Namara inscription

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Epitaph of Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr, inscribed in Nabataean script

The Namara inscription (Arabic: نقش النمارة ) is usually interpreted as an early example of the Arabic language, but is sometimes interpreted as a late version of the Nabataean language in its transition to Arabic. It has been described by Irfan Shahid as "the most important Arabic inscription of pre-Islamic times"[1] and by Kees Versteegh as "the most famous Arabic inscription".[2] And according to Saad D. Abulhab, who described his reading of the inscription as the first coherent and fully classical Arabic reading of it, this inscription "can incontrovertibly prove that the grammar and language of the Quran are deeply rooted and developed in Arabia, long before Islam".[3] It is also an important source for the relationships between the Romans and the Arabs in the fourth century AD.

Differences from Arabic language[edit]

The inscription is written in the Nabatean Aramaic script but there are ambiguities of interpretation as the script has only 22 signs (some with added annotations) and the Arabic dialect had 28 or 29 consonants. The script has ligatures between some letters, showing a transition towards an Arabic script. Some of the terms used in the text are closer to Aramaic than Arabic; for example, it uses the Aramaic patronymic "b-r" rather than the Arabic term "b-n". However, most of the text is very close to the classical Arabic used in the Qu'ran in the 6th century.


The inscription was found on 4 April 1901 by two French archaeologists, René Dussaud and Frédéric Macler, at an-Namara (also Namārah; modern Nimreh) near Shahba and Jabal al-Druze in southern Syria, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Damascus and 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast Bostra, and 120 kilometres (75 mi) east of the Sea of Galilee. The location was near the boundary of the Roman Empire at the date it was carved, the Limes Arabicus of the province of Arabia Petraea. An-Namara was later the site of a Roman fort.


The inscription is carved in five lines on a block of basalt, which may have been the lintel for a tomb. It is the epitaph of a recently deceased Arab king of the Lakhmids, Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr, and dated securely to AD 328. Imru' al-Qays followed his father 'Amr ibn Adi in using a large army and navy to conquered much of Iraq and the Arabian peninsula from their capital at al-Hirah. At this time, they were vassals of the Persian Sassanids. Raids on Iran triggered a campaign by Sassanid emperor Shapur II which conquered the Iraqi lands, and Imru' al-Qays retreated to Bahrain. He moved to Syria to seek help from the Roman emperor Constantine. Imru' al-Qays converted to Christianity before his death in Syria and was entombed in the Syrian desert. His conversion is mentioned in the Arab history of Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi, but not mentioned in the inscription itself; equally there is no mention of any pagan belief.

The first tracing and reading of the Namara inscription was published in the beginning of the twentieth century by René Dussaud. According to his reading, the text starts by informing the reader that this inscription was the burial monument of the king, then it introduces him and lists his achievements, and finally announces the date of his death. Many other scholars have re-read and analyzed the language of the inscription over the last century but, despite their slight differences, they all agreed with Dussaud's central viewpoint that the Namara stone was the burial monument of King Imru' al-Qays. In 1985, James A. Bellamy offered the first significantly different tracing of the inscription since Dussaud, including a breakthrough tracing correction of two highly contested words in the beginning of the third line (pointed out on Dussaud's original tracing figure as words 4 and 5). However, despite Bellamy's new important re-tracings, his Arabic reading fully agreed with the general theme of Dussaud's original reading. Bellamy's widely accepted new translation of the inscription reads:[4]

The original tracing and reading of the Namara inscription that was published by René Dussaudin 1905 (numbers added to facilitate discussion in this article)

This is the funerary monument of Imru' al-Qays, son of 'Amr, king of the Arabs, and (?) his title of honour was Master of Asad and Madhhij.
And he subdued the Asadis and they were overwhelmed together with their kings, and he put to flight Madhhij thereafter, and came
driving them to the gates of Najran, the city of Shammar, and he subdued Ma'add, and the dealt gently with the nobles
of the tribes, and appointed them viceroys, and they became phylarchs for the Romans. And no king has equalled his achievements.
Thereafter he died in the year 223 on the 7th day of Kaslul. Oh the good fortune of those who were his friends!

Below is Bellamy's modern Arabic translation of the Namara inscription, with brief added explanations between parenthesis:

تي (هذه) نَفسُ (شاهدة قبر) امرؤ القيس بن عَمرو مَلِكُ العرب، ولقبهُ ذو أسَد ومذحج.
ومَلَكَ الأسديين ونزار وملوكهمْ وهَرَّبَ مذحج عَكدي (كلمة عامية تدمج الكلمتين "عن قضى"، بمعنى بعد ذلك) وجاء (اي امرؤ القيس) يزجها (يقاتلها بضراوة) في رُتِجِ (ابواب) نَجران، مدينة شمّر، ومَلَكَ معد (بنو مَعَدْ في اليمن) ونَبَلَ بنَبه الشعوب (عامل نبلاءهم باحترام ولطف) ووكلهن (اي عين نبلاءهم شيوخا للقبائل) فرأسو لروما (فاعترفو بسيادة روما عليهم) فلم يبلغ ملك مَبلَغَه.
عكدي (بعد ذلك) هلك سَنَة 223، يوم 7 بكسلول (كانون الأول)، يالِسَعْدِ ذو (الذي) والاهُ (بايعه او جعله وليا له).

