Namma Metro

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Namma Metro
Namma metro.png
Yeshwantapur Metro-Platform View1.jpg
Native name ನಮ್ಮ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ
Owner Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL)
Locale Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 2 (operational)
2 (Phase I Target-Mar 2016)
4 (Phase II Target-Dec 2019)
Number of stations 16 (operational)
41 (Phase I Target-Mar 2016)[1]
102 (Phase II Target-Dec 2019)[2]
Daily ridership 40,380 (March 2014)[3]
Chief executive Pradeep Singh Kharola, MD
Headquarters BMTC Complex, Shanthinagar, Bangalore
Began operation 20 October 2011 (2011-10-20)
Operator(s) Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (BMRCL)
Train length 3 coaches
Headway 10–15 minutes
System length 42.3 km (26.3 mi) (Phase I)[1]
114.39 km (71.08 mi) (Phase II)
No. of tracks 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 750V DC Third rail
Average speed 40 km/h (25 mph)
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)

Namma Metro (literally "Our Metro") also known as Bangalore Metro, is a metro system for the city of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The agency responsible for its implementation is the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (BMRCL), a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Karnataka.[4] The first stretch (Reach 1) between Baiyyappanahalli and M.G. Road was inaugurated on 20 October 2011.[5] Reach 3 & 3A between Sampige Road and Peenya Industrial Area was inaugurated on 1 March 2014.[6]



A mass transit system for Bangalore was initially conceived as a public-private partnership (PPP) in 1993.[7] The detailed project report (DPR) for Phase I of Namma Metro project was prepared by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and submitted to the BMRCL in May 2003. The final approval on a scheme that incorporated the expertise of DMRC and RITES Limited did not come until April 2006.[8] The DPR prepared by DMRC envisaged a 33 km (21 mi) elevated and underground rail network with 32 stations for Phase I of the project. The proposed gauge was standard gauge unlike the broad gauge on the Delhi Metro network. The rationale for the metro includes reduced journey times, cutting fuel use, accident reduction and lower pollution.[citation needed]

Construction work for Phase I of the project was scheduled to start in 2005 but was delayed by a February 2006 change of government in Karnataka and continued debate over whether the project was financially feasible and appropriate for the city. Finally, on 25 April 2006 the Indian Cabinet approved the project, which was then budgeted at more than 54 billion (US$860 million) (Later revised to 116.09 billion (US$1.8 billion) for Phase I).[9] In 2006, Navayuga Engineering was awarded the contract to construct Reach 1 of the East-West corridor.[10] The foundation stone for the Phase I construction was laid by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 June 2006,[11] and civil construction on Reach I of the line, between M.G. Road and Baiyyappanahalli, commenced on 15 April 2007.[12][13]

  • Track gauge: Bangalore metro uses standard gauge unlike Delhi Metro. But, the recent studies[by whom?][citation needed] have found that broad-gauge is suited for Indian conditions as well as long term economical feasibility as India has growing population. Indian metro trains with standard gauge does not provide seating facility and favoured towards standing travel. Ahmedabad Metro has chosen driverless technology and broad gauge as it provides comfort to the passengers.[14] Bangalore metro has not migrated from standard gauge to broad gauge for new lines in the Phase-2 or Phase-3 of the project. It has however, as a reply to an RTI application, defended the decision to use Standard Gauge.[15]
  • Break of gauge with suburban rail: There is a break-of-gauge with proposed suburban rail for Bangalore. This will hinder the seamless door-to-door railway travel between office and home, as well as freight movement between city and suburbs. Any future plan to move the truck movement to the Central business district through the railway track will get effected by this (to reduce pollution and congestion on road). Connectivity to the Whitefield ICD can be enhanced by effective use of metro network.[16] As of now movement of freight trucks and heavy construction machinery within city limit happens only in night.
  • Maglev line: BMRC has also not shown interest towards introducing Maglev trains for the new lines.[17][18]
  • Seating capacity: Seats inside the coaches will not be increased in the phase-2 and phase-3, as in many of the European metros.


