List of Asian city names in different languages

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This is a list of cities in Asia that have several different names in different languages, including former names. Many cities have different names in different languages. Some cities have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons.

This article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real", or "correct" name of any city is or was. Cities are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name including any historical variants and former names.

Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents may be listed, to provide an answer to the question "What is that name in...?".

Note: The blue asterisks generally indicate the availability of a Wikipedia article in that language for that city; it also provides additional reference for the equivalence. Red asterisks or a lack of an asterisk indicate that no such article exists, and that these equivalents without further footnotes should be viewed with caution.


A[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Abakan Ağban - Ағбан (Khakass),[KNAB] Ábāhām - 阿巴坎 (Cantonese), Abakan - Абакан (Russian), Abakan - アバカン (Japanese), Ābākǎn - 阿巴坎 (traditional and simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Ust’-Abakanskoe - Усть-Абаканское (former Russian, pre–1931)[KNAB]
Aleppo Alep (Catalan*, Croatian*, French*, Romanian*, Slovene*), Alep - Алеп (Serbian)*, Alepas (Lithuanian)*, Alepo (Basque*, Esperanto*, Galician*, Spanish*), Ālèpō - 阿勒颇 (simplified characters) / 阿勒頗 (traditional characters) (Chinese)*, Alepo or Haleba (Latvian)*, Alepo or Ḩalab (Estonian)*, Alepo or Aleppo (Portuguese)*, Aleppo (Breton*, Czech*, Danish*, Dutch*, Finnish*, German*, Indonesian*, Italian*, Norwegian [Bokmål]*, Polish*, Swedish*, Welsh*), Aleppó (Hungarian)*, Aleppo - Алеппо or Khaleb - Халеб (Russian*,[KNAB] Ukrainian*), Aleppu (Sicilian)*, Alippu (Inuktitut), Allepo - 알레포 (Korean)*, Areppo - アレッポ (Japanese)*, Ash-Shahbā’ (lit., "the gray one") - الشهباء (Arabic [rare]),[KNAB] Beroea (Latin)*,[KNAB] Chalépio(n) - Χαλέπιο(ν) (Greek),[KNAB] Hadad / Halab (Syriac), Halab (Uzbek), Ḥalab - حلب (Arabic*,[KNAB] Ottoman Turkish), Halab - Ҳалаб (Tajik)*, H̱aleb - חַלֶבּ / H̱āleb - חאלב / ארם צובה Aram Zoba - (Hebrew)*,[KNAB] Halep - Հալեպ (Armenian)*,[KNAB] Halep (Turkish)*,[KNAB] Heleb (Kurdish)*,[KNAB] Hələb (Azeri), Vérria - Βέρροια (Hellenistic & Byzantine Greek), ალეპო (Georgian), హాలెప్పో (Telugu), अलेप्पो (Marathi)
Almaty Ālāmùtú - 阿拉木圖 (traditional characters) / 阿拉木图 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Alma Ata (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Indonesian, Interlingua, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Sicilian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Alma-Ata - Алма-Ата (Macedonian, Russian, Serbian) Almá-Atá (former Spanish), Ałma Ata (Polish), Álma-Áty - Άλμα-Άτυ (Greek), Almaata - Алмаата (Karakalpak), Almaatı (Crimean Tatar), Almaato - Алмаато (Tajik), Almata (Latvian, Lithuanian), Almatë (Albanian), Olma-Ota (Uzbek) Almati (Catalan, Galician, Hungarian), Almatı (Crimean Tatar, Finnish), Almato (Esperanto), Almatõ (Estonian), Almaty - Алмати (Ukrainian*), Almaty - Алматы (Kazakh*, Russian alternative), Almatý (Spanish), Almuta - ئالمۇتا (Uyghur), Armatii (Inuktitut), Arumatoi - アルマトイ (Japanese)*, ალმა-ათა / ალმატი (Georgian), अलमती (Marathi), ఎల్మాటీ (Telugu), Olmaota [Almäatä - Олмаота] (former Uzbek), Vernyj - Верный (former Russian, 1867–1921), Viernyi (former French)
Amman Amã (Portuguese), Aman (Novial, Slovene), Аман - Aman (Serbian) Amán (Galician), Amàn (Haitian Creole), Amanas (Lithuanian), Amano (Esperanto), Amans (Samogitian), Амман - Amman (Russian), Amman (Inuktitut), Amman - アンマン (Japanese), Ammán (Czech, Hungarian, Slovak, Spanish), ‘Ammān (Estonian), عمان - Ammān (Arabic), Ammāna (Latvian), Philadelphia (Latin), Philadélpheia - Φιλαδέλφεια (Greek [archaic]), Rabbat Ammon - רבת עמון (Hebrew), 安曼 (Mandarin Chinese), ამანი (Georgian), అమ్మాన్ (Telugu), अम्मान (Marathi), அம்மான் (Tamil)
Ankara Aṁkārā' - అంకారా (Telugu), Ancara (Galician, Portuguese), Ancyra (Latin), Ăng-kā-lá - 安卡拉 (Mindong), Angora (former English, former Italian, former Romanian, former French), Ángyra - Άγκυρα (Greek), Ángyra - Ἄγκυρα (Ancient Greek), Ānkǎlā - 安卡拉 (Mandarin Chinese), Ankara - Անկարա (Armenian), Ankara - Анкара (Abkhaz, Russian, Serbian), Ankara - ანკარა (Georgian), Ankara - アンカラ (Japanese), Ānḳarah - آنقره (Ottoman Turkish), Anqara (Zazaki), Änqarä - Әнкарә (Tatar),[KNAB] Ankaro (Esperanto), Anqara (Azeri, Uzbek), Änara - Аьнкьара (Lak), Anqarah - أنقرة (Arabic), Aqqara/Atqara (Inuktitut), Enqere (Kurdish), Enqere - ئه‌نقه‌ره (Uyghur), Ngōnkālā - 安卡拉 (Cantonese)
Antioch Anniukkia (Inuktitut), Anţākīyah أنطاكيا (Arabic), Antakya (Azeri, Turkish*), Antioch-on-the-Orontes (extended name in English), Antioche (French)*, Antiocheia - Ἀντιόχεια (Ancient Greek),[KNAB] Antiochia (Hungarian*, Interlingua, Latin, Slovak), Antiochia or Antiochia/Antioch/Antiochien am Orontes (German)*, Antiochia or Antiochia di Siria (Italian)*, Antiochia or Antiochia Syryjska (Polish)*, Antiochia or Antiochia vid Orontes (Swedish)*, Antióchia - Αντιόχεια (Greek), Antióchia i epí Dáfni - Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη / Antióchia i epí Oróntu - Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου / Antióchia i Megáli - Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη (extended names in Greek), Antiochie (Czech)*, Antiochië (Dutch)*, Antiohia (Romanian), Antiohija (Croatian, Bosnian), Antiohija - Антиохија (Macedonian, Serbian*), Antiok‘ - Անտոք (Armenian),[KNAB] Antiokia (Indonesian, Danish*, Finnish*), Antiokia - アンティオキア (Japanese), Anṭiokia - ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ (Syriac), Anţiokia - ანტიოქია (Georgian),[KNAB] Antioquia (Catalan), Antioquía (Spanish)*, Antióquia (Portuguese)*, Antioxija - Антиохия (Russian historical),[KNAB] Antioxiya (Azeri alternative), Ēṁṭjhōk - ఏంటియోక్ (Telugu)
Ardabil Ardabel - Ардабел (Tajik), Ardabīl - اردبیل (Persian),[KNAB] Ərdəbil - اردبیل (Azeri),[KNAB] Ardebil' - Ардебиль (Russian),[KNAB] Artawil - Արտաւիլ (Armenian), Erdebil (Turkish, Zazaki), Erdebîl - اردبیل (Kurdish)
Ardahan Ardachán - Αρνταχάν (Greek), Ardahan (Turkish), Ardahan - Արդահան (Armenian),[KNAB] Arţaani - არტაანი (Georgian) Ardagan - Ардаган (Russian), Ərdəhan (Azeri), Artahan - Արտահան (Armenian alternative),[KNAB] Erdêxan/Erdêhan (Kurdish)
Ashkhabad Ašchabád (Czech, Slovak), Aschchabad, Aschgabad or Aschgabat (German), Ašgabat (Finnish), Aşgabat or Aşkabat (Turkish), Asgabate (Portuguese), Ashkhabad - Ашхабад (Russian), Aşhabad (Italian, Montenegrin, Romanian), Ašhabad - Ашхабад (Macedonian, Serbian), Ašhabada (Latvian), Aşgabat (Turkmen), Asiqhapaati (Inuktitut), Ashigabādo - アシガバード (Japanese), Ashxobod (Uzbek), Asjchabad (Dutch), Aşqabad (Azeri), Aszchabad (Polish), Išq Ābād (Arabic), აშხაბადი / აშგაბატი (Georgian), عشق آباد (Persian), అస్కాబాద్ (Telugu)
Astana Akmola (variant in Finnish), Ostona (Uzbek), Akmola (former Russian, 1992-1998),[KNAB] Akmoła (former Polish), Akmolinsk - Акмолинск (former Russian, pre-1961),[KNAB] Aqmola - Ақмола (former Kazakh pre-1961, 1992-1998),[KNAB] Aqmulla - Акмулла (former Tatar),[KNAB] Aqmulla - Аҡмулла (former Bashkir),[KNAB] Aseutana - 아스타나 (Korean*), Astana (Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Romanian, Turkish, Azeri), Astana - Астана (Belarusian, Kazakh, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian*), Astana - ئاستانا (Uyghur), Astanà (Catalan), Astaná (Spanish), Asţana - ასტანა (Georgian), Asutana/Aqsana/Angmulaq (Inuktitut), Asutana - アスタナ (Japanese*), అస్తానా (Telugu), Celinograd - Целиноград (former Russian, 1961-1992),[KNAB] Qaraötkel - Қараөткел (obsolete Kazakh unofficial),[KNAB] Tselīnograd - Целиноград (former Kazakh, 1961-1992)[KNAB]

