Namangan

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Namangan
Namangan/Наманган
Namangan Airport
Namangan Airport
Namangan is located in Uzbekistan
Namangan
Namangan
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 41°00′04″N 71°40′06″E / 41.00111°N 71.66833°E / 41.00111; 71.66833Coordinates: 41°00′04″N 71°40′06″E / 41.00111°N 71.66833°E / 41.00111; 71.66833
Country Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Province Namangan Province
city 1610
Government
 • Type City Administration
Area
 • Total 83,3 km2 (322 sq mi)
Elevation 450 m (1,480 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 449,200
Postal code 160100[1]
Area code(s) +998 6922[1]
Twin cities
 • Seongnam  South Korea
Website [www.namangancity.uz]

Namangan (Uzbek: Namangan/Наманган; Russian: Наманган) is a city in Uzbekistan. It is the administrative, economic, and cultural center of Namangan Province. Namangan is located in the northern edge of the Fergana Valley in north-eastern Uzbekistan. The city is served by Namangan Airport.

Namangan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. A large number of factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927. Currently Namangan is mainly a center for light industry, especially in food.

The officially registered population of the city in 2011 was 449,200. Uzbeks and Tajik are the largest ethnic groups.

History[edit]

The city takes its name from the local salt mines (in Persian نمک‌کان (namak kan) — "a salt mine").[2] Babur mentioned the village of Namangan in his memoirs Baburnama.[3] In his book A brief History of the Khanate of Kokand (Russian: Краткая история Кокандского ханства) (Kazan, 1886) the Russian ethnographer Vladimir Petrovich Nalivkin wrote that Namangan is mentioned in legal documents dating back to 1643.[3]

Politically, Namangan became a part of the Uyghur Empire of the Karakhanid State and was known to have been a settlement in the 15th century. The residents of the ancient city of Akhsikat, which was severely damaged by an earthquake, moved to the then-village of Namangan in 1610.[4] Namangan became a city afterward.[4] On the eve of the Russian invasion in 1867, the town had been a part of the Khanate of Kokand since the middle of the 18th century.[5][6]

Namangan, like many other cities in the Fergana valley, was originally populated by the Sogdian people, later becoming a Persian speaking city. The influx of the Turkic people into the region starting in late medieval times led to gradual turkification of the region and the city. However, until the middle of the 19th century, Namangan still had a Tajik majority. Today, the city is an Uzbek speaking city, albeit with a large Tajik minority.

Namangan was hit by a destructive earthquake in 1926 which killed 34 people, injured 72, and destroyed 4,850 houses.[7]

Since Uzbekistan's independence in 1991, Namangan has gained a reputation for Islamic revivalism, with many mosques and schools funded by charity organizations from Middle Eastern countries, including the conservative Wahhabi sect from Saudi Arabia.[8][9] This has also translated into political opposition against the secular government of Uzbekistan. Some women have discarded traditional colorful scarves for large white veils or even the black paranja.[10]

Geography[edit]

By road Namangan is 290 kilometres (180 mi) east of Tashkent, 68.5 kilometres (42.6 mi) west of Andijan, and 40.4 kilometres (25.1 mi) east of Chust.[11] The city is located 1476 feet (450 meters) above sea level.[12] The Qoradaryo and Naryn Rivers join together to form the Syr Darya just outside the southern edge of the city.[13]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Namangan in 2011 was 451,000.[14] Uzbeks and Tajiks are the largest ethnic groups.

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1897 62,000 —    
1926 74,000 +19.4%
1939 77,000 +4.1%
1959 123,000 +59.7%
1973 194,000 +57.7%
1986 283,000 +45.9%
2003 395,800 +39.9%
2011 451,000 +13.9%
Source: [3][4][12][14]

Economy[edit]

Namangan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. After annexation by the Russians in 1867, cotton production and food processing became the dominant economic activity, as it did in many other places in the country.[15] A large number of factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927.[3] After the war both light and heavy industries increased significantly.

