Names of European cities in different languages: M–P

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M[edit]

English name Other names or former names
Maastricht Maastricht (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*), Mastriht (Serbian), Maseuteuriheuteu/Masŭt'ŭrihŭt'ŭ - 마스트리흐트 (Korean), Maestricht (former French, Romanian variant), Måstrek / Li Trek (Walloon), Mastrichtas (Lithuanian), Māstrihta (Latvian), Mastrique (Spanish), Māsutorihito - マーストリヒト (Japanese)*, Mestreech (Limburgish), Traiectum ad Mosam or Traiectum superius (Latin)
Madrid Madrid (Afrikaans, Asturian, Azeri, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Interlingua, Italian, Maltese, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*, Swedish, Tagalog*, Turkish), Mǎdélǐ - 馬德里 (Traditional Chinese), Mǎdélǐ - 马德里 (Simplified Chinese), Madeurideu/Madŭridŭ - 마드리드 (Korean), Madhríti - Μαδρίτη (Greek), Madorīdo - マドリード (Japanese)*, Madri (Brazilian Portuguese), Madrid - Мадрид (Bulgarian, Russian), Madridas (Lithuanian), Madride (Latvian), Madrido (Esperanto), Madril (Basque), Madrit (Old Catalan), Madryd - Мадрыд (Belarusian), Madryt (Polish), Maidrid (Irish), مدريد (Arabic), मद्रीद (Hindi), مادرید (Persian)
Mahilyow Mahilyoŭ - Магілёў (Belarusian), Mogilew or Mohylew (Polish), Mogilyov - Могилёв (Russian), Molev - מאָלעװ (Yiddish), Movilău (Romanian), Moghilău (Romanian variant), Mogiliovas (Lithuanian)
Mainz Määnz (local dialect), Maghentía - Μαγεντία (Greek), Magonza (Italian), Maguncia (Spanish), Magúncia (Catalan), Maienţa (old Romanian), Mainca (Latvian), Maincheu/Mainch'ŭ - 마인츠 (Korean), Maintsu - マインツ (Japanese)*, Mainz (Dutch, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish), Majnc (Serbian), Mayence (French), Meenz (former local dialect), Měiyīncí - 美因茨 (Traditional and Simplified Chinese), Mogúncia (Portuguese), Moguncja (Polish), Moguntiacum (Latin), Mohuč (Czech, Slovak)
Makedonska Kamenica Makedonska Kamenica (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Македонска Каменица (Macedonian)
Makedonski Brod Makedonski Brod (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Македонски Брод (Macedonian)
Makó Macǎu (Romanian), Makó (Hungarian), Makov (Slovak), Makov - מאַקאָוו (Yiddish), Makowa (German)
Málaga Málaga (German, English, Basque, French, Galician, Interlingue, Italian, Portuguese), Màlaga (Catalan), Malaga (Kabyle, Ladino, Polish), Malago (Esperanto), Malaca (Latin), مالقة (Arabic), Málaga - מאלגה (Hebrew), Málaga - 马拉加 (Chinese), Maraga - マラガ (Japanese)*
Malbork Malborg (Romanian), Malbork (Polish), Marienburg (German)
Malmedy Malmedy (Dutch, French, German), Malmünde (former German)
Malmö Ellenbogen (former German), Malme (Latvian), Malmø (Danish), Malmö (Azeri, Finnish, German, Swedish, Turkish), Malmõ (Hungarian), Malmoe - 말뫼 (Korean), Malmogia (Latin), Marume - マルメ (Japanese)*, MǎěrMò - 马尔默 (simplified) 馬爾默 (traditional) (Chinese), Malme - מאלמה (Hebrew)
Manchester Manchain (Irish, Scottish Gaelic*), Maencheseuteo/Maench'esŭt'ŏ - 맨체스터 (Korean), Mamucium (Latin), Manceinion (Welsh), Mančestra (Latvian), Manĉestro (Esperanto), Mančesteris (Lithuanian), Mànchèsītè - 曼彻斯特 (simplified) 曼徹斯特 (traditional) (Chinese), Manchéster (Portuguese), Manchesutā - マンチェスター (Japanese)*, Mankhestría - Μαγχεστρία (Greek), منچستر (Persian)
Mantua Mantoue (French), Mantova (Italian, Finnish, Czech, Maltese, Romanian, Slovak), Mantobha (Scottish Gaelic), Mantua (Dutch, German, Latin, Spanish), Màntua (Catalan), Mântua (Portuguese), Mantoba/Mant'oba - 만토바 (Korean)
Maribor Marburg an der Drau (German), Marburgo (Portuguese, Italian), Maribor (Azeri, Finnish, Romanian, Croatian, Slovene), Morpurgo (old Italian), Марибор (Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukrainian)
Mariehamn Maarianhamina (Finnish), Mariehamn (Swedish)
Marktredwitz Marktredwitz (German), Ředvice (Czech)
Marseille Marseille (Finnish*, French*, Swedish*, Scottish Gaelic*), Marsiglia (Italian)*, Marseilla (Basque)*, Marsella (Catalan*, Spanish*, Tagalog*), Mạc Xây or Mac-xây (Vietnamese), Marcel - Մարսել (Armenian), Mareuseyu/Marŭseyu - 마르세유 (Korean), Marsey - מרסיי (Hebrew)*, Marseilles (English variant)*, Marsejlo (Esperanto)*, Marsel (Azeri*, Marsel’ - Марсель (Russian)*, Marseļa (Latvian)*, Marselha (Portuguese)*, Marselis (Lithuanian)*, Marselj (Serbian), Marseya (Ladino)*, Marsigghia (Sicilian)*, Marsigla (Romansh), Marsilha or Marselha* (Occitan), Marsilia (Romanian)*, Marsilja (Maltese), Marsīliyā - مارسيليا (Arabic)*, Marsilya (Turkish*), Marsylia (Polish)*, Maruseiyu - マルセイユ (Japanese)*, Masalía - Μασσαλία (Greek)*, Massilia (Latin)*, مارسی (Persian), MǎSài - 马赛 (simplified) 馬賽 (traditional) (Chinese)