B[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Baghdad Bāgaakdaaht - 巴格達 (Cantonese), Bagdá (Portuguese), Bagdad (Danish, French, German, Spanish, historic English), Bagdad - Багдад (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Mongolian, Ossetian, Russian, Serbian), Bagdad - באגדאד (Yiddish), Baġdād - بغداد (Arabic), Bağdad (Azeri), Bağdad - Багдад (Kyrgyz, Tatar), Bağdad - Бағдад (Bashkir, Kazakh), Baǧdad - Багъдад (Avar, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgian),[KNAB] Baḡdâd - בגדאד [בַּעְ'דַּאדּ] (Hebrew), Baḡdād - ܒܓܕܐܕ (Syriac), Baǧdat - Багъдат (Tabasaran),[KNAB] Bagdat (Turkmen),[KNAB] Bağdat (Crimean Tatar, Turkish),[KNAB] Baǧdati - ბაღდადი (Georgian,[KNAB] Mingrelian), Bagdatum (Latin), Bagdaza (Hausa),[KNAB] Baġdod - Бағдод (Tajik), Bāgédá - 巴格達 (traditional characters)/ 巴格达 (simplified characters) (historical Mandarin Chinese), Bageudadeu - 바그다드 (Korean), Baghdaad - ބަޣުދާދު (Divehi), Baghdad - باغداد (Uyghur), Bagudaddo - バグダード (Japanese),[KNAB] Bajdad - БаІдад (Chechen),[KNAB] Bałdad - Բաղդադ (Armenian), Bałtat - Բաղտատ (Western Armenian), Bàodá - 報達 (traditional characters)/ 报达 (simplified characters) (historic Mandarin Chinese), Baqdaad (Somali), Bát-đa (Vietnamese),[KNAB] Bǣkdǣt - แบกแดด (Thai), Beẍa (Kurdish alternative), Beẍda (Kurdish), Beẍda - بەغدا (Sorani Kurdish), Boudaaht - 報達 (historic Cantonese), Pahtat - Пахтат (Chuvash),[1] Vagdáti - Βαγδάτη (Greek),[KNAB]
Baku Bacou (former French), Bacu (Portuguese*), Bādkūbe - بادکوبه (former Persian), Bakı (Azeri)*, Bakku - Бакку (Tabasaran), Bakoe (Afrikaans, Dutch*), Bakou (French)*, Bakoú - Μπακού (Greek*), Bakox (Chechen), Baku (Croatian*, Crimean Tatar*, Czech*, Danish*, Finnish*, German*, Hungarian*, Indonesian*, Italian*, Latin*, Latvian*, Lithuanian*, Maltese *, Norwegian*, Polish*, Romanian*, Slovak*, Swedish*, Tat), Bākū - باکو (Arabic, Persian), Baku - باكو (Urdu), Baku - Баку (Avar*, Belarusian*, Bulgarian*, Lezghi, Macedonian*, Ossetic*, Russian*, Serbian*, Tatar*, Tsakhur, Ukrainian*), Baku - 巴庫 (Mandarin Chinese)*, Baku - בקו (Hebrew)*, Bakū - バクー (Japanese)*, Bakû - باکوو (Kurdish)*, Bakú (Spanish)*, Bākū - ܒܟܘ (Syriac), Bakü (Turkish)*, Baku - באַקו (Yiddish)*, Bākūyah (historic Arabic), Bakuu (Estonian)*, Baqu - Բաքու (Armenian)*, Bako - ბაქო (Georgian)*, Bokü (Talyshi)
Banda Aceh Banda Aceh (Indonesian, Malay), Banda Acèh (Acehnese, Javanese), Bandā`āčhe - บันดาร์อาเจะห์ (Thai), Bāandaat Achàih - 班達亞齊 (Cantonese), Banda Atjeh (Dutch, Indonesian old spelling), Banda Atjèh (Acehnese old spelling), Bāndā Ātšīh - باندا آتشيه (Arabic), Bandar Aceh (historic Indonesian), Bandar Aceh Darussalam (historic Indonesian [long form]), Bāndáyàqí - 班達亞齊 (Mandarin Chinese), Dàyàqí - 大亞齊 (Mandarin Chinese alternative), Koetaradja (historic Indonesian old spelling, pre–1962), Kota Radja (historic Dutch, historic English, pre–1962), Kutaradja (historic Acehnese, historic Indonesian old spelling, pre–1962)
Bandung Bandon - バンドン (Japanese), Bandhung (Javanese), Bandung, Бандунг (Cyrillic Script), Bandungas (Lithuanian), Bandungo (Esperanto), Bandunj - باندونج (Arabic), Wànlóng - 萬隆 (Mandarin Chinese)
Bangalore Bangarōru - バンガロール (Japanese), ბენგალორი (Georgian), બેંગલોર (Gujarati), बंगलौर (Hindi [traditional]), बेंगलूरु (Hindi [phonetic transcription of Kannada name]), ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು (Kannada), 뱅갈로(Korean), ബാംഗ്ലൂര് (Malayalam), बंगळूर (Marathi), பெங்களூர் (Tamil), బెంగుళూరు (Telugu), بنگلور (Urdu)
Bangkok Bancác (Irish), Bangóg - Μπανγκόγκ (Greek), Banguecoque or Bangkok (Portuguese), Băng Cốc (Vietnamese), Bankoku - バンコク (Japanese), Krung Thep Maha Nakhon - กรุงเทพมหานคร (Thai), Màngǔ - 曼谷 (Mandarin Chinese), ბანგკოკი (Georgian), 방콕 (Korean), பாங்காக் (Tamil), బేంగ్కాక్ (Telugu)
Basra Al-Baṣrah - البصرة (Arabic),[KNAB] Baçorá (Portuguese), Bāshìlā - 巴士拉 (traditional and simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Bāsihlā - 巴士拉 (Cantonese), Basora (Spanish), Basra (German, Indonesian, Turkish), Basra - Басра (Bulgarian, Russian[KNAB], Serbian, Ukrainian), Basra - Բասրա (Armenian), Baṣra - בצרה (Hebrew), Baṣrā - ܒܨܪܐ (Syriac), Basrā - बसरा (Hindi), Baṣrah - بصره (Persian, Urdu), Bassorah (French),[KNAB] Bəsrə (Azeri), Besir (Kurdish alternative),[KNAB] Besra - بەسرە (Kurdish),[KNAB] Besre - بەسرە (Sorani Kurdish), Busra(h) (historic English),[KNAB] Bussora(h) (historic English),[KNAB] Vasóra - Βασόρα (Greek)
Beijing Bắc Kinh (Vietnamese), Baekging (Zhuang), Bākgìng - 北京 (Cantonese), Bākpìhng - 北平 (Cantonese [archaic]), Beežin - Бээжин / Bejžin - Бэйжин (Mongolian), Běijīng - 北京 (Chinese), Beijing - 베이징 (Korean [modern]), Beijing (Romanian), Běipíng - 北平 (Chinese [archaic, also alternate in Taiwan]), Béising / Péicing (Irish), Bêjing - པེ་ཅིང (Tibetan), Béyjing - بېيجىڭ / Бейҗиң (Uighur), Bukgyeong - 북경 / 北京 (Korean [former]), Pak-kiaⁿ - 北京 (Minnan, Taiwanese), Pechino (Italian), Pechinum (Latin), Pecin / Beijing (Welsh), Pékin (French), Pekin - 北京 / ペキン (Japanese), Pekin (Polish, Turkish, former Romanian), Pekin - Пекин (former Romanian, Russian), Pekín (Spanish), Peking (Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English [alternate], Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Slovenian, Swedish), Peking - Пекинг (Serbian), Pekíno - Πεκίνο (Greek), Pequim (Portuguese), Pequín (Catalan), პეკინი (Georgian), பெய்ஜிங் / பீஜிங் (Tamil), బేజింగ్ (Telugu), ปักกิ่ง (Thai),
Beirut Beyrouth (French), Bayrūt - بيروت (Arabic, Urdu, Persian), Virytós - Βηρυτός (Greek), Beyrut - Բեյրութ (Armenian), Beiroet (Afrikaans, Dutch), Beirūto - ベイルート (Japanese), Bejrút (Czech, Hungarian), Bejrut - Бейрут (Russian, Belarussian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian), Beyrut (Turkish)
Bengkulu Bangka Hulu (Indonesian [archaic], Malay [archaic]), Bencoolen (former English colonial name), Benkoelen (Dutch), Benkuru - ベンクル (Japanese), Kota Bengkulu (Indonesian, Malay), బెంగ్కూళు నగరం (Telugu)
Bishkek Bichkek (French), Bischkek (German), Bishukeku - ビシュケク (Japanese), Bisjkek (Dutch), Biškek (Croatian, Finnish, Slovenian), Biškek - Бишкек (Macedonian, Serbian), Bişkek (Romanian, Turkish), Biškeka (Latvian), Biškekas (Lithuanian), Biszkek (Polish), Bixkek (Catalan), బిష్కెక్ (Telugu), ბიშკეკი (Georgian); Frunze (former name)
Bukhara Boechara (Dutch), Boxārā - بُخارا (Persian), Buchara (Italian), Buhara (Finnish, Turkish, Turkmen), Buhara - ブハラ (Japanese), Buhara - Бухара (Serbian), Buhhaara (Estonian), Bujara (Spanish), Bukharà (Catalan), Bukhara - Бұхара (Kazakh), Bukhara - Бухара (Russian), Bukhoro - Бухоро (Tajik), Buxara (Azeri), Buxoro (Uzbek), ბუხარა (Georgian), బుఖారా (Telugu)
Bursa Boersa (Dutch), Brousse (former French), Bursa (Azeri, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Macedonian, Romanian, Turkish), Bursa - בורסה (Hebrew), Bursa - Бурса (Serbian*), Burusa - ブルサ (Japanese), Proúsa - Προύσα (Greek), Prusa (Latin), ბურსა (Georgian), బుర్సా (Telugu)

