Nakhichevansky Uyezd (Russian: Нахичеванский уезд) was an administrative unit (an uyezd) of Erivan Governorate of the Russian Empire from 1849 until its formal abolition in 1920 upon Bolshevik takeover of Azerbaijan. Its seat was in Nakhchivan.
Erivan Governorate consisted of Erivansky, Alexandropolsky, Echmiadzinsky, Nakhichevansky, Novobayazetsky, Surmalinsky, and Sharuro-Daralagez-ky Uyezds. Nakhichevansky Uyezd was located in the southern part of Erivan Governorate bordering Sharuro-Daralagezsky Uyezd in the north, Zangezursky Uyezd of Elisabethpol Governorate in the east, and Persian and Ottoman Empires in the south and west at various times throughout its existence. The area of the uyezd was 3,858.8 square versts (4,391.6 km2). The relief of the uyezd was mainly mountainous with most of the lowland located along the Araz River. The highest peaks of the uyezd were located close to the border with Elisabethpol Governorate along the Karabakh Mountain range (Kambil at 11,188 feet (3,410 m); Damara-dag at 11,090 ft); Mount Kapudzhukh at 12,855 ft) which make up the eastern boundary of the uyezd, and the Kyuki-dag at 10,282 ft) rising from Daralagezsky Uyezd in the north. Left tributaries of the Araz, Nakhchivan-chay, Alinja-chay, Gilan-chay) flowed through the territory of the uyezd.
The territory of the uyezd had been a part of Erivan and Nakhchivan Khanates until 1828, when according to Treaty of Turkmenchay it was annexed to the Russian Empire. In 1849, Erivan Governorate made up of Erivansky, Nakhichevansky, Alexandropolsky, Novo-Bayazetsky, and Ordubadsky Uyezds was established. Ordubadsky Uyezd was abolished and incorporated into Nakhichevansky Uyezd and Zangezursky Uyezd of Elisabethpol Governorate in 1868. Following the administrative reforms of 1870, the northern part of Nakhichevansky Uyezd was separated to form new Sharuro-Daralagezsky Uyezd. In 1918, the uyezd became a part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic but was disputed by Democratic Republic of Armenia. Upon withdrawal of the Ottoman forces from Nakhchivan as per Armistice of Mudros, the Republic of Aras was proclaimed by Jafar Kuli Khan Nakhchivanski. Due to Armenian-Azerbaijani disputes, Armenian troops invaded Nakhchivan in June 1919 and by July they were repelled by the Azerbaijani army. After establishment of the Soviet rule in 1920, the territories of the uyezd became a part of Nakhchivan exclave of the Azerbaijan SSR.
According to the 1897 Census, the population of the uyezd was 100,771, of which 64,151 were Azerbaijani Turks, 34,672 were Armenians, 639—Kurds, 1,014—Russians and other minorities. Azerbaijani Turks made up the majority of the uyezd's population, including the major cities of Nakhchivan (70.1%) and Ordubad (88.7%). The population of the uyezd was engaged in cattle breeding and gardening, especially in Ordubadsky Uyezd. There were almost no plants or factories. Salt plantations produced about 250,000 pounds of salt per annum.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910). The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. Volume 9. Leiden, the Netherlands: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 748. ISBN 978-90-04-17901-1. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
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