Mechelen Malinas (Spanish), Malines (Catalan, French, Romanian), Mechelen (Dutch, Finnish), Mecheln (German), Mechlin (older English name), Mekeln (Gronings)
Meißen Maisen - マイセン (Japanese)*, Meisene (Latvian), Meißen (German), Meissen (Dutch, English, French, Romanian), Míšeň (Czech), Misnia (Italian), Miśnia (Polish)
Melk Medlík (Czech), Melk (German), Mölk (former German)
Menton Menton (French), Mentone (Italian)
Messina Missina (Sicilian), Messina (Azeri, Catalan, Dutch, Finnish, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portuguese, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic, Turkish), Mesīna (Latvian), Mesina (Spanish), Mesíni - Μεσσίνη (Greek), Messhīna - メッシーナ (Japanese)*, Messine (French), Messyna / Mesyna (Polish), Micina (Old Spanish),
Metz Divodurum (Latin), Meca (Latvian), Mec - Мец (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Méty (Czech), Metz (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian)
Medzhybizh Medschybisch (German), Medžibož - Меджибож (Russian), Medžybiž (Finnish), Medžybiž - Меджибіж (Ukrainian), Mezbizh - מעזביזש (Yiddish), Międzybórz (Polish)
Miercurea-Ciuc Csíkszereda (Hungarian), Miercurea-Ciuc (Romanian), Szeklerburg (German)
Mikkeli Mikkeli (Finnish), Sankt Michel (Swedish)
Mikulov Mikulov (Czech), Nikolsburg (German)
Milan Milano (Croatian, Danish, Esperanto, Finnish, Irish, Italian, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*, Serbian, Swedish, Tagalog*, Turkish), Mailand (Former Danish, German), Majland (Old Hungarian), Mediolan (Polish), Mediólana - Μεδιόλανα (former Greek), Mediolānum (Latin), Milà (Catalan), Milaan (Afrikaans, Dutch), Milan (Azeri, French, Friulian, Maltese, Milanese, Slovene), Milán (Czech, Spanish), Mǐlán - 米兰 (simplified) 米蘭 (traditional) (Chinese), Milāna (Latvian), Milanas (Lithuanian), Milano - Милано (Bulgarian), Miláno - Μιλάνο (Greek), Milánó (Hungarian), Miláno (Slovak), Mīlānū (Arabic), Milão (Portuguese), Milaun (Romansh), Millano - 밀라노 (Korean), Mirano - ミラノ (Japanese)*, میلان (Persian)
Minsk Miensk - Менск (classical Belarusian), Minseukeu/Minsŭk'ŭ - 민스크 (Korean), Minsk (Azeri, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*, Turkish), Minsk - Мінск (Belarusian), Minsk - Минск (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Minsk - מינסק (Yiddish), Mińsk (Polish), Mins'k - Мінськ (Ukrainian), Minska (Latvian), Minskas (Lithuanian), Minsko (Esperanto), Minsuku - ミンスク (Japanese)*, Minszk (Hungarian), مینسک (Persian), MíngSīKè - 明斯克 (simplified) 明斯克 (traditional) (Chinese), Mionsc (Irish, alternate Scottish Gaelic*)
Miskolc Miskolc (Hungarian, Finnish), Miškolc (Serbian), Miškovec (Czech, Slovak), Miszkolc (Polish), Mişcolţ (Romanian)
Moineşti Moineşti (Romanian), Mojnest (Hungarian)
Modena Modena (Dutch, English, German, Irish, Italian, Scottish Gaelic), Modène (French), Módena (Portuguese, Spanish), Mòdena (Catalan), Mutina (Latin), MōDiǎnNà - 摩德納 (simplified) 摩典納 (traditional) (Chinese)
Monaco Munegu (Monegasque), Monaco (Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Interlingua, Italian, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*, Swedish, Welsh), Monacó (Irish), Mónaco (Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish), Mônaco (Brazilian Portuguese), Mónàgē - 摩納哥 (Traditional Chinese), Mónàgē - 摩纳哥 (Simplified Chinese), Monakas (Lithuanian), Monako (Azeri, Basque, Bosnian, Croatian, Esperanto, Latvian, Maltese, Polish, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish), Monakó - (Hungarian) Monakó - Μονακό (Greek), Mónakó (Icelandic), Monegue (Occitan), Monoecus (Latin), Manaka - Манака (Belarusian), Monako - モナコ (Japanese)*, Monako - Монако (Bulgarian), Monako/Monak'o - 모나코 (Korean), Mónec (Old Catalan)
Mons Berg (Limburgish), Bergen (Afrikaans*, Dutch, German), Berĥeno (Esperanto), Mons (Afrikaans variant, French, Romanian), Mont (Walloon)
Monschau Monschau (German), Montjoie (French)
Montbéliard Mömpelgard (former German), Montbéliard (French, Romanian)
Monza Montsch (former German), Montsa - モンツァ (Japanese)*, Monza (Italian, Maltese)
Morąg Mohrungen (German), Morąg (German, Polish)