C[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Cairo القاهرة - Al-Qāhirah (Arabic), El Cairo (Spanish), Il Cairo (Italian), El Caire (Catalan), Kairo (Esperanto, Finnish, German, Serbian [as Каиро], Swedish), Kairo - カイロ (Japanese), Kairó (Hungarian), Kair (Polish), Le Caire (French), ქაირო (Georgian), Kair - Каир (Russian), Kahire (Turkish), Kaherah (Malay), Қаһіра(Kazakh), கெய்ரோ (Tamil)
Çankırı Çankırı (Türkçe), Gankıra (Hittites), Gangra (Greek), Cankiri (English, French, German, Spanish),Çenğiri (Ottoman Turkish), Çangırı (former Turkish)
Chengdu 成都 - Chéngdu (Mandarin Chinese), Seito - 成都 [せいと] (Japanese), Seongdo - 성도 [成都] (Korean), Thành Đô (Vietnamese), Chingdū - چېڭدۇ / Чеңду (Uighur)
Chennai Chennnai - チェンナイ (Japanese), Madras (former name), Madràs (alternate in Catalan), Μάδρας (Greek), Mədrəs (alternate in Azeri), চেন্নাই (Bengali), ચેન્નઈ (Gujarati), चेन्नई (Hindi, Marathi), ಚೆನ್ನೈ (Kannada), சென்னை (Tamil), చెన్న పట్టణం (Telugu), (, چنئی (Urdu)
Cheremkhovo Arangata - Арангата (Buryat),[KNAB] Čeremxovo - Черемхово (Russian),[KNAB] Qièlièmǔhuòwò - 切列姆霍沃 (Mandarin Chinese)
Chittagong Chittagon - チッタゴン (Japanese), Chottogram - চট্টগ্রাম (Bengali),
Chongqing Chóngqìng - 重慶 (Mandarin Chinese), Jūkei - 重慶 [じゅうけい] (Japanese), Chunggyeong - 중경 [重慶] (Korean), Chūngchīng - چۇڭچىڭ / Чуңчиң (Uyghur) Chungqing (Dutch), Trùng Khánh (Vietnamese), చోంగ్కింగ్ (Telugu)

D[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Damascus Dimašq - دمشق / Ash-Shām - الشام / Jilliq - جلق (Arabic), Şam (Kurdish, Crimean Tatar, Turkish), Δαμασκός (Greek), Dımeşk (obsolete Turkish), Damaskos - Դամասկոս, Šam - Շամ (Armenian), Dəməşq, Şam (Azeri), Damas (French), Dammeseq - דַּמֶּשֶׂק (Hebrew), Damask - Дамаск (Russian, Bulgarian), Dimaşq˙ (Chechen), ¯Sam - Щам (Kabardian [Circassian]), Damesek (Karaim), Damasc (Catalan, Romanian), Damasco (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), Damascus (Dutch, Latin, Welsh), Damasko (Esperanto), Damaskus (Danish, Estonian, German, Indonesia, Norwegian), Damask - Дамаск (Albanian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovenian), Damaszkusz (Hungarian), Damašek (Czech), Damaszek (Polish), Damaskos (Finnish, Northern Lapp), Damaisc (Irish), Dimshek (Somali), Dameski (Swahili), Damashƙa (Hausa), Damaxk - دهمهشق (Uighur), Dàmǎshìgé - 大馬士革 (traditional characters) / 大马士革 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Damasukasu - ダマスカス (Japanese), Damaseukuseu - 다마스쿠스 (Korean), Damsyik (Malay), Dameshk - দামেস্ক (Bengali), დამასკო (Georgian)
Da Nang Đà Nẵng (Vietnamese), Danan - ダナン (Japanese), Tourane (French [former]), Xiàngǎng - 峴港 (traditional characters) 岘港 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese)
Dhaka ঢাকা (Bengali), ढाका (Hindi, Marathi), ڈھاکا (Urdu), ઢાકા (Gujarati), Dacca (former English name until 1982, Italian, French [alternate], former Romanian, Spanish, alternate in Catalan), Dákǎ 達卡 (traditional characters) 达卡 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Dakka - Дакка (Russian), Dakka - ダッカ (Japanese), Dəkkə (Azeri), Daca (Portuguese), დაკა (Georgian), டாக்கா (Tamil)
Dili Dili (Indonesian, Tetum), Díli (Portuguese), Dilly (archaic English)
Diyarbakır Amed - ئامه‌د (Kurdish),[KNAB] Amid - Ամիդ (Armenian),[KNAB] Amida (Latin),[KNAB] Diarbak‘ir - Դիարբաքիր (Armenian alternative),[KNAB] Diarbakiri - დიარბაქირი (Georgian),[KNAB] Diarbek‘ir - Դիարբեքիր (Armenian aletrnative),[KNAB] Dijarbakyr - Диярбакыр (Russian),[KNAB] Diyarbakır (Azeri, Turkish[KNAB]), Diyarbekir (Kurdish alternative, historic Turkish [pre–1937]),[KNAB] Diyarbekır (Zazaki), Diyar-ı Bekir - ديار بکر (Ottoman Turkish), Kara Âmid - قره آمد (Ottoman Turkish), Tiarpek‘ir - Տիարպեքիր (Western Armenian alternative)
Dushanbe Doesjanbe (Dutch), Douchanbé (French), Dušanbe - Душанбе (Croatian, Finnish, Latvian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Tajik), Duŝanbeo (Esperanto), Duixanbe (Catalan), Dušanbė (Lithuanian), Duşanbe (Romanian, Turkish), Düşənbə (Azeri), Dūšānbī (Arabic), Duschanbe (German), Dushambe - ドゥシャンベ (Japanese), Dusjanbe (Swedish), Duszanbe (Polish), დუშანბე (Georgian); Hissar (former name); Stalinabad (former name)

E[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Elâzığ Elazığ (Azeri, Turkish alternative), Elâzığ (Turkish),[KNAB] Elazıı - (Gagauz), Elazık (historic Turkish, 1937), Elâzîz (Turkish, pre–1937), Elezîz - (Kurdish), Èljazyg - Элязыг (Russian),[KNAB] Elyazik‘ - Էլյազիք (Armenian alternative),[KNAB] Ḥarfūṭ - ܟܪܦܘܬ (Syriac), Mamuretülaziz (Turkish, 1866–?), Mezra (Kurdish alternative), Xarberd - Խարբերդ (Armenian), Xarpêt (Kurdish alternative, Zazaki), Xarpıt (Zazaki alternative), Xarpiyêt (Zazaki alternative), Xarpût (Kurdish alternative)
Erbil Arbaelo - ܐܪܒܝܠ (Syriac), Arbela (Latin), Arbīl - اربيل (Arabic),[KNAB] Ərbil (Azeri), Erbil (Turkish), Èrbilʼ - Эрбиль (Russian),[KNAB] Hewlêr - ھەولێر (Kurdish),[KNAB] Irbīl - اربيل (Arabic alternative)[KNAB]
Erzurum Eruzurumu - エルズルム (Japanese)

also written as Erzerum or Erzeroum in some texts until the early 20th century, formerly known as Arzen during the Roman period, Theodosiopolis (after Theodosius I) during the Byzantine period and Karin (Կարին) in Armenian (hence Karnu-kalaki, კარნუ-ქალაქი, of the medieval Georgians)

F[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Faisalabad Faisarābādo - ファイサラーバード (Japanese), Lyallpur (historic English changed to Faisalabad in 1977), فیصل آباد (Urdu), Faysalabad (Turkish)

