Names of God in Islam

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The names of God in Islam (or the 99 names of Allah; Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنىʾasmāʾ allāh al-ḥusnā) are the names by which Muslims regard God. Among other places, they are described in the Quran and Sunnah.[1][2] There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names, but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed a total of 99 in the Quran and Sunnah. According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[3]

Origin[edit]

The 99 Names of God on the ceiling of the Grand Mosque in Kuwait.

According to Islamic tradition,[4] Muhammad is said to have invoked God by a number of names. The most common hadith used to cite the 99 names is considered weak, though there are less commonly cited hadith which are considered authentic and also support the same point.[5] A widely accepted hadith in Sahih Muslim states:

Abu Hurairah reported Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] (may peace be upon him) as saying: "There are ninety-nine names of Allah; he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Verily, Allah is Odd (He is one and it is an odd number) and He loves odd numbers. And in the narration of Ibn 'Umar [the words are]: "He who enumerated them"."

Over time, it became custom to recite a list of 99 names, compiled by al-Walid ibn Muslim,[citation needed] as an addendum to the hadith. In 2005, Mahmoud Abdel-Razek compiled an alternative list, endorsing only 69 from the al-Walid list.[7]

The Quran refers to the names of God as God's "most beautiful Names" (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā).[8] According to Gerhard Böwering:

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of God: Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurʾānic commentary is 17:110, “Call upon God, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Him belong the most beautiful Names,” and also 59:22-24, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets.

Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries.[5][9]

Most, though not all, of the 99 names appear in the Quran with a smaller number appearing exclusively in the hadith.[5][9][10][11] The total number of all names in both the Quran and the hadith actually add up to more than 99,[9][12][13] though only 99 are supposedly those which are referred to in the hadith as the exclusion of others.

Lists of names[edit]

There isn't universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[5][9]

