Nanban trade

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The Nanban trade (南蛮貿易 Nanban bōeki?, "Southern barbarian trade") or the Nanban trade period (南蛮貿易時代 Nanban bōeki jidai?, "Southern barbarian trade period") in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans - Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants - to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.[1]

Etymology[edit]

First Westerners in Japan, by Hokusai, 1817. Caption: "On August 25, 1543, these foreigners were cast upon the island of Tanegashima, Okuma Province", followed by the two names Murashukusha (unknown) and Kirishitamōta (António da Mota, also known as Christopher).[2]

Nanban (南蛮?, lit. "Southern Barbarian") is a Sino-Japanese word which originally designated people from South Asia and South-East Asia. It followed a Chinese usage in which surrounding "barbarian" people in the four directions had each their own designation, the southern barbarians being called Nanman. In Japan, the word took on a new meaning when it came to designate Europeans, the first of whom were Portuguese, arriving in 1543. The word later came to encompass the Spanish, the Dutch (though these were more commonly known as Kōmō (紅毛?, meaning "Red Hair", c.f. ang mo) and the English.

Cultural encounter[edit]

Japanese accounts of Europeans[edit]

The characters for "Nanban" (lit. "Southern barbarian").

Following contact with the Portuguese on Tanegashima Isle in 1543, the Japanese were at first rather wary of the newly arrived foreigners. The cultural shock was quite strong, especially due to the fact that Europeans were not able to understand the Japanese writing system nor accustomed to using chopsticks.

"They eat with their fingers instead of with chopsticks such as we use. They show their feelings without any self-control. They cannot understand the meaning of written characters" (from Boxer, Christian Century).
Shrimp tempura

The Japanese were introduced to several new technologies, cultural practices, whether in the military area (the arquebus, European-style Cuirasses, European ships), religion (Christianity), decorative art, language (integration to Japanese of a Western vocabulary) and culinary: the Portuguese introduced the tempura and above all the valuable refined sugar, creating nanban-gashi (南蛮菓子?), "southern barbarian confectionery", with confectioneries like castella, kompeito, aruheitō, karumera, keiran sōmen, bōro and bisukauto.

Many foreigners were befriended by Japanese rulers, and their ability was sometimes recognized to the point of promoting one to the rank of samurai (William Adams), and giving him a fief in the Miura Peninsula, south of Edo.

European accounts of Japan[edit]

Renaissance Europeans were quite fond of Japan's immense richness in precious metals, mainly owing to Marco Polo's accounts of gilded temples and palaces, but also due to the relative abundance of surface ores characteristic of a volcanic country, before large-scale deep-mining became possible in Industrial times. Japan was to become a major exporter of copper and silver during the period.

A group of Portuguese Nanban foreigners, 17th century, Japan.

Japan was also noted for being much more populated and urbanized than any Western country (in the 16th century, Japan had 26 million inhabitants against 16 million for France and 4.5 million for England).[3] Buddhist schools in Japan were also larger than Universities in the West, such as Salamanca or Coimbra. At the time, some Europeans became quite fascinated with Japan, some even writing that the Japanese "excel not only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as well" (Alessandro Valignano, 1584, "Historia del Principio y Progreso de la Compañía de Jesús en las Indias Orientales).

Early European visitors noted the quality of Japanese craftsmanship and metalsmithing. This stems from the fact that Japan itself is rather poor in natural resources found commonly in Europe, especially iron. Thus, the Japanese were famously frugal with their consumable resources; what little they had they used with expert skill though because of this, they had not reached European levels.

Japanese military prowess was also well noted : "A Spanish royal decree of 1609 specifically directed Spanish commanders in the Pacific 'not to risk the reputation of our arms and state against Japanese soldier'" (Giving Up the Gun, Noel Perrin). Troops of Japanese samurai were later employed in the Spice Islands in Southeast Asia by the Dutch to fight off the English.

Trade exchanges[edit]

Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th-century painting.
Portuguese traders landing in Japan

Portuguese trade in the 16th century[edit]

Soon after the first contacts in 1543, Portuguese ships started to arrive in Japan. At that time, there were already trade exchanges between Portugal and Goa (since around 1515), consisting of 3 to 4 carracks leaving Lisbon with silver to purchase cotton and spices in India. Out of these, only one carrack went on to China in order to purchase silk, also in exchange for Portuguese silver.

Accordingly, the cargo of the first Portuguese ships (usually about 4 smaller-sized ships every year) arriving in Japan almost entirely consisted of Chinese goods (silk, porcelain). The Japanese were very much looking forward to acquiring such goods, but had been prohibited from any contacts with China by the Emperor of China, as a punishment for wakō pirate raids. The Portuguese therefore found the opportunity to act as intermediaries in Asian trade.