G[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Gallipoli Galipoli - גליפולי (Hebrew)*, Galipolis (Lithuanian)*, Galipolje (Croatian*, Serbian*), Gallipoli (Dutch*, Finnish*, French*, German*, Italian*, Romanian*), Gallipolli / Kallip'olli - 갈리폴리 (Korean), Gelibolu (Turkish)*, Kallípolis - Καλλίπολις (Greek)*
Ganja Elisabethpol (former German), Elisávetpoli - Ελισάβετπολη (former Greek), Elizavetpol' - Елизаветполь (former Russian), Gandja (Danish*, French*, Portuguese*, Spanish*), Gandscha (German)*, Gandža (Estonian*, Finnish*, Lithuanian*), Gandžā (Latvian*), Gandża (Polish)*, Gandzak - Գանձակ (Armenian)*, Ganzha - Ганжа (former Russian), Gandzja (Dutch)*, Gandzsá (Hungarian*), Ganga - ܓܢܓܐ (Syriac), Gangia (Italian)*, Ganja - განჯა (Georgian)*, Ganja - גנזה (Hebrew*), Ganjeh - گنجه (Persian)*, Ghianja (Romanian*), Gjandža - Гјанџа (Serbian)*, Gyandzha - Гянджа (Belarusian*, Bulgarian*, Russian*, Ukrainian*), Gəncə [Ҝәнҹә] (Azeri)*, Gence - گنجه (Kurdish)*, Gence (Turkish)*, Giantzá - Γκιαντζά (Greek)*, Janzā - جنزا (Arabic*), Kirovabad - Кировабад (former Russian)
Guangzhou Canton (English [alternate], Catalan, French, Welsh, Italian, Romanian, Spanish), Cantão (Portuguese), Gwóngjàu - 广州 / 廣州 (Cantonese), Gwangju - 광주 [廣州] (Korean), Guǎngzhōu - 广州 (simplified characters) / 廣州 (traditional characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Kńg-chiu - 广州 / 廣州 (Minnan / Taiwanese), Guōng-ciŭ - 广州 / 廣州 (Mindong), Gvangjcouh (Zhuang), Kanton / Guangzhou (German), Kanton (Dutch, Finnish, Polish, Turkish), Kantona - Καντόνα (Greek), Kōshū - 広州 [こうしゅう] (Japanese), Quảng Châu (Vietnamese), กวางเจา (Thai), გუანჯოუ, კანტონი (Georgian)

H[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Haifa Caifa / Caiphas (former medieval crusader names, Italian), Haïfa (French), Haifa - ハイファ (Japanese), Haifa (Spanish), Hǎifǎ - 海法 (traditional and simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Haipa - ჰაიფა (Georgian), Hajfa (Polish), Ḥayfā - حيفا (Arabic), Hayfa (Turkish, Azerbaijani), Ħêphāh - חיפה (Hebrew), Sycaminon / Sykaminos (other names [archaic]), ܚܝܦܐ (Aramaic)
Hebron Al-Khalīl - الخليل (Arabic), Chevrón(a) - Χεβρών(α) (Greek), El-Halil (Turkish), Halilürrahman (Ottoman Turkish), Ḥeḇrôn - חֶבְרוֹן (Hebrew [Tiberian]) Hebrón (Spanish), Hebroni - ჰებრონი (Georgian), Heburon - ヘブロン (Japanese), Ḥevron - חֶבְרוֹן (Hebrew [Standard]), Kiryat-Arba - קִרְיַת־(הְ)אַרְבַּע (ancient Hebrew),[KNAB] Xībólún - 希伯侖 / 希伯倫 / 希伯崙 (Mandarin Chinese)
Ho Chi Minh City Gajeong - 嘉定 (archaic Korean), Gia Ðịnh - 嘉定 (archaic Vietnamese), Hōchimin - ホーチミン (Japanese), Hôchimin - ໂຮຈີມິນ (Lao),[KNAB] Ho Chi Minhin kaupunki (Finnish), Ho Chi Minh-Stad (Dutch), Hošiminas (Lithuanian), Ho Si Min Város (Hungarian), Ho Și Min (Romanian), Ho Ši Mini - ჰო ში მინი (Georgian), Ho Tsji Ming-Stad (former Dutch), Hú Zhìmíng Shì - 胡志明市 (Mandarin Chinese), Jiādìng - 嘉定 (Classical Chinese), Katei - 嘉定 (archaic Japanese), Nakhǭn Hōčhimin - นครโฮจิมินห์ (Thai),[KNAB] Ô͘ Chì-bêng Chhī 胡志明市 (Taiwanese), Prey Nôkôr - ព្រៃនគរ (Khmer),[KNAB] Sài Gòn (former Vietnamese), Saigon (former English, Catalan, Italian, former Romanian), Saigón (Spanish), Sāigung - 西貢 (former Cantonese), Sai-kòng - 西貢 (former Taiwanese), Sainggônmyo - ဆိုင်ဂုံမြို့ (Burmese),[KNAB] Saingǭn - ไซ่ง่อน (former Thai),[KNAB] Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh (Vietnamese),[KNAB] Wùh Jimìhng Síh - 胡志明市 (Cantonese), Xaingon - ໄຊງ່ອນ (former Lao),[KNAB] Xīgòng - 西貢 (former Mandarin Chinese)
Hong Kong Chongk Kongk - Χονγκ Κονγκ (Greek), Hāńgkāńg - हांगकांग (Hindi),[KNAB] Hańkań - হংকং (Bengali),[KNAB] Hēunggóng - 香港 (Cantonese), Hiong-káng - 香港 (Minnan, Taiwanese), Hiông-kóng - 香港 (Hakka), Hong Cong (Irish, Gaelic), Hong Kong - 홍콩 (Korean alternate), Hong Kong (archaic English, Finnish), Hǭngkong - ฮ่องกง (Thai), Honkon - ホンコン / 香港 (Japanese), Honkong - Хонконг (Mongolian), Hương Cảng or Hồng Công (Vietnamese), Hyanghang - 향항 / 香港 (Korean), Shanggang - ཤང་ཀང (Tibetan),[KNAB] Victoria (obsolete, colonial name of the city on the north shore of Hong Kong Island), Xianggang - 香港 (traditional and simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Yanghgangj (Zhuang), Hong Ķongi - ჰონგ კონგი (Georgian)
Hyderabad Aitarāpāt - ஐதராபாத் (Tamil),[KNAB] Aitarāpāttu - ஐதராபாத்து (Tamil), Haidarābād - हैदराबाद (Hindi, Marathi),[KNAB] Haidarābād - حیدر آباد (Urdu, Farsi), Haidarābād - ഹൈദരാബാദ് (Malayalam),[KNAB] Haidarabadi - ჰაიდარაბადი (Georgian), Haidarābādu - ಹೈದರಾಬಾದು (Kannada),[KNAB] ಹೇದರಾಬಾದ್ (Kannada), Haidarābādu - హైదరాబాదు (Telugu),[KNAB] Haiderabādo - ハイデラバード (Japanese), Haidœ̄rābāt - ไฮเดอราบาด (Thai), Haidrābādu - హైద్రాబాదు (alternative Telugu),[KNAB] Haidrarābād - હૈદ્રરાબાદ (Gujarati),[KNAB] Haitarāpāt - னைதராபாத் (Tamil),[KNAB] Hāydarābād - হায়দরাবাদ (Bengali),[KNAB]

I[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Irkutsk Erhüü - Эрхүү (Buryat and Mongolian), Irkutsk - Иркутск (Russian), Irkuțk (Romanian), Irkoutsk (French), Irukūtsuku - イルクーツク (Japanese), Yìěrkùcīkè - 伊爾庫茨克 (traditional characters) 伊尔库茨克 (simplified characters) (Chinese), Irkuck (Polish), ირკუტსკი (Georgian).
İskenderun Alejandría (Spanish), Aleksandretta (Polish), Alessandretta (Italian), Alexandreta (Portuguese), Alexandretta (variant in English, German), Alexandrétta - Αλεξανδρέττα (Greek), Alexandria - Αλεξάνδρια (Greek), Alexandrette (variant in French, German), Alexandria (Romanian), Alexandrie* (Czech), Alexandrië (Dutch), Iskandarūn - إسكندرون (Arabic), (al-)Iskandariya (former Arabic), İskenderiye (Turkish until 1939), İskenderun (Turkish), İsgəndərun (Azeri), Scanderoon (former variant in English), Isukenderun - イスケンデルン (Japanese), ისქანდერუნი (Georgian).
Istanbul Estambul (Spanish), Istamboul (French alternative), Isutanburu - イスタンブル (Japanese), Istambul (Portuguese), Stambul (former Romanian), Țarigrad (former Romanian) Konstantinopel (Swedish), Ыстамбұл (Kazakh)
Izmir Esmirna (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish), Ezmirna (Ladino), Ijeumireu - 이즈미르 (Korean), İzmir (Turkish, Azeri), Izmir (Dutch, Finnish, Hungarian, Romanian), Izmir - Измир (Russian*, Serbian), Izmira (Latvian), Izumiru - イズミル (Japanese), Smiorna (Irish), Smirna (former Serbian, former Romanian), Smirne (Italian), Smýrni - Σμύρνη (Greek), Smyrna (Polish, variant in English), Szmirna (historic Hungarian), იზმირი (Georgian), Զմիւռնիա or Իզմիր (Armenian /Zmyurnia or Izmiř/), 伊茲密爾 (Mandarin Chinese)*