Arabic Transliteration Translationa Usage Type of referenceb
About this sound 1 الرحمن Ar-Raḥmān The Exceedingly Compassionate, The Exceedingly Beneficent, The Exceedingly Gracious (to all of humanity and all creatures) Ar-Raḥmān Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
About this sound 2 الرحيم Ar-Raḥīm The Exceedingly Merciful Ar-Raḥīm Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
About this sound 3 الملك Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign Al-Malik, 59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
About this sound 4 القدوس Al-Quddūs The Holy, The Divine, The Pure, The Purifier Al-Quddūs, 59:23, 62:1 D
About this sound 5 السلام As-Salām The Peace, The Source of Peace and Safety As-Salām, 59:23 D
About this sound 6 المؤمن Al-Muʾmin The granter of security Al-Muʾmin, 59:23 D
About this sound 7 المهيمن Al-Muhaymin The Controller Al-Muhaymin, 59:23 D
About this sound 8 العزيز Al-ʿAzīz The Almighty, The Invulnerable, The Honorable Al-ʿAzīz, 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
About this sound 9 الجبار Al-Jabbār The Irresistible, The Compeller Al-Jabbār, 59:23 D
About this sound 10 المتكبر Al-Mutakabbir The Majestic, The Supreme Al-Mutakabbir, 59:23 D
About this sound 11 الخالق Al-Khāliq The Creator Al-Khāliq, 6:102, 13:16,[14] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
About this sound 12 البارئ Al-Bāriʾ The Evolver, The Maker Al-Bāriʾ, 59:24 D
About this sound 13 المصور Al-Muṣawwir The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer Al-Muṣawwir, 59:24 D
About this sound 14 الغفار Al-Ghaffār The Repeatedly Forgiving Al-Ghaffār, 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
About this sound 15 القهار Al-Qahhār The Subduer Al-Qahhār, 12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
About this sound 16 الوهاب Al-Wahhāb The Bestower Al-Wahhāb, 3:18, 38:9, 38:35 D
About this sound 17 الرزاق Ar-Razzāq The Provider Ar-Razzāq, 51:58 D
About this sound 18 الفتاح Al-Fattāḥ The Opener, The Victory Giver Al-Fattāḥ, 34:26 D
About this sound 19 العليم Al-ʿAlīm The All-Knowing, Omniscient Al-ʿAlīm, 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
About this sound 20 القابض Al-Qābiḍ The Restrainer, The Straightener Al-Qābiḍ, 2:245 V
About this sound 21 الباسط Al-Bāsiṭ The Extender / Expander Al-Bāsiṭ, 2:245 V
About this sound 22 الخَافِض Al-Khāfiḍ The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader Al-Khāfiḍ, 56:3, see al-Kafʿamī[15] O
About this sound 23 الرافع Ar-Rāfiʿ The Exalter, The Upgrader Ar-Rāfiʿ, 58:11, 6:83 V
About this sound 24 المعز Al-Muʿizz The Giver of Honor Al-Muʿizz, 3:26 V
About this sound 25 المذل Al-Muzill The Giver of Dishonor Al-Muzill, 3:26 V
About this sound 26 السميع As-Samīʿ The All-Hearing As-Samīʿ, 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
About this sound 27 البصير Al-Baṣīr The All-Seeing Al-Baṣīr, 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
About this sound 28 الحكم Al-Ḥakam The Judge, The Arbitrator Al-Ḥakam, 22:69 V
About this sound 29 العدل Al-ʿAdl The Utterly Just Al-ʿAdl, 6:115, See al-Kafʿamī[16]
About this sound 30 اللطيف Al-Laṭīf The Gentle, The Subtly Kind Al-Laṭīf, 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
About this sound 31 الخبير Al-Khabīr The All-Aware Al-Khabīr, 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
About this sound 32 الحليم Al-Ḥalīm The Forbearing, The Indulgent Al-Ḥalīm, 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
About this sound 33 العظيم Al-ʿAẓīm The Magnificent Al-ʿAẓīm, 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
About this sound 34 الغفور Al-Ghafūr The Much-Forgiving Al-Ghafūr, 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
About this sound 35 الشكور Ash-Shakūr The Grateful Ash-Shakūr, 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
About this sound 36 العلي Al-ʿAlī The Sublime Al-ʿAlī, 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
About this sound 37 الكبير Al-Kabīr The Great Al-Kabīr, 13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23 D
About this sound 38 الحفيظ Al-Ḥafīẓ The Preserver Al-Ḥafīẓ, 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
About this sound 39 المقيت Al-Muqīt The Nourisher Al-Muqīt, 4:85 I
About this sound 40 الحسيب Al-Ḥasīb The Bringer of Judgment Al-Ḥasīb, 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
About this sound 41 الجليل Al-Jalīl The Majestic Al-Jalīl, 55:27, 7:143 A, V
About this sound 42 الكريم Al-Karīm The Bountiful, The Generous Al-Karīm, 27:40, 82:6 D
About this sound 43 الرقيب Ar-Raqīb The Watchful Ar-Raqīb, 4:1, 5:117 D
About this sound 44 المجيب Al-Mujīb The Responsive, The Answerer Al-Mujīb, 11:61 A
About this sound 45 الواسع Al-Wāsiʿ The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless Al-Wāsiʿ, 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
About this sound 46 الحكيم Al-Ḥakīm The All-Wise Al-Ḥakīm, 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
About this sound 47 الودود Al-Wadūd The Loving Al-Wadūd, 11:90, 85:14 D
About this sound 48 المجيد Al-Majīd The All-Glorious, The Majestic Al-Majīd, 11:73 A
About this sound 49 الباعث Al-Bāʿith The Resurrector Al-Bāʿith, 22:7 V
About this sound 50 الشهيد Ash-Shahīd The Witness Ash-Shahīd, 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
About this sound 51 الحق Al-Ḥaqq The Truth, The Reality Al-Ḥaqq, 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