With the foundation of the port of Nagasaki, through the combined initiatives of converted daimyo Ōmura Sumitada and his Portuguese friend and confessor, Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela, in 1571,[4] the extent of Portuguese trade and influence in Japan, and particularly in Kyūshū, would increase dramatically for the next thirty on years, even furthering the depth of its foothold on the strategic harbour, after having assisted Sumitada in repelling an attack on the port by the Ryūzōji clan in 1578, which in turn led Sumitada to cede Nagasaki "in perpetuity" to the Society of Jesus two years later.

A Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th century.

From the time of the acquisition of Macau in 1557, and their formal recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese Crown started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder the annual "Capitaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year. The carracks were very large ships, usually between 1000 and 1500 tons, about double or triple the size of a regular galleon or a large junk.

That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited on the ground that the ships were smuggling priests into Japan.

Portuguese trade was progressively more and more challenged by Chinese smugglers on junks, Japanese Red Seal Ships from around 1592 (about ten ships every year), Spanish ships from Manila from around 1600 (about one ship a year), the Dutch from 1609, the English from 1613 (about one ship per year).

Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves[edit]

After the Portuguese first made contact with Japan in 1543, a large scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as slaves in Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including Portugal itself, throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.[5][6] Many documents mention the large slave trade along with protests against the enslavement of Japanese. Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased large amounts of Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555. King Sebastian feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization since the slave trade in Japanese was growing to massive proporations, so he commanded that it be banned in 1571[7][8]

Japanese slave women were even sold as concubines to black African crewmembers, along with their European counterrparts serving on Portuguese ships trading in Japan, mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a Portuguese Jesuit, in a 1598 document.[9] Japanese slaves were brought by the Portuguese to Macau, where some of them not only ended up being enslaved to Portuguese, but as slaves to other slaves, with the Portuguese owning Malay and African slaves, who in turn owned Japanese slaves of their own.[10][11]

Hideyoshi was so disgusted that his own Japanese people were being sold en masse into slavery on Kyushu, that he wrote a letter to Jesuit Vice-Provincial Gaspar Coelho on 24 July 1587 to demand the Portuguese, Siamese (Thai), and Cambodians stop purchasing and enslaving Japanese and return Japanese slaves who ended up as far as India.[12][13][14] Hideyoshi blamed the Portuguese and Jesuits for this slave trade and banned Christian proselytizing as a result.[15][16]

Some Korean slaves were bought by the Portuguese and brought back to Portugal from Japan, where they had been among the tens of thousands of Korean prisoners of war transported to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98).[17][18] Historians pointed out that at the same time Hideyoshi expressed his indignation and outrage at the Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves, he himself was engaging in a mass slave trade of Korean prisoners of war in Japan.[19][20]

Fillippo Sassetti saw some Chinese and Japanese slaves in Lisbon among the large slave community in 1578, although most of the slaves were blacks.[21][22][23][24][25]

The Portuguese "highly regarded" asian slaves like Chinese and Japanese, much more "than slaves from sub-Saharan Africa".[26][27] The Portuguese attributed qualities like intelligence and industriousness to Chinese and Japanese slaves which is why they favored them more.[28][29][30][31]

In 1595 a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese and Japanese slaves.[32]

Dutch involvement[edit]

The Dutch, who, rather than "Nanban" were called "Kōmō" (Jp:紅毛, lit. "Red Hair") by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde ("liefde" meaning "love"). Their pilot was William Adams, the first Englishman to reach Japan.

In 1605, two of the Liefde's crew were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan. The head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia. In 1609 however, the Dutchman Jacques Specx arrived with two ships in Hirado, and through Adams obtained trading privileges from Ieyasu.

The Dutch also engaged in piracy and naval combat to weaken Portuguese and Spanish shipping in the Pacific, and ultimately became the only westerners to be allowed access to Japan from the small enclave of Dejima after 1638 and for the next two centuries.

Japan early trade coin and 17th-century commercial trade with Vietnam[edit]

Historical background[edit]

Japanese Red seal trade in the early 17th century.[33]

There was no historical record to document exactly when the Japanese started trading with Vietnam. Vietnamese historians only knew that Chinese merchants traded with the Vietnamese a couple hundred years before the Japanese. According to Professor Hasebe Gakuji and Professor Aoyagi Yogi from a recent archaeological expedition in Japan, fragments of Vietnamese ceramic were found in a northern part of Kyūshū island. Among them was a wooden plate with character showing the date 1330 on it. It is unknown whether Vietnamese sailed to Kyushu or Japanese to Vietnam. Another possibility is that Chinese and Japanese acted as middle men and traded these goods northward. Vietnamese history records showed that when Lord Nguyễn Hoàng founded Hội An port at the beginning of the 17th century, hundreds of Japanese residents were already there.