Currently Namangan is mainly a center for light industry, especially in food. There are 36 joint companies and over 400 small and medium enterprises in the city.[12]

Education[edit]

There are three higher education institutions in Namangan city — Namangan State University, Namangan Engineering Pedagogical Institute, and Namangan Engineering Technological Institute. Namangan State University is the largest, oldest and highest ranked of the three. The city is also home to ten colleges, two vocational schools, two academic lyceums, and 51 general education schools.[12]

Landmarks[edit]

The Mulla Kyrgyz Madrasa (Uzbek: Mulla Qirgʻiz madrasasi) was built in 1912 by a local cotton magnate.[16] The Mosque of Ota Valikhan Tura (Uzbek: Ota Valixon toʻra masjidi), built in 1918, is one of the largest in Central Asia, now home to local branch of the Wahabi sect. The Namangan Natural History Museum houses local archaeological finds. The Hadja Amin Kabri Architectural Complex (Uzbek: Xoʻja Amin maqbarasi) has an ornate terra-cotta facade dating from the 18th to 19th century.

About 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Namangan are the Akhsikat ruins, a 1st-century settlement on the Syr-Darya River. Formerly capital of the Fergana Valley, it was destroyed by the Mongols, rebuilt by the Timurids and abandoned in 1620 after an earthquake.[17]

Transportation[edit]

Namangan is served by Namangan Airport which is located 12 km from the city center. The city is also served by a railway station which was built in 1912. Trolleybuses and buses operated in Namangan from 1973 until 2010. Lately they have largely been replaced by public vans (known in Russian as marshrutkas).

Notable people[edit]

  • Sobir Rahmonov (1910-1990) — a famous theater actor, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1961)[19]

Friendly cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Namangan Yellow Pages". SPR. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Lovell-Hoare, Sophie; Lovell-Hoare, Max (8 July 2013). Uzbekistan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84162-461-7. 
  3. ^ a b c d Moʻminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1976). "Namangan". Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek) 7. Toshkent. pp. 527–528. 
  4. ^ a b c "Namangan". Ensiklopedik lugʻat (in Uzbek) 1. Toshkent: Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi. 1988. p. 554. 5-89890-002-0. 
  5. ^ Pierce, Richard A. (1960). Russian Central Asia, 1867-1917: A Study in Colonial Rule. University of California Press. p. 227. 
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1964. p. 470. 
  7. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts. Newspaper Enterprise Association. 1928. p. 145. 
  8. ^ Hughes, James; Sasse, Gwendolyn (January 2002). Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union: Regions in Conflict. Psychology Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7146-5226-9. 
  9. ^ Melvin, Neil J. (30 May 2000). Uzbekistan: Transition to Authoritarianism. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-135-28751-1. 
  10. ^ Mikhaĭlov, Nikolaĭ Nikolaevich (December 1988). A book about Russia: in the union of equals : descriptions, impressions, the memorable. Progress Publishers. p. 167. 
  11. ^ Google Inc. "Namangan". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://www.google.com/maps/preview?hl=en. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d Haydarov, Murodulla (2000–2005). "Namangan". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  13. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Macropædia : Knowledge in depth. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2002. p. 715. ISBN 978-0-85229-787-2. 
  14. ^ a b "About the City of Namangan". The official website of the Namangan Province Administration. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  15. ^ BISNIS bulletin. Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS), U.S. Dept. of Commerce, International Trade Administration. 1992. p. 12. 
  16. ^ "Central Park and Monuments of Namangan". Visituzbekistan.travel. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "The ancient settlement of Akhsykent Namangan. Excavations in the Ferghana Valley". Orexca.com. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  18. ^ Abdugʻafurov, Abdurashid (2000–2005). "Mashrab". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 
  19. ^ "Rahmonov Sobir". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 
  20. ^ "Ahmedov Yoqub". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005. 

External links[edit]