About this sound 52 الوكيل Al-Wakīl The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate Al-Wakīl, 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
About this sound 53 القوي Al-Qawiy The Strong Al-Qawiy, 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
About this sound 54 المتين Al-Matīn The Firm, The Steadfast Al-Matīn, 51:58 D
About this sound 55 الولي Al-Walī The Friend, Patron and Helper Al-Walī, 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
About this sound 56 الحميد Al-Ḥamīd The All Praiseworthy Al-Ḥamīd, 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
About this sound 57 المحصي Al-Muḥsee The Accounter, The Numberer of All Al-Muḥṣī, 72:28, 78:29 V
About this sound 58 المبدئ Al-Mubdiʾ The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator Al-Mubdiʾ, 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 59 المعيد Al-Muʿīd The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All Al-Muʿīd, 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 60 المحيي Al-Muḥyī The Giver of Life Al-Muḥyī, 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
About this sound 61 المميت Al-Mumīt The Bringer of Death Al-Mumīt, 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
About this sound 62 الحي Al-Ḥayy The Living Al-Ḥayy, 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
About this sound 63 القيوم Al-Qayyūm The Subsisting, The Independent Al-Qayyūm, 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
About this sound 64 الواجد Al-Wājid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing Al-Wājid, 38:44 V
About this sound 65 الماجد Al-Mājid The Illustrious, The Magnificent Al-Mājid, 85:15, 11:73, see al-Kafʿamī[17] A
About this sound 66 الواحد Al-Wāḥid The Unique, The Single Al-Wāḥid, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
About this sound 67 الاحد Al-ʾAḥad The One, The Indivisible Al-ʾAḥad, 112:1 A
About this sound 68 الصمد Aṣ-Ṣamad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient Aṣ-Ṣamad, 112:1 D
About this sound 69 القادر Al-Qādir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything Al-Qādir, 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
About this sound 70 المقتدر Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant Al-Muqtadir, 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
About this sound 71 المقدم Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward Al-Muqaddim, 16:61 V
About this sound 72 المؤخر Al-Muʾakhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away Al-Muʾakhkhir, 71:4 V
About this sound 73 الأول Al-ʾAwwal The First, The Beginning-less Al-ʾAwwal, 57:3 D
About this sound 74 الأخر Al-ʾAkhir The Last, The Endless Al-ʾAkhir, 57:3 D
About this sound 75 الظاهر Aẓ-Ẓāhir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer Aẓ-Ẓāhir, 57:3 D
About this sound 76 الباطن Al-Bāṭin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner Al-Bāṭin, 57:3 D
About this sound 77 الوالي Al-Wālī The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord Al-Wālī, 13:11 I
About this sound 78 المتعالي Al-Mutaʿālī The Supremely Exalted, The Most High Al-Mutaʿālī, 13:9 D
About this sound 79 البر Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent Al-Barr, 52:28 D
About this sound 80 التواب At-Tawwāb The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting At-Tawwāb, 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
About this sound 81 المنتقم Al-Muntaqim The Avenger Al-Muntaqim, 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
About this sound 82 العفو Al-ʿAfū The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver Al-ʿAfū, 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
About this sound 83 الرؤوف Ar-Raʾūf The Kind, The Pitying Ar-Raʾūf,3:30, 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
About this sound 84 مالك الملك Mālik-ul-Mulk Owner of all Sovereignty Mālik-ul-Mulk, 3:26 D
About this sound 85
ذو الجلال والإكرام
Lord of Majesty and Generosity Dhū-l-Jalāli-wa-l-ʾikrām, 55:27, 55:78 D
About this sound 86 المقسط Al-Muqsiṭ The Equitable, The Requiter Al-Muqsiṭ,7:29, 3:18, See al-Kafʿamī[18] O
About this sound 87 الجامع Al-Jāmiʿ The Gatherer, The Unifier Al-Jāmiʿ, 3:9 I
About this sound 88 الغني Al-Ghanī The Rich, The Independent Al-Ghanī,3:97, 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
About this sound 89 المغني Al-Mughnī The Enricher, The Emancipator Al-Mughnī, 9:28 V
About this sound 90 المانع Al-Māniʿ The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender Al-Māniʿ, See al-Kafʿamī[19]
About this sound 91 الضار Aḍ-Ḍārr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor Aḍ-Ḍārr, 6:17, see al-Kafʿamī[20]
About this sound 92 النافع An-Nāfiʿ The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good An-Nāfiʿ, 30:37, see al-Kafʿamī[20]
About this sound 93 النور An-Nūr The Light An-Nūr, 24:35 I
About this sound 94 الهادي Al-Hādī The Guide, The Way Al-Hādī, 22:54 I
About this sound 95 البديع Al-Badīʿ The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful Al-Badīʿ, 2:117, 6:101 I
About this sound 96 الباقي Al-Bāqī The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting Al-Bāqī, 55:27, see al-Kafʿamī[21] V
About this sound 97 الوارث Al-Wārith The Heir, The Inheritor of All Al-Wārith, 15:23, 57:10 P
About this sound 98 الرشيد Ar-Rashīd The Guide to the Right Path Ar-Rashīd, 2:256, 72:10, see al-Kafʿamī[21]
About this sound 99 الصبور Aṣ-Ṣabūr The Timeless, The Patient Aṣ-Ṣabūr, 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I