Moscow Moskva (Azeri, Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Hebrew, Icelandic, Norwegian, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish), Moskva - Москва (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian), Maskava (Latvian), Maskva (Lithuanian), Maskva - Масква (Belarusian), Mosca (Italian), Moscau (Romansh), Moscó (Irish), Moscou (Catalan, French, Brazilian Portuguese), Moscova (Romanian), Moscovo (European Portuguese), Moscú (Spanish), Mosgo/Moscobha (Scottish Gaelic) *, Moska (Maltese), Mosekao (Hawaiian), Mòsīkē - 莫斯科 (Traditional and Simplified Chinese), Moskau (German), Móskha - Μόσχα (Greek), Moskou (Afrikaans, Dutch), Moskova (Finnish, Turkish), Moskva - Մոսկվա (Armenian), Moskve - מאָסקװע (Standard written Yiddish), Moskiv - מאָסקעװ (spoken Southeastern Yiddish), Moskeve - מאָסקעװע (spoken Central Yiddish), Mosku (Tagalog*) Moskvo (Esperanto), Moskwa (Indonesian, Polish), Mosukuwa - モスクワ (Japanese)*, Moszkva (Hungarian), موسكو Mūskū (Arabic), Matxcơva or Mạc Tư Khoa (Vietnamese, the latter is old-fashioned), Moseukeuba/Mosŭk'ŭba - 모스크바 (Korean), مسکو (Persian)
Mosonmagyaróvár Mosonmagyaróvár (Hungarian), Wieselburg-Ungarisch Altenburg (German), Uhorský Starhrad (Slovak)
Motovun Montona (Italian), Motovun (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian)
Mouscron Moeskroen (Dutch), Mouscron (French)
Mścisłaŭ See Amścisłaŭ
Mukacheve Mucacevo (Romanian), Mukačevo (Czech, Slovak), Mukacheve - Мyкaчeвe (Ukrainian), Mukachevo - Мyкaчeвo (Russian, Serbian), Mukachiv - Мyкaчiв (Ruthenian), Mukaczewo (Polish), Minkatsh - מינקאַטש (Yiddish), Muncaci (Romanian variant), Munkács (Hungarian), Munkatsch (German)
Mulhouse Milhüse or Milhüsa (Alsatian), Mülhausen (German), Mulhouse (Finnish, French, Romanian), Mylhúzy (Czech), Miluza (Polish), Milouzi - Μυλούζη (Greek)
Munich Minca (Romansh), Minga (Bavarian), Minhen (Bosnian, Serbian), Minhene (Latvian), Minkhn - מינכן (Yiddish); Miunchenas (Lithuanian), Miyūnikh (Arabic), Myunkhen - Мюнхен (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian), Mnichov (Czech), Mníchov (Slovak), Monachium (Polish), Mnichów (old Polish), Monaco di Baviera (Italian), Mónakho - Μόναχο (Greek), Monakovo (old Slovene), München (Afrikaans, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Romanian, Low Saxon, modern Slovene, Swedish, Scottish Gaelic *), Munĥeno or Munkeno (Esperanto), Munic (Catalan), Múnich (Spanish), Münih (Turkish), Mùníhēi - 慕尼黑 (Traditional and Simplified Chinese), Munique (Portuguese), Mûnik (Walloon), Munikh (Armenian), Muunsjen (Gronings), Myunhen - ミュンヘン (Japanese)*, Mwinhen - 뮌헨 (Korean), مونیخ (Persian)
Munster Munster (French *, German*), Münster im Elsaß (German*)
Münster Minstere (Latvian), Münster (German, Romanian, Turkish), Meuster (Walloon), Monastyr (Polish)
Murcia Murcia (Spanish, English, German), Múrcia (Catalan, Portuguese), Murcie (French), Mursiya (Arabic)
Murmansk Moermansk (Afrikaans and Dutch), Mureumanseukeu/Murŭmansŭk'ŭ - 무르만스크 (Korean), Mourmansk (French), Murmanska (Latvian), Murmansk - Мурманск (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Murmansk (Finnish, Italian, Romanian), Múrmansk (Icelandic), Murmańsk (Polish), Murmanskas (Lithuanian), Murmansko (Esperanto), Murumansuku - ムルマンスク (Japanese)*, Muurmanni or Muurmanski (former Finnish), Muurmansk or Murmansk (Finnish), Muurman or Murmánska (Sami), Romanov-on-Murman (former name)
Mykolaiv Mikołajów (Polish), Mykolaiv - Миколаїв (Ukrainian), Mykolajiv (Finnish), Nikolayev - Николаев (Russian)

N[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Nagykanizsa Kan(j)iža (Croatian), Velika Kan(j)iža (Croatian); Großkirchen (German), Groß-Kanizsa (German), Velika Kaniža (Slovene), Kanije (Turkish)
Namur Namen (Dutch, former German), Nameur (Walloon), Namur (French, German, Romanian)
Nancy Nancy (Dutch, English, French, German, Romanian), Nanzeg (Luxembourgish), Nanzig (old German) 낸시 (Korean),
Nantes Nangteu/Nangt'ŭ - 낭트 (Korean), Nánti - Νάντη (Greek), Nantes (Dutch, French), Nanto - ナント (Japanese)*, Naoned (Breton)*, Naunnt (Gallo)
Naoussa Náousa - Νάουσα (Greek), Negush - Негуш (Macedonian, Bulgarian), Ağostos (Turkish)
Naples Napule (Neapolitan), Napoli (Italian, Finnish, Norwegian, Romanian, Scottish Gaelic*, Turkish), Napels (Afrikaans, Dutch), Naples (French, Scots*), Napli (Maltese), Nápoles (Portuguese, Spanish), Napoles (Tagalog*) Nápoli - Νάπολη (modern Greek), Napolo (Esperanto), Nàpols (Catalan), Nápols (Aragonese), Nápoly (Hungarian), Nābūlī (Arabic), Napolli/Nap'olli 나폴리 (Korean), Napori - ナポリ (Japanese)*, Napulj (Croatian, Serbian), Neapel (German, Swedish), Neapelj (Slovene), Neapol (Azeri, Czech, Polish, Slovak), Neapol’ - Неаполь (Russian, Ukrainian), Neapole (Latvian, old Romanian), Neapolis (Latin, Lithuanian), Neápolis - Νεάπολις (ancient Greek), 拿坡里 (Chinese), Neapol - Неапол (Bulgarian), Neap'oli - ნეაპოლი (Georgian*)