Early Vietnamese official records documented the first contact between the Japanese and the Viets occurred in 1585. Lord Nguyễn Hoàng's sixth son led a squadron of more than ten ships to Cua Viet seaport where he destroyed two of the pirates' ships of Kenki, a Japanese pirate mistaken for a Westerner. Later in 1599, Kenki's ship had been wrecked in the ThuanAn seaport and captured by Lord Nguyễn Hoàng's general. In 1601, Lord Nguyễn Hoàng sent the first official letter to Tokugawa Shogunate apologizing for his attacking the ship belonging to Kenki, a Japanese merchant, and to praise for the amicable friendship between the two countries.

Tracing back through history, there were good explanations for the Japanese wanting to trade with the Viets. Since the Tang dynasty in the 8th century, Chinese merchants had already crossed the open ocean to Japan, Champa, and Java for commercial trade. And in the 12th century, the Japanese merchants began sailing to China with the same purpose. During the Ming dynasty in the 16th century, trade friction between Japan and China mounted as Japanese pirates attacked many Chinese seaports. The Ming banned its citizens from trading abroad with foreigners, especially the Japanese regardless of whether they are honest Japanese merchants or pirates and applied the embargo policy towards Japanese ships. During that period, Japan desperately needed high-quality Chinese raw silk for their royal Court and war materials for their army. Therefore when direct trade with China was becoming increasingly difficult, the Japanese merchants alternatively turned south towards Vietnamese ports, neutral trading sites with Chinese merchants. That may explain why Hội An in Cochinchina and Phố Hiến, Ke Cho in Tonkin became prosperous for several decades during the 17th century.

Shuinsen policy of Tokugawa Shogunate[edit]

In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists in the battle of Sekigahara. Three years later, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor. It marked the beginning of the Edo era and the Tokugawa Shogunate ruled Japan for over 250 years. The Shogun often exchanged correspondence with Lord Nguyễn Hoàng. The commercial trade between the two countries prospered during this period.

According to Professor Kawamoto Kuniye, in the Gaiban Tsuuho - a collection of official diplomatic documents of trade between Japan and other countries from 1599 to 1764, in a reply to Lord Nguyễn Hoàng in the 10th month of the year 1601 Ieyasu stated that 'In the future, ships visiting your country from our country are to be certified by the seal shown on this letter, and ships not carrying the seal should not be deemed lawful'. Hence the Shuinsen (朱印船 "Red-Seal Ships"?) policy came into effect. Any Japanese merchant ship carrying the red seal of Tokugawa must be considered as the Shogun's representative to trade with foreign countries. The powerful Shuinsen trade license, by the authority of the Shogun, was issued only to the noble families in Japan such as Chaya, Araki Store, Phuramoto, Suminnokura.

Professor Iwao Seichi has traced the number of Japanese red-seal ships clearing for the Great Viet and found that at least 124 ships visited both Tonkin and Cochinchina in the period from 1604 to 1635, besides the number of ships which did not have license or arrived before 1604. The Viet rulers successfully achieved commercial trade with Japan in the 17th century.

Number of ships in year Tonkin Cochinchina
1604–1605 5 9
1606–1610 2 9
1611–1615 3 26
1616–1620 9 22
1621–1625 6 7
1626–1630 3 5
1631–1635 9 9

Every year, during the month of January through March, when the favorable northeast wind for sailing south was blowing, Japanese ships with heavy loads of silver and copper arrived at the Viets river-ports. In Hội An, to handle the large influx of Japanese, the local authority set up a Japanese town quarter, Nihomachi. And the Chinese merchants had a nearby town quarter as well. They exchanged goods with each other or with the locals in open market fair. The Japanese preferred Chinese or Vietnamese raw silk, sugar, spices, and sandalwood. In the early 17th century, Christoforo Borri who lived in Hội An noted about the profit from the trade 'This Calamba (sandal wood) where it is gathered, is valued 5 ducats the pound; yet at the Port of Cochinchina it yields more; and scarcely to be had under 16 ducats the pound: and being transported to Japan, it is valued at 200 ducats the pound ... with a piece of such greatness that a man lay his head on it, as on a pillow, the Japanese will give 300 or 400 ducats the pound'. When the southeast trade wind blew during July, August, the fleet of merchant ships began to leave the Great Viets heading home. In the Inner Region, Chaya Shirojiro was the most famous merchant who bought fine silk, sandalwood, calamba and sold copper coins, silver, bronze to Nguyễn Lord.

Amicable friendship between Japan and Great Viet[edit]

The friendship between the two countries developed quickly at both the national and the local level. Nguyễn Lord and Tokugawa exchanged letters and gifts annually through Japanese merchants. In 1604, Lord Nguyễn Hoàng even took the initiative to adopt Hunamoto Yabeiji, a Japanese merchant. Later on, Lord Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, Lord Nguyễn Hoàng's son, tried to improve upon the relationship even further. According to Phan Khoang in Viet Su, Xu Dang Trong ("Vietnamese History, the Inner Tegion"), Lord Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên married his daughter, Princess Ngoc Khoa, to Araki Shutaro, another Japanese merchant. Lord Nguyen even permitted Araki to have a royal Vietnamese name, Nguyen Taro, called Hien Hung. Nguyễn Lord also wrote to some other Japanese merchants, Honda Kouzukenosuke and Chaya Shiro Jiro, encouraging them to pursue trading in the Inner Region.