a Can vary based on context.      b D = Direct; V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun; P = from Plural noun; O = Other

The Greatest Name[edit]

The 99 names point to the inherent unity of the all-embracing Greatest Name (Ismi Azam).[22] In Islamic traditions, it is stated "The Greatest Name of Allah is the one which if He [Allah] is called (prayed to) by it, He will Answer."[23]

Personal names[edit]

According to Islamic tradition,[24] a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in exactly the same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King). This is because of the belief that God is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of God, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of God. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of God for themselves but should not put 'Al' at the front of them.[25]

However the names of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd-" which means "servant/Worshiper" (of God) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul Jabbar", or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abd-u.)

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:

Views of other religions[edit]

Bábí and Bahá'í view[edit]

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), which is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the 'Greatest Name'.[26][27] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[26]

According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili adopted the pen name (takhallus) 'Baha' after being inspired by words of Shi'a Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Imam) and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (the sixth Imam), who had stated that the Greatest Name of God was included in either Du'ay-i-Sahar or A`amaal Ummi Dawud.[26] In the first verse of the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, the name "Bahá" appears four times: "Allahumma inni as 'aluka min Bahá' ika bi Abháh va kulla Bahá' ika Bahí".[28]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4. 
  2. ^ Abdullah Saeed, The Qur'an: An Introduction, pg. 63. London: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 9781134102945
  3. ^ Taymiyya, Ibn. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0. 
  4. ^ Ibn Majah, Book of Du`a;[citation needed] Imam Malik, Muwatta', Kitab al-Shi`r.
  5. ^ a b c d Diane Morgan, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice, pg. 10. Santa Barbara, California Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ISBN 9780313360251
  6. ^ Sahih Muslim, 35:6475
  7. ^ Mahmoud Abdul Razek Al Radwany, "Of the 99 Names Of Allah That We Repeat: Only 69 Are Authentic" published in the Egyptian daily, Al Ahram, on Nov 18, 2005. His objections are mostly grammatical in that a 'name' in Arabic must be a noun: "only 69 of those Names are authenticated from the Quran and Sunnah, while 29 are not authentic in that 22 are verbs or adjectives, and 7 are 'modafa' or 'added to.'" Islamic Forum
  8. ^ See the suras "Al-A'raf" (7:180), "Al-Isra" (17:110), "Ta-Ha" (20:8) and "Al-Hashr" (59:24).
  9. ^ a b c d Malcolm Clark, Islam For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 9781118053966
  10. ^ Martin Parsons, Unveiling God, pg. 206. William Carey Library, 2005. ISBN 9780878084548
  11. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, pg. 515. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 9781438126968
  12. ^ Susanne Enderwitz, "The 99: Islamic Superheroes - A New Species." Taken from Transcultural Turbulences: Towards a Multi-Sited Reading of Image Flows, pgs. 84-85. Springer, 2011. ISBN 9783642183935
  13. ^ The 99 names of Allah; the ‘Most Beautiful Names’ at BBC Online. Accessed 8 April 2014.
  14. ^ http://al-quran.info/#36:81
  15. ^ al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 38. (WorldCat listing)
  16. ^ al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 40. (WorldCat listing)
  17. ^ al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 48. (WorldCat listing)
  18. ^ al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). pages 58-59. (WorldCat listing)
  19. ^ al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 61. (WorldCat listing)
  20. ^ a b al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 58. (WorldCat listing)
  21. ^ a b al-Kafʿamī, ʾIbrahīm bin ʿAlī (1436-1500 CE). al-Maqām al-asnā fī tafsīr al-asmāʼ al-ḥusnā. Beirut: Dār al-Hādī (1992). page 64. (WorldCat listing)
  22. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7. 
  23. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 0-85398-446-8.  The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i Traditions include: Majlisí, Bihár al-Anwár, vol. 26. p. 7."
  24. ^ Islam-QA website Are there any names which it is forbidden to use? If so, what are they?
  25. ^ Prohibited Muslim Names.
  26. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review 3 (1). 
  27. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  28. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4–5. 

External links[edit]