Narbonne Narbo or Narbo Martius (Latin), Narbona (Catalan, Italian, Occitan, Spanish), Narbone (Portuguese), Narbonne (Dutch, English, French, German, Romanian)
Narvik Narviika (Northern Sami), Narbhaig (Scottish Gaelic), Victoriahavn (former name 1887–98), Nareubikeu/Narŭbik'ŭ - 나르비크 (Korean)
Navahrudak Naugardukas (Lithuanian), Navahradak - Наваградак (Belarusian, archaic), Nowogródek (Polish), Novogrudok - Новогрудок (Russian)
Negotino Negotino (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Неготино (Macedonian)
Neuchâtel Neuchâtel (French, Romanian), Neuenburg (German)
Newcastle upon Tyne An Caisteal Nuadh (Scottish Gaelic*), An Caisleán Nua (Irish), Nova Castra (Latin), Newcastle upon Tyne (Dutch *, French*, German*, Italian*, Polish*, Scots*, Spanish*, Welsh*), 纽卡素 (Chinese)
Newport (Monmouthshire) Casnewydd (Welsh*, Irish, Scottish Gaelic), Novus Burgus (Latin) 새로운 항구 (Korean)
Newport (Pembrokeshire) Trefdraeth (Welsh) 뉴포트 (Korean)
Nice Niça (Catalan*, Occitan), Nice (French*, Portuguese*, Scottish Gaelic*, Swedish*, Welsh* ), Nizza (Italian*, Finnish*, German*, Hungarian, Maltese), Nica (Latvian, Lithuanian*, Slovene*), Nica or Nitsa - Ница (Belarusian, Bulgarian*, Serbian*), Nicaea (Latin)*, Nitstsa - Ницца (Russian)*, Nicea (Polish)*, Nico (Esperanto)*, Níkea - Νίκαια (Greek), Nis (Turkish), Nisa (Romanian)*, Nissa (Piedmontese, Occitan variant*, Provençal), Nīsu - ニース (Japanese)*, Niza (Spanish* Tagalog*), Niseu/Nisŭ - 니스 (Korean), 尼斯 (Chinese), نیس (Persian)
Nicosia Lefkoşa (Turkish), Lefkosía - Λευκωσία (Greek), Nicosia (Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish), Nicósia (Portuguese), Nikoshia - ニコシア (Japanese)*, Nicosie (French), Nikosia / Lefkosia (Finnish), Nikosia (German), Nikósie / Lefkósie (Czech), Nikosija (Latvian, Maltese, Russian, Ukrainian), Nikosio (Esperanto), Nikozija (Lithuanian, Serbian, Slovene), Nikozja (Polish), Nīqūsiyā (Arabic), Nikosia/Nik'osia - 니코시아 (Korean), an Niocóis (Irish)
Nieuweschans Bad Neuschanz (German), Nieuweschans (Dutch), Schaanze/Nijschaanze (Gronings)
Nijmegen Nijmege (Limburgish), Nijmegen (Dutch*, Romanian), Nimega (Catalan, Italian, Spanish), Nimègue (French), Nîmegue (Walloon), Nimwege (local dialect), Nimwegen (German), Noviomago (Portuguese*), Noviomagus, Oppidum Batavorum and Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum (Latin *), نایمیخن (Persian), Nijmeguh (Juliaans)
Niort

Niort (France,Spanish,Portuguese,German,Finnish,Italian,Polish,Romanian), Niōru - ニオール (Japanese)*, Novioritum (Latin), Ньор (Russian)

Niš Nis / Nisch (German), Nis / Nish (English, French), Niš - Ниш (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian), Niš (Slovak, Slovene), Niŝo (Esperanto), Nisz (Polish), Nix (Asturianu)
Nivelles Nijvel (Dutch), Nivilles (French), Nisch (German),
Nizhny Novgorod Gorky (former name 1932–90), Nijni-Novgorod (French, Romanian, Turkish), Nischnij Nowgorod (German), Nižni Novgorod (Finnish, Serbian, Slovene), Nižni Noŭharad - Ніжні Ноўгарад (Belarusian), Nižnij Novgorod - Нижний Новгород (Russian), Nižnij Novgorod (Czech), Ņižņijnovgoroda (Latvian), Nižny Novgordas (Lithuanian), Nižný Novgorod (Slovak), Nowogród (Polish), Nyizsnyij Novgorod (Hungarian)
Novi Sad Neoplanta (Latin), Neusatz (German), Novi Sad (Azeri, Romanian, Slovene), Novi Sad - Нови Сад (Bulgarian, Ruthenian, Serbian), Novi Sadas (Lithuanian), Novisada (Latvian), Nový Sad (Czech, Slovak), Nowy Sad (Polish), Újvidék (Hungarian)
Nowy Sącz Neu-Sandez (German), Nowy Sącz (Polish), Novy-Sonch - Новы-Сонч (Russian), Sandz - סאַנדז (Yiddish), Újszandec (Hungarian)
Nuoro Nugoro (Sardinian), Nuoro (Italian)
Nuremberg Nürnberg (Estonian, Finnish, German, Russian, Hungarian, Swedish, Norwegian, Scottish Gaelic*, Turkish), Näöreberg (Limburgish), Neurenberg (Dutch), Niremvéryi - Νυρεμβέργη (Greek), Nirnberg (Serbian), Nirnberga (Latvian), Niurnbergas (Lithuanian), Norimberg (Slovak, Slovene), Norimberga (Italian), Norimberk (Czech), Nörnberg (Low Saxon), Norymberga (Polish), Nuremberg (Scots*), Núremberg (Spanish), Nuremberga (Portuguese), Nürenberg (Romanian), Nwireunbereukeu/Nwirŭnberŭk'ŭ - 뉘른베르크 (Korean), Nyurumberuku - ニュルンベルク (Japanese)*, نورمبرگ (Persian)
Nuuk Godthåb (Danish)*