Meanwhile the relationship between Japan and the Outer Region did not improve much. Before 1635, fewer Japanese ships arrived in Tonkin and Japanese merchants set up trade offices in Phố Hiến and Thăng Long. The most famous Japanese merchant in the Outer Region was Suminokura Kyoi, who sold copper coins, arms and silver to Lord Trinh and bought fine silk. Until Tokugawa promulgated the closed-door Sakoku (鎖国?, "chained country") policy in 1635, and Japanese merchants were forbidden to go abroad, a number of Japanese merchants decided to stay and moved to the Outer Region to settle permanently. The Dutch, as their best intermediaries with the Vietnamese merchants, hired those who were familiar with Vietnamese customs, experienced in trade and spoke the local language fluently. Because the relationship between the Dutch and Nguyễn Lord was poor, the Dutch maintained more frequent contacts with Trinh Lord. According to Dumoutier, some Japanese had a close relationship with the Court. He mentioned a Japanese lady, Ouroussan, who became a beloved concubine of King Le Than Tong.

Japanese merchants were at ease with the natives in the region. They mixed with the Vietnamese people and adopted local customs gradually. A great number of Japanese merchants married local people and donated money to repair or build Buddhist pagodas and bridges. Connecting the ancient town of HoiAn's Tran Phu street and Nguyen thi Minh Khai street, the Japanese bridge also named "the Bridge-shaped Pagoda" remains the best symbol of the Japanese-Vietnamese friendship.

Imported Japanese coin trade in the 17th century[edit]

Chinese Ming coin (永楽通宝) used as currency in Japan.
Eiraku Tsūhō (永楽通宝) Japanese imitation of the Ming type. 14–17th century.

To understand why Japanese merchants brought copper coins to the Viets for trade in the 17th century, one should review the monetary history of Japan. Japan was originally rich in natural resources of precious metals such as silver, gold and copper. As early as the beginning of the 8th century, gold, silver and copper coins not only existed but also were minted in Japan. These coins were made for reward more than for use as a means of exchange. In those days, Japan was still in the stage of barter economy. From the 12th century to 1587, Japan stopped minting and sent goods to China to exchange for Chinese copper coins, as demand for coins gradually increased. In the 15th century Ashikaga Shogunate sent many requests to the Ming dynasty in China for a supply of copper coins. Therefore the Toraisen, an imported coin from China, and such coins as Jia Ding Tung Pao ("Katei Tsuho" in Japanese) of the Sung, Hong Wu Tung Pao ("Kobu Tsuho") and Yung Lo Tung Pao ("Eiraku Tsuho") of the Ming circulated throughout Japan. Meanwhile the supply of Toraisen was still not enough to fulfill the demand for money due to the expansion of commercial trade. To fill the gap, the nobles introduced Shichusen, a privately minted Japanese coin. In the 16th century, cracked or worn out Toraisen and poor-quality Shichusen were called Bitasen ("poor-quality coins"). People began to select coins and to refuse the face value of Bitasen. In the Tokugawa period, the exchange ratio between the Toraisen and Bitasen was 4 to 1. The Shogun wanted to resolve the monetary disorder, to monopolize the right to mint coins and to standardize Japanese currency. In 1608, Tokugawa prohibited the circulation of Bitasen, including the imported Chinese coins. He promoted the production of gold, silver, and copper mines and the application of sophisticated Chinese technology to refine the metal. Gold and silver coins and bar as well as the Tensho Tsuho, Genna Tsuho and Kanei Tsuho began to replace the old coins.

Japanese merchants got the bright idea of buying these devalued and banned coins at a low price in Japan and selling them to the foreign merchants, then to other countries, making huge profits. In that period, Nguyễn Lords were in conflict with Trịnh Lords. The southern Nguyen ruler needed copper to cast cannon for the war. And in 1651, Prince Yung Ming in China required Nagasaki to provide copper coins as well. The local authority in Nagasaki began to cast the Yung Li Tung Pao for the Ming. Near the end of the 17th century, Lord Nghia (Nguyen Phuc Tran) asked Tokugawa to provide copper coins on his behalf. Japanese coin export was very profitable for the merchants and the Shogunate. However, after several requests by the local government and repeated rejections by the Shogunate, Tokugawa finally permitted Nagasaki to cast coins for trade only from the 2nd year of Manji (1659) to the 2nd year of Jokyo (1685). According to Kristof Glamann in the Dutch Asiatic trade 1620–1740, the VOC vessels also shipped the Nagasaki coins to the Netherlands, in Europe, on their way back home.