J[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Jakarta Batavia (Dutch colonial name), Betawi (former Malay, former Indonesian), Sunda Kelapa (original native name), Cakarta (Turkish), Djakarta (Dutch alternate, French, German, Romanian), Dzhakarta - Джакарта (Russian), Džakarta (Croatian, Serbian), Dżakarta (Polish), Dzsakarta (Hungarian), Giacarta (Italian), Iacárta (Irish), Jacarta (Portuguese), Jakaruta - ジャカルタ (Japanese), Jagatara - ジャガタラ (Japanese [archaic]), Τζακάρτα (Greek), ჯაკარტა (Georgian), Yakarta (Spanish)
Jericho Arīħa, أريحا (Arabic) Yerīħo, יְרִיחוֹ (Hebrew) Jericó (Catalan, Spanish), Gerico (Italian), Ireachó (Irish), Ierihon (Romanian), Jéricho (French),Yariho - यरीहो (Hindi), Jeriko (Finnish), Jerycho (Polish), იერიქონი (Georgian), Ιεριχώ (Iericho) (Greek), Eriha, Ceriko (Turkish), Yeriko - イェリコ (Japanese), 예리코 (Korean)
Jeddah جدّة - Jiddah (Arabic), Cidde (Turkish), Dschidda (German),Jedda - जेद्दा (Hindi), Djedda (Dutch), Djeddah (French), Jedda (Spanish, Finnish), Jedda/Jidda - ジェッダ/ジッダ (Japanese), Gedda (Italian), Gidda (Catalan), Jidá (Portuguese), Ciddə (Azeri), Dżudda (Polish), Džida (Lithuanian), Yidda (Spanish var.), ჯედა (Georgian)
Jerusalem Baitul Maqdis (Malays), Єрусалим (Ukrainian), Erusaremu - エルサレム (Japanese), Gerusalemme (Italian), Hierusalem (Latin), Iarúsailéim (Irish), Ierusalim (Romanian), Ierusalím - Ιερουσαλήμ or Ierosólima - Ιεροσόλυμα (Greek), Ierusalimi - იერუსალიმი (Georgian), Ierusalim - Иерусалим (Russian), Jerozolima (Polish), Jerusalem (Catalan, Danish, Finnish, German, Norwegian, Swedish), Jérusalem (French), Jerúsalem, Jórsalir or Jórsalaborg (Icelandic), Yarushalem - यरूशलेम (Hindi), Jerusalém (Portuguese), Jerusalén (Spanish), Jeruusalemm (Estonian), Jerusalim - Јерусалим (Serbian), Jeruzalem (Croatian, Dutch, Polish (old), Slovak, Slovene), Jeruzalém (Czech), Giêrusalem (Vietnamese)', Giê-ru-xa-lem (former Vietnamese), Jeruzalė (Lithuanian), Jeruzāleme (Latvian), JeruzsálemIW (Hungarian), Jérusalem (French), Kudüs (Turkish), al-Quds - القُدس / القـُدْس (Arabic), Qüds / Yerusəlim (Azeri), Yerusalam (Indonesian) Yərušaláyim - יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Hebrew), Yərûšəlem - יְרוּשְׁלֶם (Aramaic), Kudüs (Turkish), Quddus (Uzbek), እየሩሳሌም (Amharic), Yēlùsālěng - 耶路撒冷IW (Mandarin Chinese), Yerusaghem - Երուսաղեմ (Armenian), Yerushalayim - יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Hebrew), Yerusallem - 예루살렘 (Korean), اورشلیم (Persian)
Former names: Jorsal (Old Norse)

K[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Karachi Karachi - カラチ (Japanese), Karaçi (Turkish), Karaczi (Polish), Kəraçi (Azeri), ყარაჩი (Georgian), ڪراچي (Sindhi), كراچى (Urdu)
Former name: Kolachi (early 19th century name), கராச்சி (Tamil)
Kayseri Caesarea (Latin), Kaiseri - カイセリ (Japanese), Kayseri (Turkish), Qeysəriyyə (Azeri)
Former names: Cäsarea (German), Caesarea (English), Cesarea (Italian), Kaisáreia - Καισάρεια (Greek), Mazaca (ancient name in Latin), Mazaka (ancient name in Greek)
Kermanshah Kermanšah (Finnish), Kirmanşah (Turkish), Kerumānshā - ケルマーンシャー (Japanese), Kirmaşan (Kurdish), کرمانشاه (Persian)
Khabarovsk Bólì - 伯力 (alternative name in Chinese), Hābāluófūsīkè - 哈巴罗夫斯克 (Chinese), Habarobseukeu - 하바롭스크 (Korean), Habarofusuku - ハバロフスク (Japanese)
Kolkata Calcuta (Catalan, Romanian, Spanish), Calcúta (Irish), Calcutá (Portuguese), Calcutta (Danish, Italian, Norwegian, Swedish), Jiā'ěrgèdá - 加爾各答 (Mandarin Chinese (traditional characters)), Kalkoúta - Καλκούτα (Greek), Kalkuta (Serbian, Polish), Kalküta (Turkish), Kalkutta (Finnish,German), Kalʼkutta - Калькутта (Russian), Kəlküttə (Azeri), Ka-ní-kok-tap - 加爾各答 (Hokkien/Taiwanese), Korukata - コルカタ (Japanese), কলকাতা / কলিকাতা (Bengali), კალკუტა (Georgian), कोलकाता (Hindi, current), कलकत्ता (Hindi, traditional), കൊല്ക്കത്ത (Malayalam), கொல்கத்தா (Tamil)
Former name: Calcutta (English, French)
Kota Kinabalu Kotakinabaru - コタキナバル (Japanese)
Former names: Api (colonial Japanese name), A-pì - 亞庇 (Hokkien), Api-Api (former Malay), Jesselton (colonial English name), Yàbì - 亞庇 (Mandarin Chinese [traditional])
Kuala Lumpur Jílóngpō - 吉隆坡 (Mandarin Chinese), Kouala Loumpou (Créole), Kúala Lúmpúr (Icelandic), Kuala-Lumpur - Куала-Лумпур (Russian, Ukrainian), Kuala-Lumpuro (Esperanto), Kuararumpūru - クアラルンプール (Japanese), Kvala Lumpūras (Lithuanian), კუალა ლუმპური (Georgian), கோலாலம்பூர் (Tamil)
Kyoto Gyeongdo - 경도 [京都] (Korean), Gyoto - 교토 (Korean), Jīngdū - 京都 (Mandarin Chinese (traditional and simplified characters)), Kiaⁿ-to͘ - 京都 (Hokkien/Taiwanese*), Kioto (Afrikaans, Basque, Dutch, Esperanto, Finnish, Polish, Spanish), Kijotas (Lithuanian), Kyōto - 京都 [きょうと] (Japanese*), Quioto (Galician, Portuguese)
Kyzyl Belocarsk - Белоцарск (Russian [pre-1918]),[KNAB] Belotsarsk (English [pre-1918]), Kěnmùbìqíěr - 肯木畢其爾 (Mandarin Chinese [Taiwan usage]),[2] Kèzīlēi - 克孜勒 (Mandarin Chinese* (traditional and simplified characters)), Khem Belder (English [1918-1926]),[3] Kijil - 키질 (Korean*), Kijil Qota - ᠬᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Classical Mongolian), Kizil - Кизил (Mongolian),[KNAB] Kīzīl - كيزيل (Arabic*), Kızıl (Turkish*), Kizil Khoto (obsolete English variant),[3] Kizila - किज़िल (Hindi*), Krasnyj - Красный (Russian [unofficial variant 1920-1926]),[KNAB] Kyzyl (English, French*, Spanish*), Kyzyl - Кызыл (Belarusian*, Buryat, Mongolian*, Russian*, Yakut), Kyzyl - Кизил (Ukrainian*), Kyzyl-Khoto (former English variant),[4] Kuzuru - クズル (Japanese*), Qızıl - Қызыл (Kazakh*), Qizil - قىزىل (Uyghur),[KNAB] Qızıl - Кызыл (Tatar*), Qıźıl - Ҡыҙыл (Bashkir),[KNAB] Qyzyl - Къызыл (Karachay-Balkar,[KNAB] Kumyk[KNAB]), Urjanxajsk - Урянхайск (Russian [unofficial variant 1918-1920]), Xem Beldiri - Хем Белдири (Tuvan [1918-1926]),[KNAB] Xem-Beldyr - Хем-Белдыр (Russian [1918-1926])[KNAB]

L[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Lahore لاہور (Urdu), लाहौर-यात्रा (Hindi), ლაჰორი (Georgian), Λαχώρης (Greek), ละฮ อร์ (Thai), לאַכאָ (Yiddish), Laxor - Лахор (Ukrainian), లాహోర్ (Telugu), ಲಾಹೋರ್ (Kannada), லாகூர் (Tamil), Լահոր (Armenian), Láhaur (Slovak), લાહોર (Gujrati), 拉合尔 (simplified characters), 拉合爾 (traditional characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Láhaur (Czech), Лахоре (Macedonian), Laxore - Лахоре (Russian), Lahore (English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Latin, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, Dutch, Danish, German, Croatian, Irish), लहोरे (Nepali), ラホール (Japanese), Raholleu - 라호르 (Korean)