O[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Obernai Oberehnheim (German*), Obernai (French*, German*)
Óbuda (now part of Budapest) Alt-Ofen or Alt-Buda (German*), Buda (Polish), Buda (Veche) (Romanian), Óbuda (Hungarian), Starý Budín (Czech)
Odessa Ades - אַדעס (Yiddish), Hacıbey (obsolete Turkish), Odesa (Latvian, Romanian, Turkish), Odesa - Одеса (Bulgarian, Serbian, Ukrainian), Odesa - 오데사 (Korean), Oděsa (Czech), Odessa (Azeri, Polish, Turkish variant), Odessa - Одесса (Russian), Odessza (Hungarian), Odhisós - Οδησσός (Greek)
Ohrid Akhrídha - Αχρίδα (Greek variant), Ochryda (Polish), Ocrida (Italian), Ohër (Albanian), Ohri (Turkish), Ohrid - Охрид (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian), Ohrid (Slovenie), Okhrídha - Οχρίδα (Greek). Older Graeco-Illyrian names include Dyassarites, Lychnis, Lychnidos
Olbia Olbia (Italian), Tarranoa (Corsican), Terranoa (Sardinian), Terranova Pausania (former Italian)
Oldenburg Oldemburgo (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Oldenbörg (Gronings), Oldenburg (German), Ollenborg (Low Saxon), Starogard (Polish, Serbian)
Olkusz Hilcus (Latin), Ilkenau (German 1942–45), Ilkusz (former Polish), Olkusch (German), Olkusz (Polish)
Olomouc Alamóc (archaic Hungarian), Holomóc (Hanakian Czech dialect), Iuliomontium (Latin), Olmütz (German), Olomóc (Hanakian Czech dialect), Olomouc (Czech), Olomucium (Latin), Olomuncium (Latin), Ołomuniec (Polish)
Olsztyn Allenstein (German), Olštinas (Lithuanian), Ol'štyn - Ольштын (Russian), Olsztyn (Polish)
Onești Onești (Romania), Onyest (Hungarian)
Opatija Abbazia (Italian, Austrian German), Opatija (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Sankt Jakobi ( German, historic)
Opava Opava (Czech), Opavia (Latin), Opawa (Polish), Troppau (German)
Opole Opole (Polish), Opolí (Czech), Oppeln (German)
Oradea Gran Varadino (Italian), Großwardein (German), Magno-Varadinum (Latin variant), Nagyvárad (Hungarian), Oradea (Romanian, Polish), Oradea-Mare (former Romanian), Varadinum (Latin), Varat (Turkish), Veliki Varadin - Велики Варадин (Serbian)
Oranienburg Bocov (Czech), Bötzow (former German), Oranienburg (German)
Orenburg Arenburh - Арэнбург (Belarusian*), Ărenpur - Ăренпур (Chuvash*), Chkalov (English 1938–1957), Čkalov - Чкалов (Russian 1938–1957),[KNAB] Irımbur - Ырымбур (Bashkir*),[KNAB] Irınbur - Ырынбур (Tatar*), Oremburgo (Portuguese*, Spanish*), Orenbourg (French*),[KNAB] Orenburg (German*), Orenburg - Оренбург (Russian*),[KNAB] Orenburgum (Latin*), Orenburh - Оренбург (Ukrainian*), Orınbor - Орынбор (Kazakh*),[KNAB] Orynbor - Орынбор (Meadow Mari*)
Oristano Aristanis (Sardinian), Oristán (Spanish), Oristano (Italian), Oristany (Catalan)
Osijek Esseg (former German), Eszék (Hungarian), Mursa (Latin), Osek (Slovene), Osiek (Polish, early Croatian), Osijek (Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Romanian, Swedish), Osijek - Осијек (Serbian), Osijekas (Lithuanian), Osik (Ikavian - Shokac), `Ōsīyēk - โอซีเยค (Thai)
Oslo Àosīlù - 奧斯陸 (Chinese), Asloa (Latin), Christiania (former Dano-Norwegian name 1624–1925), Kristiania (late version of former name), Oseullo/Osŭllo - 오슬로 (Korean), Oslas (Lithuanian), Oslo (Azeri, Indonesian, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, Esperanto, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Scots *, Scottish Gaelic *, Serbian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Osló (Irish), Ósló (Icelandic), Osuro - オスロ (Japanese)*, Ūslū (Arabic), اسلو (Persian)
Osnabrück Ansibarium (Latin),[1] Àosīnàbùlǔkè - 奧斯納布魯克 (Mandarin Chinese*), Osenbrugge (archaic Dutch), Oseunabeulwikeu - 오스나브뤼크 (Korean*), Osnabrik - Оснабрик (Serbian*), Osnabruga (Latin*), Osnabrugge (archaic Dutch), Osnabrück (Dutch*, German*, Romanian*, Turkish*), Osnabrük - (archaic Estonian),[KNAB] Osnabruque (Portuguese alternative*), Osnaburg (archaic English), Osnabryuk - Оснабрюк (Bulgarian*, Russian*,[KNAB] Ukrainian*), Osnebrog (Gronings), Ossenbrügge (Westphalian/Low German*), Osunaburyukku - オスナブリュック (Japanese*)
Ostend Oostende (Dutch, Irish*, Scottish Gaelic), Ostándi - Οστάνδη (Greek), Ostenda (Italian, Polish), Ostende (Czech, French, German, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian), Ostendė (Lithuanian), Ostendo (Esperanto), Ostinde (Walloon)
Östersund Luvlieluspie (Southern Sami), Östersund (Swedish), Østersund (Danish, Norwegian)
Ostrava Ostrau (German), Ostrava (Czech, Slovak, Slovene), Ostrava - Острава (Bulgarian), Ostrawa (Polish)