Phase I[edit]

Phase I spans a length of 42.3 km and consists of 2 lines:[19] Implementation of Phase I has been divided into 4 "reaches" and 2 underground sections. It will be fully opened for service from March 2016. As Chief Minister Siddaramaiah informed the Legislative Assembly in January 2014, the total project cost is expected to be 138.45 billion (US$2.2 billion) due to cost escalation following unexpected delays in meeting the deadlines. The delays result in a cost escalation of 34.73 billion (US$550 million).

The schedule for completion of Phase I is as follows:[20]

Phase one of Namma Metro (under construction)
Section Termini Opening date
Reach 1 (east) Baiyyappanahalli M.G. Road 20 October 2011
Reach 2 (west) Mysore Road Magadi Road June 2015[21]
Underground UG2 (east to west) M.G. Road Magadi Road November 2015[22]
Reach 3 (north) Sampige Road Yeswanthpur 1 March 2014
Reach 3A (north) Yeswanthpur Peenya Industry 1 March 2014
Reach 3B (north) Peenya Industry Nagasandra 1 May 2015[23]
Underground UG1 (north to south) Sampige Road National College March 2016[24]
Reach 4 (south) National College R.V. Road March 2015
Reach 4A (south) R.V. Road Puttenahalli March 2015

In 2007, BMRCL announced that it would incorporate a northern extension (from Yeshwanthapura to Hesaraghatta Cross) and part of the southern extension (from RV Road to Puttenahalli) in Phase I, thus extending the length of Phase I network to about 42 km (26 mi), with 40 stations. The objective was to connect the metro to the Outer Ring Road at both ends, and also cover the industrial areas of Peenya in the north-west, thereby providing better connectivity and increasing ridership.[citation needed] In October 2008, the Government of Karnataka approved this extension, which would cost an additional 15.92 billion (US$250 million).[25]

Line Elevated Length (km) Underground Length (km) Total Length (km) Stations
Purple Line 13.22 4.88 18.10 17
Green Line 20.20 4 24.20 24
Total 33.42 8.88 42.30 41

Phase II[edit]

The detailed project report (DPR) for Phase II was prepared by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.[26] The high power committee (HPC), in July 2011, gave in-principle clearance to proceed with Phase II.[27] The Karnataka government gave in-principle approval to Phase II of the Namma Metro project on 3 January 2012.[28][29] Phase II was cleared by the expenditure finance committee (EFC) in August 2013.[30] The Union cabinet announced that it has approved plans for phase II on January 30, 2014.[31] The estimated total cost for Phase II is around 264.05 billion (US$4.2 billion).[32] Phase II covers a span of 72.095 km – 13.79 km underground, 0.48 km at grade and 57.825 km elevated, and adds 61 stations to the network, of which 12 are underground.[33] Construction of the second phase will begin in 2014, after completion of the first phase.[34] On 28 February 2014, the Chief Minister Siddaramaiah said the work will be completed within five years.[35]

Phase 2 will include extension of Phase 1 corridors as well as the construction of two new lines. Proposed work includes a 13.9-km underground stretch in the new 21.25-km Gottigere–Nagawara line.

The corporation has already begun the process of identifying land required for viaducts and coordinating with the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB) to issue the land acquisition notifications.

Phase II consists of extensions for all four reaches of the metro and two new lines.[36]

Proposed new lines and extensions to existing lines – under Phase 2
Line Terminals Length New Stations Expected Work Completion date
Purple Line Mysore Road – Kengeri 6.465 km 5 December 2019
Purple Line BaiyyappanahalliWhitefield 15.50 km 14 December 2019
Green Line Puttenahalli – Anjanapura 6.29 km 5 December 2019
Green Line Hesaraghatta cross – BIEC 3.77 km 3 December 2019
Line 3 R V Road – Bommasandra 18.80 km 16 December 2019
Line 4 Gottigere – Nagavara 21.25 km 18 December 2019


The project cost of 264.05 billion (US$4.2 billion) is the 2011–12 price level, which it is set to escalate at 5 per cent every year with increasing cost of inputs. The Union government will share that part of cost escalation due to increase in central levies, while the Karnataka State and BMRCL have to bear any other escalation. According to the experts, the total project cost for Phase II is estimated to reach at least 300.00 billion (US$4.8 billion) at the start of construction itself.