M[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Macau Aomen - 澳门 (Mandarin Chinese, Simplified), Maa Gau - 馬交 (Cantonese (traditional characters), informal), Macao (Italian, Finnish, French, Romanian, Spanish), Macau (Dutch, English, German, Portuguese), Makao - マカオ / 澳門 (Japanese), Makao (Polish, Serbian, Turkish), O Mun - 澳門 (Cantonese (traditional characters)), Omun - 오문 [澳門] (Korean), მაკაო (Georgian), 마카오 (Korean alternate)
Makassar Macassar (Portuguese, English variant), Makasar (Dutch, Polish, Norwegian var.), Makasaras (Lithuanian), Makassaru - マカッサル (Japanese), Ujungpandang (former Indonesian), Ujung Pandang (former Malay), Wàngjiāxī - 望加锡 (Chinese (simplified characters))
Malacca Malaca (Portuguese, Spanish), Malacca (Italian), Malakka (Dutch, German, Polish), Mâ-la̍k-kah - 麻六甲 (Hokkien, Taiwanese), 马六甲 (Mandarin Chinese (simplified characters)), Malaqa - ملقا (Arabic), Marakka - マラッカ (Japanese), Melaka (Finnish, Malay, Indonesian), მალაკა (Georgian)
Manila Mainile (Irish), Manila (Basque, Catalan, Cebuano, Croatian, Czech, Danish, English, Estonian, Finnish, German, Ilokano, Indonesian, Italian, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Norwegian, Portuguese, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Swahili, Turkish, Vietnamese, Waray), Manila - Манила (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian), Maníla (Icelandic), Mǎnílā - 马尼拉 (Mandarin Chinese (simplified characters)), Má-nî-la (Hokkien, Taiwanese), Manilha (Portuguese alternate), Manilla (Dutch, English alternate, German alternate), Manille (French), Manilo (Esperanto), Manira - マニラ (Japanese), Maynilà (Tagalog, with diacritics), Mênila - ম্যানিলা (Bengali), Menila (Kapampangan), مانيلا (Arabic), მანილა (Georgian), מנילה (Hebrew), 마닐라 (Korean), فیلیپین (Persian), மணிலா (Tamil), มะนิลา (Thai), مانىل (Uyghur)
Mecca Al Makka al Mukarramah - مكة المكرمة (Arabic, full name), Makka (Uzbek), Makkah (Malay), La Meca (Catalan, Spanish), Meca (Portuguese), La Mecca (Italian), Mecca (Romanian), La Mecque (French), Meice (Irish), Meka (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Mekka (Basque, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Polish, Swedish), Mekka - メッカ (Japanese), Mekka - Мекка (Russian), Mekkah (Indonesian), Mekah (Malays), Məkkə (Azeri), Mekke (Turkish), Môkka - মক্কা (Bengali), მექა (Georgian), மெக்கா (Tamil)
Medina al Madina al Munawwarah - المدينة المنورة (Arabic, full name), Madina (Uzbek), Мadinah (Indonesian, Malay), Medina - Медина (Dutch, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese), Al-Medina - אל-מדינה (Hebrew), Medina - メディナ (Japanese), Medina - Медина (Russian, Serbian), Mədinə (Azeri), Médine (French), Medine (Turkish) Medyna (Polish), Meidíne (Irish), Modina - মদিনা (Bengali), მედინა (Georgian), மெதீனா (Tamil)
Mumbai Bombai (Catalan), Bombaim (Portuguese), Bombaj (Polish), Bombay (English [former and variant], French, Italian, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Mumbai - মুম্বাই (Assamese, Bengali), Mumbai - ムンバイ (Japanese), Vomvái - Βομβάη (Greek), 孟買 (Chinese), मुंबई (Hindi, Marathi), ბომბეი / მუმბაი (Georgian), મુંબઈ (Gujarati), ಮುಂಬೈ (Kannada), 뭄바이 (Korean), मुम्बई (Nepali), ਮੁਮਬਏ (Panjabi), மும்பை (Tamil)

N[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Nablus Nāblūs (Arabic), Nabloes (Dutch), Naburusu - ナブルス (Japanese), Naplouse (French), Nablus (English, Italian, German, Portuguese, Turkish), Nablus - Наблус (Russian), Shkhem - שכם (Hebrew), ნაბლუსი (Georgian)
Nakhchivan Naxçıvan (Azeri), Nahçıvan (Turkish), Nakhijevan - Նախիջեվան (Armenian), Nexcivan - نخچيڤان (Kurdish), an Nacaiseaváin (Irish, Scottish Gaelic), Naktchevan (French), Nachitschewan (German), Nachitsjevan (Dutch), Nakhcivan (Italian), Nakhtxivan (Catalan), Najicheván (Spanish), Nakichevan (Portuguese), Nachitjevan (Swedish), Nakhitsjevan (Norwegian, Danish), Nahicseván (Hungarian), Nahitševan (Finnish), Nahhitševan (Estonian), Nakhichevanʼ - Нахичевань (Russian), Nakhichevanʼ - Нахічевань (Ukrainian), Nachiczewan (Polish), Nachičevan (Czech, Slovak), Nakhchivan - Нахчиван (Serbian), Nākhjāvān - نخجوان (Persian), Nakhchʼevani - ნახჭევანი (Georgian), Nakitseván - Νακιτσεβάν (Greek), Nakhchivan Ceety (Scots)*, Nakhitshevan - נחיצ'יבאן (Hebrew), Nakhitshifan - ناخيتشيفان (Arabic), Nākhtshewān - ܢܚܛܫܘܢ (Syriac), Nagsh-e Jahān - نقش جهان (former Persian)
New Delhi नई दिल्ली (Hindi), نئی دلی (Urdu), ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ (Punjabi), নয়া দিল্লী / নতুন দিল্লী (Bengali), புது தில்லி (Tamil), 新德里 (Chinese), Nueva Delhi (Spanish) Neu-delhi (German alternate), Nieuw-Delhi (Dutch alternate), Nuova Delhi (Italian), Yeni Dehli (Azeri, Turkish), Nju-Deli - Нью-Дели (Russian), Nju Delhi (Serbian), Nova Delhi (Catalan, Portuguese), Újdelhi (Hungarian), Nowe Delhi (Polish), Νέο Δελχί (Greek), Dellium Novum (Latin) Deilí Nua (Irish), დელი (Georgian), Nova Délhi (Portuguese), नवी दिल्ली (Marathi), Nyūderī - ニューデリー (Japanese)
Nicosia Lefkosía - Λευκωσία (Greek), Nicosia (Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish), Nicósia (Portuguese), Nicosie (French), Nikosia / Lefkosia (Finnish), Nikoshia - ニコシア (Japanese), Nikosia (German), Nikosija (Latvian, Russian, Ukrainian), Nikosio (Esperanto), Nikozija (Lithuanian, Serbian), Nikozja (Polish), Nīqūsiyā (Arabic), Lefkoşe or Lefkoşa (Turkish), ნიქოზია (Georgian)

O[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Osaka Dàbǎn - 大阪 (Chinese), Ōsaka - 大阪 [おおさか] (Japanese), Osaka - 오사카 (Korean), Daepan - 大阪 [대판] (former Korean), Ozaka - Οζάκα (Greek), ოსაკა (Georgian), Osaca (Portuguese)

P[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Palembang Balimbanj - باليمبانج (Arabic), Jùgǎng - 巨港 (Mandarin Chinese), Kī-káng / Kū-káng - 巨港 (Hokkien/Taiwanese), Palembang, Палембанг (Russian, Serbian, other languages using Cyrillic script), Palembangas (Lithuanian), Parenban - パレンバン (Japanese), Pelembang (Malay, Indonesian, colloquial speech)
Peshawar Báishāwǎ - 白沙瓦 (traditional and simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese)*, Báixiàwǎ - 白夏瓦 (traditional and simplified characters) (alternative Mandarin Chinese)*, Paśāvar - پشاور (Urdu [standard])*,[KNAB] Pe̍h-sa-óa - 白沙瓦 (Hokkien/Taiwanese), Peśāvar - પેશાવર (Gujarati), Peśāvar - पेशावर (Hindi*,[KNAB] Marathi*), Pešavar - Пешавар (Russian),[KNAB] Peṣāvar - பெஷாவர் (Tamil)*, Peṣāvar - పెషావర్ (Telugu), Peśavāru - ޕެޝަވާރު (Dhivehi), Peşaver (Turkish)*, Pēšāwar - پیشاور (Dari), Peśāwar - پشاور (Urdu [local form]),[KNAB] Pĕṣhāvar - പെഷാവര് (Malayalam),[KNAB] Peshāvar - پشاور [Shahmukhi script]* /ਪੇਸ਼ਾਵਰ [Gurmukhi script]* (Punjabi alternative), Péshawar - پېشاۋار (Uyghur)*, Peshāwaru - ペシャーワル (Japanese)*, Peshoyār - পেশোয়ার (Bengali)*,[KNAB] Pesyawareu - 페샤와르 *, Pētwā - เปศวาร์ [pèːt waː] (Thai)*, Pex̌awar - پېښور (Pashto)*, Pişavar (Azeri), Pišâvar - پیشاور (Persian)*, Pišāwar - بشاور (Arabic)*, Pishāvar - پشاور [Shahmukhi script]* / ਪਿਸ਼ਾਵਰ [Gurmukhi script] (Punjabi),[KNAB] Pišor - پِشور (Hindko)
Pyongyang Bình Nhưỡng (Vietnamese), Byawnyāngh - بيونيانغ (Arabic), Pêng-jióng - 平壤 (Hokkien/Taiwanese), Phenian (Romanian, Polish obsolete), Phenjan (Hungarian), Píngrǎng - 平壌 (Mandarin Chinese), Pjongjang (Finnish, Polish, Serbian), Pjöngjang (German), Pxenʼjan - Пхеньян (Russian), Pkheniani - ფხენიანი (Georgian), Pyeongyang/P'yŏngyang - 평양 [平壤] (Korean), Pyongyang (Danish, Dutch, English, French, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Pyonʼyan - 平壌 [ピョンヤン] (Japanese)
Phnom Penh Nam Vang - (Vietnamese), พนมเปญ - (Thai), Nom Pen (Spanish)