In Tonkin, the Japanese trade coins were circulated or were melted to make utensils as well. Alexandre de Rhodes, the French priest who lived in the Outer Region in 1627, stated in his book that the current coin in Tonkin consisted of large copper coin brought in from Japan and small coin minted locally. Large coins were circulated everywhere, but small coins were used only in the capital and four surrounding districts. The value of the local coin varied depending on the quantities of large cash brought in each year but was normally priced at 10 small cash to 6 large cash.

Date Some details in the Register of the British East India Company showed the busy activity of coin trade in Phố Hiến, Tonkin
August 22, 1672 3 Dutch ships arrived from Batavia bringing 6 million Japanese cash and 1000 tael of silver
April 7, 1675 1 Chinese junk arrived from Japan with copper cash and silver
June 17, 1675 1 Dutch ship arrived from Batavia with 80 chests of Japanese cash
February 23, 1676 2 Chinese junks arrived from Japan bringing silver and cash

Meanwhile Cochinchina did not have natural resources for casting coin and Nguyễn Lords desperately needed copper during the wartime. Japan was the main source of copper in the region, followed by China and Batavia. Later, after the fighting with Trinh Nguyen was over, the southern Nguyen ruler's need for copper for trading became increasingly important. The VOC Registers provided some details about the coin trade business. From 1633 to 1637, VOC imported 105,834 strings of cash coin, each string having about 960 coins. The total of imported coins to Cochinchina was 101,600,640 coins for the five-year period. Dr. A van Aelst gave more details: 1,250,000 Yung Lo Tung Pao coins and 1,000,000,00 Kanei Tsuho coins. When the Japanese closed-door policy came into effect, Japanese merchants transferred their stock of 200 tons of cash coins to the Dutch to ensure a continuous supply.

Was the amount of imported copper coins into Cochinchina tremendous? That was the reason why Lê Quý Đôn complained in his book Phu Bien Tap Luc that 'The Nguyễn wasted a lot of copper. They even used copper to make nails, door hinges.'.

Tracing back to the Register Record of the VOC, we could see the profit margin of the coin trade in the 17th century. During 1635–1636, one string of cash coins valued 1 liang of silver in Japan could be priced at 10.5 liang in the Great Viet.

Nagasaki coins[edit]

Without mentioning the Bitasen coins like Eiraku Tsuho that the Japanese brought to the Great Viet, there were three kinds of Nagasaki coins:

  • Nagasaki YungLi coin (Nagasaki Eiryaku Sen)
  • Nagasaki Five Element coin (Nagasaki Gogyo Sen)
  • Nagasaki trade coins (Nagasaki Boeki Sen).

The Nagasaki YungLi coins were copied from the Chinese Yung Li coin and used on Taiwan. Yung Li was the reign title of Prince Yung Ming, who was enthroned in Kwang Tung after the Ching captured Peking. The Prince sent an order to Nagasaki for copper coins. The Nagasaki Five Elements coins were cast to wish good luck to Teiseiko, who defected to Taiwan. There were five types of this coin: Four Metal ("Kin Sen"), Four Wood ("Moku Sen"), Four Water ("Sui Sen"), Four Fire ("Ka Sen") and Four Earth ("Do Sen").

The Nagasaki trade coins, as well as silver and gold bar and raw copper, were used for trade between the Japanese and the Great Viet in the 17th century. According to Kristof Glamann in 'Dutch Asiatic trade 1620–1740,' in 1621, the Japanese copper coins were shipped to the Netherlands for testing in Amsterdam. The result did not meet with expectations.

The most common Nagasaki trade coins were found with the inscription Yuan Feng Tung Pao ("Genho Tsuho" in Japanese). There were about 40 versions of Genho Tsuho Nagasaki coins. Some had the character "Feng" smaller than the others. Some were written in orthodox style, or grass style (Gyo Sho Genho), or seal-script style (Cho Kan Ho Genho).

The inscriptions of Nagasaki trade coins were copied from the Sung dynasty's reign title. The diameter of Nagasaki trade coins was about 24 mm. However there were special characteristics differentiating Sung's coins and Nagasaki coins. The prominent feature of Nagasaki coins was the large square hole with the side about 7mm to 8mm, the rim of the hole being very straight and neat. The second important feature was the simplicity of characters on the coin. Sometimes the stroke was so simple that it made the coin unique, for example, the character "Feng" of Genho Tsuho in grass style. The rust of oxidized copper on Nagasaki coins sometimes made them look different in color than Chinese coins. Perhaps the combination of alloys in Japanese coins played an important role in this feature.

The Xian Fu Yuan Pao ("Shofu Genho" in Japanese) were commonly used as the Genho Tsuho. Their characters were in a clockwise direction. Other Japanese trade coins written in orthodox style, such as Jia You Tung Pao ("Kayu Tsuho"), Xi Ning Yuan Pao ("Kinei Genho"), Tian Sheng Yuan Pao ("Tensei Genho") and Huang Sung Tung Pao, were found in Vietnamese territory.