Ostróda Osterode (German), Ostróda (Polish)
Ostrów Wielkopolski Ostrovia (Latin), Ostrów (former Polish), Ostrów Wielkopolski (Polish), Ostrowo (German)
Oświęcim Àosīwēixīn - 奧斯威辛 (Chinese), švits (Persian), Auschwitz (former German*, Romanian), Aushvitsa (Romani), Aušvice (former Latvian), Oshpitizin (Yiddish), Osventsim - Освенцим (Russian), Osvencima (Latvian), آشویتس Osvětim (Czech), Osvienčim (Slovak), Osvyenchim (Romani), Oświęcim (Polish, German*, Italian, Scottish Gaelic)
Oudenaarde Audenarde (French), Oudenarde (old English)
Oulu Oulu (Estonian, Finnish, Polish), Oulu (Latvian), Uleåborg (Swedish), Uloa (Latin)
Oxford Àth nan Damh (Scottish Gaelic *), Áth na nDamh (Irish *), Niújìn - 牛津 (Chinese), Okkusufōdo - オックスフォード (Japanese)*, Okseupodeu/Oksŭp'odŭ - 옥스포드 (Korean), Oksford (Azeri, Polish, Serbian), Oksforda (Latvian), Oksfordas (Lithuanian), Oksfórdhi - Οξφόρδη (Greek), Oksfordo (Esperanto), Oxford (Scots *), Oxford - Оксфорд (Bulgarian, Russian), Oxonia (Latin), Oxónia (Portuguese), Resoghen (Cornish), Rhydychen (Welsh)
Ozieri Ocier (Spanish, Catalan), Othieri (Sardinian), Ozieri (Italian)

P[edit]

English Name Other names or former names
Padua Padoue (French), Padova (Italian, Finnish, Maltese, Romanian, Croatian, Czech, Scottish Gaelic*, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene), Padoa (Venetian), Pádova (Hungarian), Padua (Dutch, German, medieval Latin, Scots, Spanish, Swedish), Pádua (Portuguese), Pàdua (Catalan), Paduja (Latvian), Paduya - Падуя (Russian), Padwa (Polish), Padue (Friulian), Pàdoa (Piedmontese), Pádhoua - Πάδουα / Pádhova - Πάδοβα (Greek), Patavium (classical Latin), პადუა (Georgian), Padoba/P'adoba - 파도바 (Korean), Esten (Old German)
Palermo Balharm or Balerm (Arabic), Palerm (Catalan), Palerma - Палерма (Belarusian), Palermo - Палермо (Russian), Palermas (Lithuanian), Palerme (French), Palermo (Azeri, Czech, Dutch, German, Italian, Finnish, Latvian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Scots*, Scottish Gaelic*, Serbian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Palermu or Palemmu (Sicilian), Pallereumo/P'allerŭmo - 팔레르모 (Korean), Pánormos - Πάνορμος (Greek), Panormus (Latin), Parerumo - パレルモ (Japanese)*, პალერმო (Georgian)
Palma Palma (Catalan, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Irish, Latin), Palma de Mallorca (Danish, Dutch, Polish, Spanish), Palma de Malhorca (Occitan), Palma de Maiorca (Portuguese), Palma di Maiorca (Italian) 팔마 (Korean)
Pamplona Banbalūna (Arabic), Iruña (Basque), Pamplona (Azeri, Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish), Pampelune (French), Pampaluna / Lunapampa (Old Provençal), Pampeluna (Polish), Pompaelo (Latin), პამპლონა (Georgian), 팜플로냐 (Korean)
Panevėžys Poniewież (Polish), Ponevezh - Поневеж (Russian), Ponewesch (German), Panevēža (Latvian), პანევეჟისი (Georgian)
Paris Paris (Azeri, French, German, Norwegian, Portuguese, Piedmontese, Romanian, Swedish, Tagalog*, Turkish), Parigi (Italian), Paras Scottish Gaelic*, Bārīs (Arabic), Lutetia Parisiorum (Latin), Paräis (Luxembourgish), Páras (Irish), Pari - パリ (Japanese)*, Pari/P’ari - 파리 (Korean), Paries (Limburgish), Pariġi (Maltese), Pariis (Estonian), Pariisi (Finnish), Parijs (Dutch), París (Catalan, Spanish, Icelandic), Pa-ris or Ba-lê (Vietnamese, the latter is old-fashioned), Parísi - Παρίσι (Greek) / Parísii - Παρίσιοι (medieval Greek, καθαρεύουσα), Parisium (medieval Latin), Pariz (Breton, Croatian, Slovene), Pariž - Париж (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian), Paříž (Czech), Pariz - Париз (Serbian), Paríž (Slovak), Pariz - פּאַריז (Yiddish), Parīze (Latvian), Parizo (Esperanto), Párizs (Hungarian), Parys (Afrikaans), Paryż (Polish), Paryžius (Lithuanian), Paryž - Парыж (Belarusian), 巴黎 (Chinese), პარიზი (Georgian), Scottish Gaelic *
Parma Parme (French), Párma (Hungarian), Párma - Πάρμα (Greek), პარმა (Georgian), Parma (Italian, Czech, Maltese, Slovak), Paruma - パルマ (Japanese)* 팔마 (Korean)
Pärnu Parnawa (Polish), Pärnu (Estonian, Finnish, Portuguese, Swedish), Pernau (German), Pērnava (Latvian), Piarnu (Belarusian, Lithuanian), Pernov - Пернов (Russian), პიარნუ (Georgian)
Passau Batavia Bavariae (medieval Latin), Castra Batava (Latin), Pasawa (Polish), Pasov (Czech, Slovak), Passau (Dutch, French, German, Romanian, Turkish), Passavia (Italian), Pasava (Serbian), პასაუ (Georgian), Båssa (Bavarian)
Patras Patra (Modern Greek), Patrae (Latin), Patrasso (Italian), Patras (Azeri, Dutch, French, German)