S[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Sahiwal Montgomery (Former colonial name changed to Sahiwal in 1966), ساہیوال (Urdu)
Samarkand Samarcand (old Romanian), Samarcanda (Catalan, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Samarcande (French), Samarkand - Самарканд (Dutch, Finnish, German, Norwegian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish), Samarkanda (Polish), Semerkant (Turkish), Samarkandas (Lithuanian), Samarkándhi - Σαμαρκάνδη (Greek), Səmərqənd (Azeri), Samarqand (Uzbek, Estonian), Samarukando - サマルカンド (Japanese), Szamarkand (Hungarian), সমরখন্দ (Bengali), სამარყანდი (Georgian), سمرقند (Persian), సమర్ఖండ్ (Telugu)
Seoul Gyeongseong - 경성 [京城] (historic Korean), Hànchéng - 漢城 (traditional characters) / 汉城 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese [recently superseded by Shǒuʼěr 首爾]), Hanseong - 한성 [漢城] (historic Korean), Hàn-siâⁿ - 漢城 (Hokkien, Taiwanese), Hansung (historic English), Hán Thành (Vietnamese), Hanyang - 한양 [漢陽] (historic Korean variant), Jīngchéng - 京城 (historic Chinese), Keijo (historic English), Kanjō - 漢城 [かんじょう] (historic Japanese), Keijō - 京城 [けいじょう] (historic Japanese), Seul (Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish, Azeri) - Seul - Сеул (Bulgarian, Mongolian, Russian, Serbian), Seulum (Latin), Seulo (Esperanto), Seula (Latvian), Seoel (Dutch), Seoul - 서울 (Korean), Séoul (French), Seúl (Spanish), Seül (Catalan), Σεούλ (Greek), Seulas (Lithuanian), Shǒu’ěr - 首爾 (traditional characters) / 首尔 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Soul (Czech, Finnish, Slovak), Söul (Swedish, Estonian), Souru - ソウル (Japanese), Szöul (Hungarian), Xơ-un (Vietnamese), სეული (Georgian), กรุงโซล (Thai), సీయోల్ (Telugu), சியோல் (Tamil)
Shusha Şuşa (Azeri, Romanian, Turkish), Choucha (French), Schuscha (German), Shusha (Dutch), Scusca (Italian), Shushá (Spanish), Szusza (Polish), Shoshā - شوشا (Persian), Şuşî - شوشی (Kurdish), Shushi - Շուշի (Armenian), Shusha - შუშა (Georgian), Shusha - Шуша (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Serbian), Sousá - Σουσά (Greek), Shusha - שושאַ (Yiddish), Shusha - שושה (Hebrew), Shushā - ﺷﻮﺸﺎ (Arabic), Shushā - ܫܫܐ (Syriac)
Singapore Cingapura (Brazilian Portuguese), Shingapōru - シンガポール (Japanese), Shōnan - 昭南 (Japanese [colonial name]), Singapour (French), Singapoúri - Σινγκαπούρη (Greek), Singapur (Catalan, Polish, Spanish, Turkish), Singapur - Сингапур (Russian, Serbian), Singapūra (Latvian), Singapura (Malay, Indonesian, Portuguese), Singeapór (Irish), Sin-ka-pho - 新加坡 (Minnan/Taiwanese), Singkapore - 싱카포레 (Korean), Szingapúr (Hungarian), Temasek (Malay, Indonesian [archaic]), Xīnjiāpō - 新加坡 (Mandarin Chinese), სინგაპური (Georgian), சிங்கப்பூர் (Tamil), सिंहपुर (Hindi), सिंहपुरः (Sanskrit), సింగపూర్ (Telugu)
Surabaya Sìshuǐ - 泗水 (Mandarin Chinese), Soerabaja (Dutch), Surabaia (Portuguese), Surabaja (Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish), Surabajo (Esperanto), Surabaya - سورابايا (Arabic), スラバヤ (Japanese), Сурабая (Russian), Suroboyo (spoken Javanese)

T[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Tashkent Tachkent (French), Taschkent (German), Tashkent - Ташкент (Russian, Ukrainian), Tashqand (Arabic), Tasjkent (Dutch, Swedish, Danish), Taskéndi - Τασκένδη (Greek), Daşkənd (Azeri), Taskent (Hungarian, Italian), Taszkent / Taszkient (Polish), ताशकन्द (Hindi), Taškenta (Latvian), Taškent (Finnish, Slovak, Croatian, Serbian), Taşkent (Romanian, Turkish), Taškentas (Lithuanian),Toshkent (Estonian, Uzbek), তাশখন্দ or Tashkhond (Bengali),Tashikento - タシケント (Japanese), Taiscint (Irish), ტაშკენტი (Georgian), 타슈켄트 (Korean), تاشکنت (Persian)
Tbilisi Dìbǐlìsī - 第比利斯 (simplified characters) (Chinese), Gürƶex - Гуьржех (Chechen), Guržeğe - ГуржегӀе (Ingush), Kalak - Калак (Ossetian), Kart - Қарҭ (Abkhaz), Kwrdžy - Курджы (Kabardian [Circassian]), Tbili - თბილი (Svan), Tbilisi - თბილისი (Georgian), Karti - ქართი / Tbilisi - თბილისი (Mingrelian*), Tbilisi (Basque, Finnish, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish), Tbîlîsî (Kurdish), Tbilisi - Тбилиси (Russian), Tbilisi - Тбілісі (Ukrainian), Tbilissi (French), Tbilisis (Lithuanian), Tbiliszi (Hungarian), Teflis - تفلیس (Persian), Teubillisi / T'ŭbillisi - 트빌리시 (Korean), Tíbǐlǐxī - 提比里西 (Chinese [Taiwan]), Tiflīs (Arabic), Tiflis (Dutch, German, Spanish, Turkish, Azeri, former English, former Italian, former Romanian, former Finnish), Tíflis / Tiflída - Τίφλις / Τιφλίδα (Greek), Tiflis - Тифлис (former Russian), Tífúlìsī - 提弗利司 / Tífúlǐsī - 梯弗裡斯 (Chinese [archaic]), Tobirishi - トビリシ (Japanese)*, Ţp'ilisi - ტფილისი (historic Georgian), Tp'xis - Տփխիս (Armenian), Tyflis (former Polish)
Tehran Tahran (Turkish), Teheran (Croatian, Danish, Finnish, German, Italian, Polish, Romanian), Téhéran (French), Teerão (Portuguese), Tehron (Uzbek), Teheran - テヘラン (Japanese), Teherán (Hungarian, Spanish), تهران (Persian), Teheráni - Τεχεράνη (Greek)
Tokyo Dokyo - 도쿄 (Korean), Dōngjīng - 東京 (traditional characters) / 东京 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Donggyeong - 동경 [Hanja: 東京] (Korean), Dùnggìng - 東京 (Cantonese), Edo / Yedo (English [archaic]), Edo - 江戸 [えど] (historic Japanese), Jiānghù - 江戶 (historic Chinese), Tóiceo (Irish), Tokio (Dutch, historic English, Finnish, German, Italian variant, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Uzbek), Tókio - Tόκυο (Greek), Tokió (Hungarian), Tocio (Latin), Tokyo (Indonesian, Italian, Malay, Turkish), Tōkyō - 東京 [とうきょう] (Japanese), Tang-kiaⁿ - 東京 (Minnan / Taiwanese), Tokyo / Đông Kinh (Vietnamese), Tòquio (Catalan), Tóquio (Portuguese), โตเกียว (Thai), ტოკიო (Georgian), Tokijas (Lithuanian)
Trabzon Torabuzon - トラブゾン (Japanese), Trabzon (Azeri, Romanian, Turkish), Trapesunta (former Italian), Trapizoni - ტრაპიზონი (Georgian*), Trapezunt (German, Finnish, Polish, former Romanian), Trapezúnda - Τραπεζούντα (Greek), Trebisonda (Catalan, Italian*, Portuguese, Spanish), Trebizonda (former Romanian alternative to Trapezunt), Trébizonde (French), Trebizon (former variant in English), Տրապիզոն (Armenian)