According to Ta Chi Dai Truong in Nhung Bai Da Su Viet ("The Vietnamese Unofficial History"), the Tai Ping Tong Pao ("Taisei Tsuho" in Japanese) with either the character "Bun" ("Van" in Vietnamese) or the dot and crescent on the reverse side, was considered a Nagasaki trade coin.

Several Japanese trade coins were written in seal script style, such as Zhi Ping Yuan Pao ("Jihei Genho"), Shao Sheng Yuan Pao ("Shosei Genho") and Xi Ning Yuan Pao ("Kinei Genho").

According to Lê Hoàn Hung in Saigon and François Thierry in France, there were Vietnamese copies of Nagasaki trade coins. Based on several years of collecting Vietnam cash coin, Hung stated that the most common Vietnamese copy was Genho Tsuho and that the calligraphy of the character "Feng" of the copied version was poor. Other copied versions were small and thin. François recently informed me about his study in the alloy of Nagasaki trade coins and coins, mentioned in Phu Bien Tap Luc ("Miscellaneous Records of Pacification in the Border Area"). His research was scheduled for publication in 1999.

Conclusion[edit]

From 1633, even as the Tokugawa Shogunate banned Japanese traders from going abroad, trade between Japan and other Asian countries flourished. After the closure of Japan, Dutch ships, and Chinese junks from Southeast Asian ports were still permitted to visit Nagasaki. The main Japanese supplier turned over his stock of copper coins for Cochinchina to the Dutch East India company. The Japanese Sakoku policy was not primarily a policy of economic isolation, however trade was in decline as long as regulations restricting silver export (until 1685) and then copper export (until 1715) were strictly applied. Silver and copper acted as stimulus to trade in Asia at that time. When the export of these metals was restricted, the copper coin trade declined rapidly and trading overseas in Asia went into a deep slump.

At the beginning of the 18th century, English and Spanish merchants seldom visited the Great Viet because they realized that the profit was not as significant as it had been in the past. Englishmen found that the cotton market in India was more promising. The Malayan peninsula and West Java lost their monopoly on the spice market because these products could be found in Africa and South America as well. The overseas trade in the Great Viet was reduced significantly. The declining period of Phố Hiến, Hội An ports and Cachao came into existence. Both the Inner Region and the Outer Region of the Great Viet saw unpleasant economic hardship. A series of famine, natural disaster and epidemic led to the collapse of both Trinh Nguyen regimes before the rise of the great Tây Sơn.

Technological and cultural exchanges[edit]

Tanegashima guns[edit]

Tanegashima gun
Japanese arquebus of the Edo era(Tanegasima).

The Japanese were interested in Portuguese hand-held guns. The first two Europeans to reach Japan in the year 1543 were the Portuguese traders António da Mota and Francisco Zeimoto (Fernão Mendes Pinto claimed to have arrived on this ship as well, but this is in direct conflict with other data he presents.), arriving on a Chinese ship at the southern island of Tanegashima where they introduced hand-held guns for trade. The Japanese were already familiar with gunpowder weaponry (invented by, and transmitted from China), and had been using basic Chinese originated guns and cannon tubes called "Teppō" (鉄砲 "Iron cannon") for around 270 years before the arrival of the Portuguese. In comparison, the Portuguese guns were light, had a matchlock firing mechanism, and were easy to aim. Because the Portuguese-made firearms were introduced into Tanegashima, the arquebus was ultimately called Tanegashima in Japan. At that time, Japan was in the middle of a civil war called the Sengoku period (Period of the country at war).

Within a year after the first trade in guns, Japanese swordsmiths and ironsmiths managed to reproduce the matchlock mechanism and mass-produce the Portuguese guns. Barely fifty years later, "by the end of the 16th century, guns were almost certainly more common in Japan than in any other country in the world", its armies equipped with a number of guns dwarfing any contemporary army in Europe (Perrin). The guns were strongly instrumental in the unification of Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, as well as in the invasion of Korea in 1592 and 1597. The Famous Daimyo who virtually unified Japan, Oda Nobunaga, made extensive use of guns (arquebus) playing a key role in the Battle of Nagashino, dramatised in Akira Kurosawa's 1980 film Kagemusha (Shadow Warrior).

Red seal ships[edit]

A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. The ships were typically armed with 6 to 8 cannons. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.
The Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki, Japan (replica).

European ships (galleons) were also quite influential in the Japanese shipbuilding industry and actually stimulated many Japanese ventures abroad.

The Bakufu established a system of commercial ventures on licensed ships called red seal ships (朱印船 shuinsen?), which sailed throughout East and Southeast Asia for trade. These ships incorporated many elements of galleon design, such as sails, rudder, and gun disposition. They brought to Southeast Asian ports many Japanese traders and adventurers, who sometimes became quite influential in local affairs, such as the adventurer Yamada Nagamasa in Siam, or later became Japanese popular icons, such as Tenjiku Tokubei.

