
- Transport of Nakhchivan
- The Secondary Schools in Nakchivan
- Футзальный клуб «Араз» определился с соперниками по элитному раунду Кубка чемпионов (Russian)
- Happy Friday night for Benfica, Puntar and Araz
- Club's uefa.com profile
- (Azerbaijani) "Afiyəddin Cəlilov". ADAM.az.
- "Aliyev Amiraslan Rza oglu". milliqahraman.az.
- (Russian) "Шариф Азиз Алиевич". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Кенгерли Бехруз (Шамиль) Ширалибек оглы". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Гамгюсар". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Мамедкулизаде Джалил". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Алиев Гейдар Али Рза оглы". Справочник по истории Коммунистической партии и Советского Союза 1898 - 1991.
- (Russian) "Хейран-Ханум". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Гусейн Джавид". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- (Russian) "Золотаревский Николай Иванович" (in ru). Heroes of the country.
- (Russian) Rza Tahmasib. Inoekino.ru
- (Azerbaijani) "Görkəmli Naxçıvanlılar - Səkinə Əliyeva". Prezident Kitabxanası.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nakhchivan (city)|
- Nakhchivan Guide
- Nakhchivan Portal
- Nakhchivan (as Naxçıvan) at GEOnet Names Server
- World Gazetteer: Azerbaijan – World-Gazetteer.com