Phase III[edit]

The detailed project report (DPR) for Phase III is being prepared by RITES. 133 km phase 3 of metro will connect Nagawara and Kempegowda International Airport (KIA) by a 25-km line; Sarjapur Layout (station, Carmelaram) and Yelahanka (station, Kogilu Road Cross) by a 35-km line covering Central College, Palace Guttahalli, Mekhri Circle and Hebbal; and a 17-km line from the Nice Ring Road to Toll Gate via Magadi Road.

Airport high-speed rail link from CBD[edit]

There was a proposal to build a 33 km line known as Bangalore High-Speed Rail Link, from MG Road to Bengaluru International Airport (BIA), at a cost of 57.67 billion (US$920 million).[38] Previously, there was plan for an independent body, but later it was decided that BMRC will manage this project.[39]

This project has now been scrapped keeping in mind its viability and cost. An airport metro extension from Nagavara to BIAL might be considered for inclusion in Phase III.


The underground work of Phase I commenced in May 2011. Each corridor consists of two tunnels which are the first underground tunnels built for trains in South India. The tunnels, dug using tunnel boring machines (TBM), are located approximately 60 feet below ground level, have a diameter of 5.5metres and are 5metres apart.[40][41][42][43][44] [45] A total of 6 TBMs were used for work in the underground section of phase I. They were nicknamed Helen (TBM 1), Margarita (TBM 2), Kaveri (TBM 3), Krishna and Godaveri.[46]

As of January 2013, progress on the underground connection between Reach-1 and Reach-2 was put on hold. A statue of Dalit leader Ambedkar had stirred up a controversy, as it stands above the planned metro rail line near Bangalore's Vidhan Soudha. Dalit groups had opposed shifting of the statue, while the government had sought to avoid controversy by not following court orders to temporarily shift the statue while construction continues. The controversy delayed the project by six months and caused delays to the north-south reaches which plan to use the Majestic interchange.[47][48]

Underground UG2 (east to west corridor) tunneling work on this 18.1 km was completed on 17 March 2014 after tunnel boring machine Helen (TBM 1) finished its task of tunneling 229m between Bangalore City railway station underground (UG) station and Kempegowda UG station (Majestic). Now, the twin tunnels between Cubbon Park UG station and City Railway Station UG station are ready for track laying and other related works.[49]


Namma Metro was originally scheduled to begin operations in March 2010. Deadlines for completion were repeatedly missed,[50] and the metro was finally opened to the public on 20 October 2011 by Union Urban Development Minister Kamal Nath.[51] There was an overwhelming response to the metro at the commencement of operations. As per BMRCL sources within first 3 days of operations 169,019 people used this mass transit system.[52] At the end of 4th day about 200,000 passengers had already commuted in Namma Metro. Namma Metro's first 12-day cumulative revenue was 10 million (US$160,000).[53]

The State Government removed N Sivasailam as MD of Namma Metro on 10 August 2013. He was replaced by Pradeep Singh Kharola.[54][55][56] The Green Line (Reach 3, 3A & 3B) was initially scheduled to be opened for the public by the end of 2012. However, according to the BMRCL, because of the time taken by the Indian Railways to approve works at Swastik Station and Malleswaram 66-metre metro viaduct, the Green Line was expected to open only in April–May 2013. However, the timelines were delayed further.[citation needed]

The line was opened to the public at 6 am on 1 March 2014.[57] BMRCL Managing Director Pradeep Singh Kharola stated that about 25,000 passengers travelled on the line on opening day.[58] In the first month of operations, 7.62 lakh people at an average of 24,605 people daily used the line, generating a revenue of 1.5 crore (US$240,000).[3]


Namma Metro is being built in phases. Phase I of Namma Metro covers a total of 42.30 km and will be completed by the end of 2015. Phase II spans a length of 72.1 km. The entire network after completion of phase 2 is as given below.