By the beginning of the 17th century, the Bakufu had built, usually with the help of foreign experts, several ships of purely Nanban design, such as the galleon San Juan Bautista, which crossed the Pacific two times on embassies to Nueva España (Mexico).

Catholicism in Japan[edit]

The Bell of Nanbanji, made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church, established by Jesuits in 1576 and destroyed 1587, Japan
Portrait of Oda Nobunaga, by Jesuit painter Giovanni Niccolo, 1583–1590.

With the arrival of the leading Jesuit Francis Xavier in 1549, Catholicism progressively developed as a major religious force in Japan. Although the tolerance of Western "padres" was initially linked to trade, Catholics could claim around 200,000 converts by the end of the 16th century, mainly located in the southern island of Kyūshū. The Jesuit managed to obtain jurisdiction over the trading city of Nagasaki.

The first reaction from the kampaku Hideyoshi came in 1587, when he promulgated the interdiction of Christianity and ordered the departure of all "padres". This resolution was not followed upon however (only 3 out of 130 Jesuits left Japan), and the Jesuits were essentially able to pursue their activities. Hideyoshi had written that

"1. Japan is a country of the Gods, and for the padres to come hither and preach a devilish law, is a reprehensible and devilish thing ...
2. For the padres to come to Japan and convert people to their creed, destroying Shinto and Buddhist temples to this end, is a hitherto unseen and unheard-of thing ... to stir the canaille to commit outrages of this sort is something deserving of severe punishment." (From Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan)

Hideyoshi's reaction to Christianity proved stronger when a shipwrecked Spanish galleon brought Franciscans to Japan in 1597. Twenty-six Christians (6 Franciscans, 17 of their Japanese neophytes, and 3 Japanese Jesuit lay brothers - included by mistake-) were crucified in Nagasaki on February 5, 1597. It seems Hideyoshi's decision was taken following encouragements by the Jesuits to eliminate the rival order, his being informed by the Spanish that military conquest usually followed Catholic proselytism, and by his own desire to take over the cargo of the ship. Although close to a hundred churches were destroyed, most of the Jesuits remained in Japan.

A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century. Guimet Museum.

The final blow came with Tokugawa Ieyasu's firm interdiction of Christianity in 1614, which led to underground activities by the Jesuits and to their participation in Hideyori's revolt in the Siege of Osaka (1614–15). Repression of Catholicism became virulent after Ieyasu's death in 1616, leading to the torturing and killing of around 2,000 Christians (70 westerners and the rest Japanese) and the apostasy of the remaining 200-300,000. The last major reaction of the Christians in Japan was the Shimabara rebellion in 1637. Thereafter, Catholicism in Japan was driven underground as the so-called "Hidden Christians".

Other Nanban influences[edit]

Nanbandō, a western-style cuirass, 16th century.

The Nanban also had various other influences:

  • Nanbandō (南蛮胴) designates a type of cuirass covering the trunk in one piece, a design imported from Europe.
  • Nanbanbijutsu (南蛮美術) generally describes Japanese art with Nanban themes or influenced by Nanban designs.
  • Nanbanga (南蛮画) designates the numerous pictorial representations that were made of the new foreigners and defines a whole style category in Japanese art (See Namban art and an example at:[1] or [2])
  • Nanbannuri (南蛮塗り) describes lacquers decorated in the Portuguese style, which were very popular items from the late 16th century (See example at: [3]).
  • Nanbangashi (南蛮菓子) is a variety of sweets derived from Portuguese or Spanish recipes. The most popular sweets are "Kasutera" (カステラ), named after Castile, and "Kompeito" (金平糖 こんぺいとう), from the Portuguese word "confeito" ("sugar candy"). These "Southern barbarian" sweets are on sale in many Japanese supermarkets today.
  • Nanbanji (南蛮寺?) was the first Christian church in Kyoto. With support from Nobunaga Oda, the Jesuit Padre Gnecchi-Soldo Organtino established this church in 1576. Eleven years later (1587), Nanbanji was destroyed by Hideyoshi Toyotomi. Currently, The bell is preserved as "Nanbanji-no-kane" (the Bell of Nanbanji) at Shunkoin temple in Kyoto.Shunkoin Temple

Decline of Nanban exchanges[edit]

After the country was pacified and unified by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603 however, Japan progressively closed itself to the outside world, mainly because of the rise of Christianity.

By 1650, except for the trade outpost of Dejima in Nagasaki, for the Netherlands, and some trade with China, foreigners were subject to the death penalty, and Christian converts were persecuted. Guns were almost completely eradicated to revert to the more "civilized" sword. Travel abroad and the building of large ships were also prohibited. Thence started a period of seclusion, peace, prosperity and mild progress known as the Edo period.