The mention of the date - the 7th of Kaslul in the year 223 of the Nabatean era of Bostra - securely dates his death to the 7th day of December in AD 328.

However, according to a new updated tracing and reading by Saad D. Abulhab that was published in 2011, the inscription did not start by introducing King Imru' al-Qays or speak about a burial monument. In his reading, Abulhab indicated that the writer of the inscription only swore by the soul of the King in the first sentence, before moving to the main paragraph of the inscription, which listed the achievements of a single battle by an Arab soldier or tribal ally of the Roman forces named 'Akdi, who defeated Madhhij,a known Yemeni tribe, in a fierce battle near Najran. The final sentence of the text then announced 'Akdi's death and asked his parents to be happy and proud of him. Below is an image showing Abulhab's updated tracing and new reading of the inscription followed by his translation in English and his modern Arabic reading with brief added explanations between parenthesis. The details of Abulhab's new reading was published in a chapter of his book about this inscription and the Umm al-Jimal Nabataean Inscription titled, The al-Namarah Nabataean Arabic Inscription (328 CE) (نقش النمارة العربي النبطي 328م).

The New Updated Tracing and Reading of the Namara Inscription by Saad D. Abulhab

This is soul of Imru' al-Qays bin ʿAmrū, king of all Arabs, holder of the crown of Asad, and king of all of Asad tribes and Nazār tribes and their kings.
ʿAkdī has defeated Madhḥij after engaging it in a heated battle in the narrow roads of Najran, city of Shamir, king of Ma'ad, and befittingly differentiated between its people and placed them under the protection of the Roman cavalry — not even a king could accomplish what he had accomplished.
ʿAkdī died on December 7th, 223 AD, O’ the happiness of those who gave birth to him.

تَيا (قَسماً يا؛ يا) نَفسُ (روحُ) امرؤ القيس بن عَمْرو، مَلِكُ العَرَبِ كُلُّها، ذو أسَد التاج (كُنية)، ومَلِكُ الأسَديين (بنو أسد، نَجْدْ) ونَزارٍ (بنو نَزار، الحجاز) وملُوكَهُمو.
هَرَّبَ (هزّم) مِذْحِج (قبيلة يمنية، اسم المفعول به) عكْدي (اسم علم، الفاعل)، وجاء (اي عكْدي) يزُجُّها (يُقاتلها بضراوة) في رُتِجِ (شِعاب؛ طُرُقْ ضَيّقة) نَجران، مدينة شِمرْ (الملك شِمرْ يَرعشْ)، مَلِكُ مَعَدٍ (بنو مَعَدْ في اليمن)، وبَيّنَ (مَيّزَ بَيْنَ، اي لم يكن عشوائيا بتعامله) بنيها (ابناءها، اي ابناء مذحج) الشعوب (افخاذ قبيلة مِذْحج)، ووكَّلَهُنَّ (وَضَعَهُنَّ تحت حماية) فُرْسانُ الروم، فَلمْ يبلغْ مَلِكٌ (لم يبلغ حتى مَلِكٌ) مَبلَغَه (ما بَلَغَهُ عكدي).
عكْدي هَلَكَ (مات؛ قُتِلَ) سَنَة 223 (من تقويم بصرى، الموافق 328م)، يَومْ 7 بكسلولْ (كانون الأول)، يالِسَعْدِ (يالسعادةِ) ذو (الذي) وَلَدَه (أَنْجَبَهْ).

Ambiguities in translation[edit]

Parts of the translation are uncertain. For example, early translations suggested that Imru' al-Qays was king of all the Arabs, which seems unlikely after he moved to Syria. It is also not clear whether Imru' al-Qays campaigned towards Najran while he was based al-Hirah, or after his move to Syria, and in either case whether he did so alone or with assistance from the Sassanids or the Romans.

Some of these ambiguities can be solved when taking into account Abulhab's translation, above, which indicated that the inscription only swore by King Imru' al-Qays soul, but was not about him. Abulhab believes King Imru' al-Qays did not die in 328CE, the date of the inscription, and that this inscription was likely dated several years after his death, possibly in the battle of al-Hirah.

The inscription is now held by the Louvre museum in Paris.


  1. ^ Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, (Dumbarton Oaks, 2006), 31.
  2. ^ Kees Versteegh and C. H. M. Versteegh, The Arabic Language, (Columbia University Press, 1997), 31.
  3. ^ Saad D. Abulhab, DeArabizing Arabia: Tracing Western Scholarship on the History of the Arabs and the Arabic language and Script, (Blautopf Publishing, 2011), 90.
  4. ^ James A. Bellamy, A New Reading of the Namara Inscription, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 105.1 (1985), p.31-48.