Line First operational Last extension Stations Length
Purple Line 20 October 2011 36 34.3 Whitefield Kengeri
Green Line 1 March 2014 1 May 2015 32 40.1 BIEC Anjanapura
Line 3 16 18.8 R V Road Bommasandra
Line 4 18 21.2 Gottigere Nagavara
Total 102 114.4

Purple Line[edit]

The Purple Line will connect Baiyappanahalli in the east to Mysore Road in the west, covering a distance of 18.1 kilometres (11.2 mi). It is partly elevated, partly underground and has one station at grade. The inauguration of the first stretch between Baiyappanahalli and M.G. Road was on 20 October 2011.

Green Line[edit]

The Green Line will be the second line of the Metro to be opened and will connect Nagasandra in the north to Putenhalli in the south, covering a distance of 24.2 kilometres (15.0 mi). It is partly elevated, partly underground and has one station at grade. The first stretch to open is the 9.9 km long Reach 3 and Reach 3A. The stretch connects Swastik to Peenya Industrial Area.[59]



The Union Cabinet approved Phase I of the Namma Metro in April 2006 when it was estimated to cost 54 billion (US$860 million). The cost escalated to 116.09 billion (US$1.8 billion) as various problems delayed the completion.[60] BMRCL received 7 billion (US$110 million) from Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO), 250 million (US$4.0 million) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), 23% from the Central Government, 33% from the State Government and the rest as a 49.05 billion (US$780 million) loan from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).[61][62]

On 3 January 2012, the Karnataka government approved a budget of 270 billion (US$4.3 billion) for Phase II of Namma Metro project. It was initially expected to cost around 250 billion (US$4.0 billion).[63] On 27 March 2012, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed an agreement to lend $250 million to BMRC to part-finance Phase II of the metro rail project. The loan marked the multilateral lending agency's foray into the urban transport sector in South Asia, the ADB said in a press release.[64] The loan, approved by the ADB Board in March 2011, is the first ADB loan to the urban transport sector without recourse to sovereign guarantees.[65] The State and Central Governments will bear 30% and 20% of the project cost of Phase II respectively. The remaining amount will be obtained through senior term loans.[66]

BMRCL announced plans on 13 June 2013 to issue 10-year bonds.[67] The proposed bonds received a credit rating of "IND AA" from India Ratings & Research (Ind-Ra),[68] a Chennai-based research company.[69] Namma Metro MD N. Sivasailam announced on 3 August 2013 that the issue of bonds would be postponed as the market was volatile. Sivasailam stated that the metro would "be in the market soon and when it is stable."[70]

Revenues and Profits[edit]

During the first month, since the opening of Reach I, about 1325,000 people travelled by the metro.[71] On average, 41,390 people took the train every day, while the average daily revenue was 667,262. The BMRC earned a revenue of 21 million (US$330,000) in its first month of operation.[72] In the first six months of operation, average ridership went down to 24,968. The BMRC earned a total of 66 million (US$1.0 million) during the same period.[73]

Namma Metro posted a profit of 4.1 million (US$65,000) after almost one year of operating Reach I. BMRCL estimates that nearly 8 million passengers travelled on the system, in its first year of operations.[74]


Purple Line train
Interior of the Metro coach
Interior of the Metro coach on inauguration day
MG Road Station at night

Rolling stock[edit]

The specification for rolling stock is based on stainless steel-bodied three-car formations, a trailer between two motored driving units. Internal wide gangways provide ease of passenger movement and assist in load distribution. Trains are air-conditioned throughout with designated space for disability access. Although with many automated functions, trains are under driver control.

The capacity per train is approximately 1,000 through longitudinal seating, giving a high proportion of the floor area to standing passengers. The maximum attainable speed is 80 km/h (50 mph).[citation needed]

Initially the bids by Bombardier and Siemens, Alstom Projects India Ltd and consortium comprising BEML, Mitsubishi and Hyundai Rotem were shortlisted to supply the rolling stock and coaches. In February 2009, the BEML-led consortium was awarded the contract to supply 150 coaches and rolling stock for the first phase of the project. While Mitsubishi would supply the traction for the coaches, Hyundai Rotem would supply the rolling stock and BEML would supply the coaches for Phase I.[75]

The first trainset made a trial run in December 2010.[76]

Power supply[edit]

The power for the system is 750 V DC bottom contact third rail supply. In December 2009, the ABB Group was awarded the contract to provide power solutions for the first phase of the planned metro network. ABB will design, supply, install and commission four substations that receive and distribute electricity, each rated at 66/33 kV, as well as the auxiliary and traction substations. ABB will also provide an integrated network management, or SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), system to monitor and control the installations.[77]

Signaling and communications[edit]

The integrated control centre at Byappanahalli has direct communication with trains and stations are CCTV fitted with visual and audio service information.[78] Passengers have emergency voice communication with train staff.