U[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Ulan Bator Bogdo-Kurenʼ - Богдо-Курень (historical Russian),[KNAB] Daa Khüree - Даа Хүрээ (historical Mongolian),[KNAB] Ikh Khüree - Их Хүрээ (historical Mongolian),[KNAB] Kùlún 库伦 (simplified characters) / 庫倫 (traditional characters) (historical Mandarin Chinese),[KNAB] Kuren (historical English), Niislel Khüree - Нийслэл Хүрээ (historical Mongolian),[KNAB] Örgöö - Өргөө (historical Mongolian),[KNAB] Ulán Bator (Spanish), Oulan-Bator (French),[KNAB] Ulaanbaatar (Finnish*, Portuguese), Ulaanbaatar - Улаанбаатар (Mongolian)*, Ulaɣanbaɣatur - ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ (Classical Mongolian),[KNAB] Ulan Baatr - Улан Баатр (Kalmyk)*, Ulanbátar (Slovak)*, Ulánbátar (Irish)*, Ulan-Batır - Ұлан-Батыр (Kazakh)*, `Ūlānbātǭ - อูลานบาตอร์ [ʔuː laːn baː tɔː] (Thai),[5] Ulánbátor (Hungarian)*, Ulan Bator (Indonesian*, Italian*, Malay*), Ułan Bator (Polish)*, Ulan-Bator - Улан–Батор (Russian*,[KNAB] Ukrainian*, Uzbek), Ulan-Batori - ულან-ბატორი (Georgian)*, Ulan Batur (Turkish)*, Ulanbatur ئۇلانباتۇر (Uyghur)*,[KNAB] Ullanbatareu - 울란바타르 (Korean)*, Uranbātoru - ウランバートル (Japanese)*,[KNAB] Urga (historical English, Latin*), Uruga - ウルガ (historical Japanese),[KNAB] Wūlánbātuō - 乌兰巴托 (simplified characters) / 烏蘭巴托 (traditional characters) (Mandarin Chinese)[KNAB]

V[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Vientiane Biantian - 비안티안 (Korean alternative), Biyentian - 비엔티안 (Korean), Éng-tin - 永珍 (Hokkien, Taiwanese), Vʼentʼjan - Вьентьян (Russian), Vīangchan - ວຽງຈັນ (Lao), Vienchan - ヴィエンチャン (Japanese), Vienciana (Portuguese), Viêng Chăn (Vietnamese), Vientian - Виентиан (Macedonian), Vientián (Spanish), Vientian (Slovak), Vientianas (Lithuanian), Vientiane (Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swahili, Swedish), Vienţiani - ვიენტიანი (Georgian), Wànxiàng - 萬象 (traditional characters) / 万象 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese usage in China), Wīangčhan - เวียงจันทน์ (Thai), Wientian (Polish), Wihngjān - 永珍 (Cantonese), Yǒngzhēn - 永珍 - (Mandarin Chinese usage outside of China and historical form in China), Yún-tsṳ̂n - 永珍 (Hakka), Vieng Chan (Khmer)
Vladivostok Beulladiboseutok - 블라디보스톡 (alternative spelling in Korean), Beulladiboseutokeu - 블라디보스토크 (Korean), Beullajiboseu-ttokeu - 블라지보스또크 (spelling used by Koreans in China), Fúlādíwòsītuōkè - 符拉迪沃斯托克 (Chinese), Hǎishēnwǎi - 海參崴 (alternative name in Chinese), Haesamwi - 해삼위 (obsolete name in Korean), Urajio - 浦塩 (alternative name in Japanese), Urajiosutoku - ウラジオストク (Japanese), Ullajibosŭttokhŭ - 울라지보스또크 (spelling used in North Korean standard)

X[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Xiamen Amoi - アモイ (Japanese), `Āmǭi - อามอย (historic Thai), Amoj - Амой (historic Russian), Amoy (historic English), Â-muòng 廈門 (Mindong), Ē-mn̂g - 廈門 (Hokkien, Taiwanese), Ē-mûi - 廈門 (Zhangzhou Hokkien), Hạ Môn (Vietnamese), Hahmùhn - 廈門 (Cantonese), Hamun - 하문 (Korean), Hà-mûn - 廈門 (Hakka), Hà-mún - 廈門 (Gan), Shiamen - シアメン (Japanese alternative), Siamœ̄n - เซียะเหมิน (Thai), Sjamynʼ - Сямынь (Russian),[KNAB] Xiàmén - 廈門 (traditional characters) / 厦门 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese)

Y[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Yakutsk Djokuuskaj Дьокуускай (Yakut local variant),[KNAB] Jakutsk (Finnish, German), Jakutsk - Якутск (Russian),[KNAB] Jákutskaj - Якутскай (Yakut standard variant),[KNAB] Jakutʼsk - Якутськ (Ukrainian), Yǎkùcíkè - 雅庫茨克 (traditional characters) / 雅库茨克 (simplified characters) (Mandarin Chinese), Yakūtsuku - ヤクーツク (Japanese)
Yekaterinburg Ekaterimburgo (Spanish), Ēkaṭērin bērg - ఏకటేరిన్ బేర్గ్ (Telugu), Ekaterinburg (Catalan [alternate], Romanian, Turkish, Italian), Ek'at'erinburga - ეკატერინბურგი (Georgian), Ekaterinburuku/Ekacherinburuku - エカテリンブルク/エカチェリンブルク (Japanese), Ekaterinoupolis - Αικατερινούπολις (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Iaketarinburg (Catalan), Iekaterinbourg / Ekaterinbourg (French), Jekaterinenburg (Dutch), Jekaterinburg (Danish, Finnish, German, Serbian (Latin), Slovene, Swedish), Jekaterinburga (Latvian), Jekaterinburgas (Lithuanian), Jekaterynburg (Polish), Jekatyerinburg (Hungarian), Sverdlovsk (former name)
Yerevan Eireaván (Irish), Ereban - エレバン (Japanese), Erevan (Catalan, French, English [rare], Portuguese variant, Romanian, Slovene), Ereván (Spanish), Erevāna (Latvian), Erevani - ერევანი (Georgian), Erewan - Երևան (Armenian), Erivan (Turkish), Erywań (former Polish), Iereván - Υερεβάν (Greek), Iravaan (Persian), İrəvan (Azeri), Jerevan (Czech, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Slovak, Serbian (Latin), Swedish), Jerevan - Jереван (Serbian), Jereván (Hungarian), Jerevanas (Lithuanian), Jerewan / Eriwan (Dutch, German), Revan (former Turkish and Persian), Yerevan (Indonesian, Portuguese, Uzbek), Yerevan - Երեւան (Armenian), Yerevan - Ереван (Russian, Ukrainian), Yērevān - యేరెవాన్ (Telugu), Yirīfān (Arabic)
Yogyakarta Dzhokyakarta - Джокьякарта (Russian), Džogjakarta (Lithuanian), Jogja, Jokja (colloquial Javanese, Indonesian), Jogjakarta (Finnish), Jokujakaruta - ジョグジャカルタ市 (Japanese), Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (official Javanese name), Rìrě - 日惹 (Mandarin Chinese), Yogyakarta, Yujyakarta - يوجياكرتا (Arabic)

Z[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Zaqatala Ç̌araqhi - Чӏарахъи (Lak),[KNAB] Zakatala (Turkish), Zakatala - ზაქათალა (Georgian),[KNAB] Zakatala - Закатала (Avar),[KNAB] Zak‘at‘ala - Զաքաթալա (Armenian), Zakataly - Закаталы (Russian),[KNAB] Zaqatala [Загатала] (Azeri)[KNAB]
Zangilan Kovsakan - Կովսական (Armenian),[KNAB] Kovsakan - Ковсакан (Russian alternative), Pirčevan - Пирчеван (historial Russian pre–1957),[KNAB] Pirçivan (historial Azeripre–1957),[KNAB] Zangelan - Զանգելան (historial Armenian pre–1993),[KNAB] Zangelan - Зангелан (Russian),[KNAB] Zəngilan [Зәнҝилан] (Azeri),[KNAB] Zengelan [Зәнгәлан, زهنگهلان] (Kurdish),[KNAB] Zengilan (Turkish)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. [KNAB] "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  1. ^ Н. И. Ашмарин, Чăваш сăмахĕсен кĕнеки (in Chuvash) 9—10, p. 147, ISBN 5-7361-0039-8 
  2. ^ 中華民國地圖 Zhōnghuá Mínguó Dìtú (Map of the Republic of China). Nan Hua Publishing, 1991. (Chinese)
  3. ^ a b "Asia and Adjacent Regions" (map). The National Geographic Magazine. 1933.
  4. ^ Ralph Leighton. Tuva Or Bust!: Richard Feynman's Last Journey. W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. p. 68. ISBN 978-0393320695 [In the summer of 1929, Dr. Anna Maennchen tried to send a telegram to her husband Dr. Otto Mänchen-Helfen in] "the town of Kyzyl-Khoto in the country of Tannu Tuva".
  5. ^ "Dictionary entry for "อูลานบาตอร์"". Thai-language.com. Retrieved 2012-06-11.