Pavia Pavia (Italian, German, Dutch), Ticinum (classical Latin), Papia (medieval Latin), Pavìa (Piedmontese), Pavio (Esperanto), Paviya - Павия (Russian), Pavija - Павија (Serbian), პავია (Georgian), Pavia - Παβία / Papia - Παπία (Greek)
Pazin Mitterburg (German), Pazin (Croatian, Serbian), Pisino (Italian),
Pechory Pechory - Печёры (Russian), Petschur (former German), Petseri (Estonian, Finnish), Peczora (Polish)
Pécs Beci (old Romanian), Pětikostelí (Czech), Päťkostolie (Slovak), Peç (Turkish), Pečuh (Croatian), Fünfkirchen (German), Pecz (Polish), Pečuj - Печуј (Serbian), Quinqueecclesiae (Latin), Sopianae (old Latin), Cinquechiese (old Italian), პეჩი (Georgian), Печ (Macedonian), Sophianè - Σοφιανή (Byzantine Greek)
Peenemünde Peenemünde (German), Pianoujście (Polish)
Pehčevo Pehčevo (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Пехчево (Macedonian)
Penrith Pen Rhudd (Welsh), Pioraid (Scottish Gaelic)*, Peerit (Scots)
Perm Perm (English, German, Czech, Finnish), Пермь (Russian), Permjo (Esperanto)
Perpignan Perpignan (Dutch, French, Finnish, German, Romanian), Perpignano (Italian), Perpiñán (Spanish), Perpinhan (Occitan), Perpinhão (Portuguese), Perpinjan (Serbian), Perpinyà (Catalan)
Perugia Pérouse' (French), Perūja - ペルージャ (Japanese)*, Perugia (Dutch, German, Italian, Romanian), Perusa (Spanish), Perusia (Latin), Perúsia (Old Portuguese), პერუჯა (Georgian), Perusia - Περουσία (Greek)
Petrozavodsk Petrosawodsk (German), Petroskoi (Finnish), Petrozavodsk - Петрозаводск (Russian), Petrozavodskas (Lithuanian), Pietrazavodzk - Петразаводзк (Belarusian), Petrozavodsk (Azeri), Äänislinna (former Finnish), Pietrozawodzk (Polish), პეტროზავოდსკი (Georgian)
Piacenza Piacenza (Dutch, German, Italian), Pjaćenca (Serbian), Plaisance (French), Plasencia (Spanish), Placência (Portuguese), Piacenţa (Romanian), Placentia (Latin), Plakentía - Πλακεντία (Greek), პიაჩენცა (Georgian)
Piatra Neamţ Karácsonkő (Hungarian), Kreuzburg an der Bistritz (German), Piatra Neamţ (Romanian)
Piła Piła (Polish), Schneidemühl (German 1772-1945)
Pilsen Pilsen (Dutch, German, Italian, former Romanian), Pilzene (Latvian), Pilzno (Polish), Plzeň (Czech, Romanian, Slovak), პლზენი (Georgian)
Pinsk Pinsk - Пінск (Belarusian), Pinsk - Пинск (Bulgarian, Russian), Pinsk (Dutch, French, German), Pińsk (Polish), Pins'k - Пінськ (Ukrainian), פינסק (Yiddish)
Piotrków Trybunalski Piotrków Trybunalski (Polish), Petrikau (German), Petrikev - פּעטריקעװ (Yiddish), Petrokov (Russian)
Piran Piran (Croatian, German, Serbian, Slovene), Pirano (Italian), Pyrrhanum (Latin), Pirànon - Πιράνον (Greek)
Plauen Plauen (Dutch, French, German, Polish), Plavno (Czech)
Pleven Pleven (Bulgarian, French, Serbian), Plevna (French alternate, Romanian, Russian), Plevne (Turkish), Plevno (Czech), Plewen (German, Polish), პლევენი (Georgian)
Plovdiv Filippopoli (old Italian), Philippopolis (Latin), Philipúpoli - Φιλιππούπολη (Greek), Plovdiv (Azeri, Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak), Plowdiw (German), Płowdiw (Polish), Pulpudeva (Thracian, former name), Evmolpias (Thracian), Trimontium (Latin, former name), Filibe (Turkish, former name), Paldin (Slavic, former name), პლოვდივი (Georgian)
Ploieşti Ploieashti (Aromanian), Ploesht - Плоещ (Bulgarian), Plorescht (old German), Ploésti - Πλοέστι (Greek), Ploesht - פלוישט (Hebrew), Ploeszti (Polish), Ploešti - Плоешти (Russian)
Plymouth Aberplym (Cornish), Pleimuiden (Dutch alternate), Plimuto (Esperanto), პლიმუთი (Georgian)
Podgorica Podgairítse (Irish), Podgorica (Finnish, French, German, Portuguese, Polish, Slovak), Podogoritsa - ポドゴリツァ (Japanese)*, Ribnica (former name), Titograd (former name), პოდგორიცა (Georgian)
Polatsk Połacak - Полацак (Belarusian, obsolete), Połack - Полацк (Belarusian), Polock (Czech), Połock (Polish), Polotsk - Полоцк (Russian), Poloţk (Romanian), Polotzk (German),
Pompeii Pompei (Italian, Azeri, Romanian, Turkish), Pompéi (French), Pompeia (Catalan, Portuguese), Pompeii (Latin), Poimpé (Irish), Pompej (Maltese, Hungarian), Pompeji (Danish, Dutch, German, Slovene, Swedish, Hungarian), Pompeya (Spanish, Tagalog*), Pompeja (Latvian, Serbian), Pompeje (Czech, Polish, Slovak), Pompiía - Πομπηία (Greek), Pompeiji (Finnish), Pompėja (Lithuanian), Pompei/P'omp'ei - 폼페이 (Korean), Pompei - ポンペイ (Japanese)*
Pontresina Pontresina (French, German, Italian), Puntraschigna (Romansh)
Porec Parenzo (Italian), Poreč (Croatian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene), Porech - Пореч (Russian)