In September 2009, the consortium led by Alstom Project India Limited were awarded a contract worth 5634 million (US$89.4 million) to supply control and signalling system for the first phase of the project. The consortium is led by Alstom and composed of Alstom Transport SA, Thales Group Portugal S A and Sumitomo Corporation. Alstom will provide the design, manufacture, supply, installing, testing and commissioning of the train control and signalling system and Thales will provide the design, installing, testing and commissioning of the telecommunication system for Phase I of the metro system. It includes the Urbalis 200 Automatic Train Control system which will ensure optimal safety, flexible operations and heightened passenger comfort.[79][80]


Initially, there were no toilets at Namma Metro stations, despite demand from commuters. BMRCL countered the demand by arguing that constructing toilets was not part of the metro construction plan, and that building toilets in the city was the responsibility of the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP). They also justified the decision by saying that commuters spent "hardly five minutes" at stations, so restrooms were not required, and also that none of the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) bus stops in the city had toilets for passengers. However, BMRCL eventually heeded public demand, and the metro's first toilets were opened at Baiyappanahalli and Indiranagar stations on 21 June 2013.[81]

Facilities and services[edit]

All metro trains are Wi-Fi enabled (the first metro in India to have this feature), so passengers can use laptops, tablets as well as mobile internet.[78] The free Wi-Fi service was made available to commuters on 31 July 2013.[82] Passengers also have emergency voice communication with train staff through a speaker system. Passengers are provided with a call button to communicate anything to the driver or control center during an emergency.[78]

Metro stations are equipped with automated external defibrillators (AED) that can be used in the event a passenger suffers cardiac arrest.[83] Station staff will be trained in their use.[84]

Handicapped facilities[edit]

Yellow textured tiles are used at all stations to guide the visually impaired through the station.[85]


As of February 2014, BMRCL has two road-cum-rail rescue vehicles that can be used to perform evacuations or re-load derailed trains back onto the track.[86]

The trains are equipped with derailment prevention equipment, and the tracks are equipped with concrete barriers to prevent trains from leaving the viaduct. The support pillars are earthquake proof and are designed to have a lifespan of at least 100 years. Trains are equipped with sensors to detect impending collisions, and have automatic braking systems to prevent speed limits from being exceeded.[87]

Rainwater harvesting[edit]

BMRCL, in a public-private partnership, harvests rainwater from the viaducts on the rail system. The private partner, Karnataka Rural Infrastructure Development (KRIDL), collects the water at multiple points, treats it, and sells it in bulk as potable water.[88] Around 80 million litres of water are expected to be collected annually.[89]

BMRCL also plans to harvest rainwater from the 140 acre depot facility at Peenya. Water will be collected from the 190,000 sq foot roof and stored in two tanks with a capacity of 50,000 litres each. Rainwater harvesting is also planned in the existing and under-construction stations. The water harvested will be supplied to places where needed, and any excess will be used for groundwater recharge.[89]

BMRC has installed a water harvesting system along Reach 1 and will be doing the same for Reaches 3 & 4. Installation of flower beds was delayed due to garbage being dumped on the median by garbage collectors, BMRC will also set up flower beds on Reach 1 with assistance from the horticulture department. However, the work related to this has slowed down due to garbage contractors dumping garbage along the median, due to the lack of a waste management plan in the city.[90] BMRC will rejuvenate Kengeri and Veerasandra lakes using water collected from a nearby corridor.[91][92]



The minimum fare is 10 and maximum fare of 15 for Reach-1.[93]


The obverse of an entry token issued
Bangalore Metro Ticket(Token)-Kempegowda Tower Symbol view

Namma Metro uses contactless smart tokens and contactless smart card.[94] Tokens are available only for single journey. A person can buy up to 6 tokens for additional five passengers and himself.