Pori Björneborg (Swedish), Pori (Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Latvian)
Porto Burtuqāl (Arabic), Oporto (Irish, Italian, Spanish, English variant), Portas (Lithuanian), Porto (Azeri, Czech, Dutch, Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Turkish), Portó (Hungarian), Portus Cale (Latin), Portu (Latvian), პორტუ (Georgian), Poruto - ポルト (Japanese)*
Porto Torres Porto Torres (Italian), Pòlsthu Tòrra (Sassarese), Pòrtu Tòrres (Sardinian)
Portorož Portorose (Italian), Portorož (Serbian, Slovak, Slovene)
Porvoo Borgå (Swedish), Porvoo (Estonian, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian), Borgoa (Latin)
Potsdam 波茨坦 (Chinese), Podstupim (Lower Sorbian), Postupim (Czech, Slovak), Potsdam (Azeri, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish), Poczdam (Polish), Potsdama (Latvian), Potsdamas (Lithuanian), პოტსდამი (Georgian), 포츠담 (Korean), Potsudamu - ポツダム (Japanese)*
Poznań Poznań (Polish), Posen (Dutch, German), Posnania (Latin), Poyzn - פּױזן (Yiddish), Poznaņa (Latvian), Poznanė (Lithuanian), Poznaň (Czech, Slovak), Poznan (Azeri, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Turkish), Poznań - Познань (Belarusian, Ukrainian), პოზნანი (Georgian), Pojeunan/P'ojŭnan - 포즈난 (Korean), Pozunani - ポズナニ (Japanese)*
Prague Birāġ (Arabic), Praag (Afrikaans, Dutch, Limburgish), Prag (Bosnian, Croatian, Danish, German, Luxembourgish, Serbian, Swedish, Turkish, Icelandic), پراگ (Persian), Prâg (Welsh), Prág (Irish), Pràg (Scottish Gaelic), Praga (Latin, Basque, Catalan, Italian, Kashubian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Tagalog*), Prago (Esperanto), Prága - Πράγα (Greek), Prága (Hungarian), Prague (English, French), Praha (Belarusian, Czech, Estonian, Finnish, Ido, Indonesian, Nauruan, Norwegian, Slovak, Ukrainian, Lithuanian), Prāga (Latvian), Prog - פּראָג (Yiddish), 프라하 (Korean), Puraha - プラハ (Japanese)*, 布拉格 (Chinese), პრაღა (Georgian), Praga - Прага (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian)
Pravdinsk Friedland (German), Frydland/Frydląd (Polish), Pravdinsk - Правдинск (Russian), Romuva (Lithuanian)
Prešov Eperies (German alternate), Eperjes (Hungarian), Peryeshis (Romani), Preschau (German), Presovia, Fragopolis, Eperiessinum (Latin), Prešov (Czech, Slovak), Preszów (Polish), Pryashev - Пряшев (Russian), Pryašiv - Пряшів (Ukrainian), Pryašuv - Пряшyв (Ruthenian)
Prilep Prilep (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Прилеп (Macedonian)
Priozersk Kexholm / Keksholm (Swedish), Käkisalmi (Finnish), Korela (Finnish alternate), Priozersk (German, Russian)
Pristina Prishtinë (Albanian), Priština - Приштина (Serbian, Russian), Priština - Прищина (Bulgarian), Prischtina (German), Priština (Czech, Slovak), Priştina (Romanian), Pristine (Irish), Priştine (Turkish), Pristina (French, Hungarian, Portuguese), Pristino (Esperanto), Priština (Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovene), Prístina - Πρίστινα (Greek), Prisztina (Polish), პრიშტინა (Georgian)
Příbor Freiberg in Mähren (German*)
Přerov Prerau (German*)
Probištip Probištip (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Пробиштип (Macedonian)
Prostějov Proßnitz in Mähren (German)
Pruszcz Gdański Pruszcz Gdański (Polish), Praust (German)
Przemyśl Peremisla (Romanian, old), Peremyshl' - Перемышль (Russian, traditional), Peremyshl' - Перемишль (Ukrainian, traditional), Pieramyšl - Перамышль (Belarusian), Premisl (Romanian), Premisl - פּרעמיסל (Yiddish), Přemyšl (Czech), Przemyśl (Polish), Pshemysl' - Пшемысль (Russian, modern official), Pshemysl' - Пшемисль (Ukrainian, modern official)
Pskov Pskov - Псков (Russian), Pihkova (Finnish), Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (historical German), Pleskava (Latvian), Pskov (Azeri, Dutch, French, Romanian), Pskovas (Lithuanian), Pskow (modern German), Psków (Polish), Pskoŭ - Пскоў (Belarusian), ფსკოვი (Georgian)
Puck Puck (Polish), Pùck (Kashubian), Putzig (German)
Pula Pola (Italian, Romanian, French, German, Dutch), Póla (Hungarian), Polei (older German), Pula (Croatian, Czech, Finnish, German, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovak), Pulj (Slovene), Poła (Venetian), Puola (Istriot), Pòlis - Πόλις (Greek)
Puławy Pilev - פּילעװ (Yiddish), Puławy (Polish) Pilev (English, Spanish), Pullno (German)
Pyrzyce Pyrzyce (Polish), Pyritz (German)

References[edit]

  1. [KNAB] "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2013-01-01.