There are 4 types of smart cards available on the metro – Varshik, Sanchar, Saral and Saraag.[95]

  • Varshik is priced at 100. It is valid for a year, and provides a 15% discount on fares. The card can be recharged.
  • Sanchar is available in denominations of 10, 40, 50 and 100.
  • Saral costs 70. It permits one day's travel on BMTC non-air-conditioned buses and on the metro.
  • Saraag costs 110. It permits one day's travel on BMTC air-conditioned buses and on the metro.[96]

BMRCL began selling tokens through automatic ticket vending machines (ATVMs) on 4 December 2012 at MG Road, Indiranagar and Baiyyappanahalli stations. The service will eventually be expanded to all metro stations. The touchscreen enabled ATVMs are available in 3 languages – English, Kannada and Hindi. Commuters can purchase a single journey token by selecting the destination station or the amount in the ATVM. They can also add value or add trips to the tickets in the contactless smart card. Commuters can purchase up to 8 tickets at a time and can get the receipt print for card recharge. ATVMs accept coins of 5 and 10 denominations and 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 denominations of currency notes. However, the ATVM cannot differentiate between 1 and 2 coins.[97][98]

Approximately, 68% of passengers on the metro use smart tokens and 32% use smart cards.[74] MIFARE DESFire platform, developed by NXP Semiconductors, was selected to manage the Automated Fare Collection (AFC) in Namma Metro.[99]


The metro service runs between 0600 and 2200 hours. There are trains every 15 minutes between 0600 and 0800, 10 minutes between 0800 and 2000, and 15 minutes between 2000 and 2200.[100] The frequency is slated to increase to once every three minutes by 2021. The travel time from end to end on the Purple Line will be 33 minutes, and on the Green Line will be 44 minutes.

Metro services have occasionally operated beyond 2200 hours. Services are usually extended on festival days or when a major cricket match is held in Bangalore.[101][102]


The system is designed for a maximum train speed of 80 km/h. However, the Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) fixed the speed at which trains are allowed commercially operate at 67.50 km/h on straight sections, 35 km/h on curves, and 45 km/h in stations.[103]


Reach 1
The average daily ridership of Reach 1 of Namma Metro is 24,968. The Metro’s highest recorded ridership was 85,004, on 23 October 2011, the Sunday following the service’s inauguration.[73]

Reach 1, 3 and 3a
Now, the average daily ridership of Reaches 1, 3 and 3a of Namma Metro is 110,000.


The Bangalore Metro Rail (Carriage and Ticket) Rules 2011 limit the weight of personal baggage to 15 kg. Rule 3 says: “No person shall, while travelling in metro railway, carry with him any goods other than a small baggage containing personal belongings not exceeding 60cm x 45cm x 25cm in size and 15kg in weight, except with the prior approval of the metro railway administration.” The rules also prohibit carrying explosive, inflammable, and poisonous substances.[104]

The Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002, imposes fines and in some cases jail sentences for offences committed on the metro. Anyone indulging in sabotaging the train or maliciously hurting or attempting to hurt other passengers while travelling in the metro can face imprisonment up to 10 years. Pasting posters or drawing graffiti on the walls of stations or trains is punishable by a fine of 1,000 or imprisonment for up to 6 months. Travelling in an inebriated state or creating nuisance in the train is punishable by a 500 fine.[105] Passengers are monitored at security checkpoints and those that are causing trouble, heavily drunk, or carrying forbidden items are not permitted to board.[106] Spitting on the metro premises is punishable by a fine of 100.[107]


Currently baggage is manually searched by security guards hired by BMRCL. Bangalore City Police are in charge of external security of metro installations. Plans are underway to install three baggage scanners each at Baiyappanahalli, Swami Vivekananda Road and Indiranagar stations and two each at M.G. Road, Trinity and Halasuru stations. There are attendants and multiple security guards on each platform, and photography is strictly prohibited.[108]


On 5 March 2012 at 8:35 pm, a 16-year-old boy threw himself under a train at the MG Road station. The boy was identified as S Vishnu Sharan, a first-year student of St. Joseph's PU College and a resident of Jayanagar. This was the first death to occur after Namma Metro operations began.[109]


See also[edit]


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