The "barbarians" would come back 250 years later, strengthened by industrialization, and end Japan's isolation with the forcible opening of Japan to trade by an American military fleet under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854.

Usages of the word "Nanban"[edit]

Japanese inro depicting Nanban foreigners, 17th century.

The term "Nanban" did not disappear from common usage until the Meiji restoration, when Japan decided to Westernize radically in order to better resist the West and essentially stopped considering the West as fundamentally uncivilized. Words like "Yōfu" (洋風 "western style") and "Obeifu" (欧米風 "European-American style)" replaced "Nanban" in most usages.

Still, the exact principle of westernization was Wakon-Yōsai (和魂洋才 "Japanese spirit Western talent"), implying that, although technology may be more advanced in the West, Japanese spirit is better than the West's. Hence though the West may be lacking, it has its strong points, which takes the affront out of calling it "barbarian."

Today the word "Nanban" is only used in a historical context, and is essentially felt as picturesque and affectionate. It can sometimes be used jokingly to refer to Western people or civilization in a cultured manner.

There is an area where Nanban is used exclusively to refer to a certain style, and that is cooking and the names of dishes. Nanban dishes are not American or European, but an odd variety not using soy sauce or miso but rather curry powder and vinegar as their flavoring, a characteristic derived from Indo-Portuguese Goan cuisine. Some of these dishes resemble Southeast Asian cuisines but are so heavily changed to fit Japanese tastes like ramen that they should be considered separate.

Timeline[edit]

- First known mention of Red Seal Ships.
- The Battle of Sekigahara unites Japan under Tokugawa Ieyasu.
- Establishment of the English factory (trading post) at Bantam, Java.
- Nippo Jisho Japanese to Portuguese dictionary is published by Jesuits in Nagasaki, containing entries for 32,293 Japanese words in Portuguese.
  • 1605 - Two of William Adams's shipmates are sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan.
  • 1609 - The Dutch open a trading factory in Hirado.
  • 1612 - Yamada Nagamasa settles in Ayutthaya, Siam.
  • 1613 - England opens a trading factory in Hirado.
- Hasekura Tsunenaga leaves for his embassy to the Americas and Europe. He returns in 1620.
  • 1614 - Expulsion of the Jesuits from Japan. Prohibition of Christianity.
  • 1615 - Japanese Jesuits start to proselytise in Vietnam.
  • 1616 - Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
  • 1622 - Mass martyrdom of Christians.
- Death of Hasekura Tsunenaga.
  • 1623 - The English close their factory at Hirado, because of unprofitability.
- Yamada Nagamasa sails from Siam to Japan, with an Ambassador of the Siamese king Songtham. He returns to Siam in 1626.
- Prohibition of trade with the Spanish Philippines.
  • 1624 - Interruption of diplomatic relations with Spain.
- Japanese Jesuits start to proselytise in Siam.
  • 1628 - Destruction of Takagi Sakuemon's (高木作右衛門) Red Seal ship in Ayutthaya, Siam, by a Spanish fleet. Portuguese trade in Japan is prohibited for 3 years as a reprisal.
  • 1632 - Death of Tokugawa Hidetada.
  • 1634 - On orders of shogun Iemitsu, Dejima artificial island is built to constrain Portuguese merchants living in Nagasaki.
  • 1637 - Shimabara Rebellion by Christian peasants.
  • 1638 - Definitive prohibition of trade with Portugal as result of Shimabara Rebellion blamed on Catholic intrigues.
  • 1641 - The Dutch trading factory is moved from Hirado to Dejima island.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Frequently referred to today in scholarship as kaikin, or "maritime restrictions", more accurately reflecting the booming trade that continued during this period and the fact that Japan was far from "closed" or "secluded."
  2. ^ Noel Perrin "Giving up the gun", p.7 ISBN 978-0-87923-773-8
  3. ^ Noel Perrin, "Giving up the gun"
  4. ^ Boxer, The Christian Century In Japan 1549–1650, p. 100–101
  5. ^ HOFFMAN, MICHAEL (MAY 26, 2013). "The rarely, if ever, told story of Japanese sold as slaves by Portuguese traders". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  6. ^ "Europeans had Japanese slaves, in case you didn't know ...". Japan Probe. May 10, 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  7. ^ Nelson, Thomas (Winter, 2004). "Monumenta Nipponica (Slavery in Medieval Japan)". Vol. 59 (No. 4). Sophia University. p. 463. JSTOR 25066328. 
  8. ^ Monumenta Nipponica: Studies on Japanese Culture, Past and Present, Volume 59, Issues 3-4. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. 2004. p. 463. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  9. ^ Michael Weiner, ed. (2004). Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorites (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 408. ISBN 0-415-20857-2. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  10. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed. (2005). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0-19-517055-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  11. ^ Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, ed. (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-19-533770-0. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  12. ^ Monumenta Nipponica. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. 2004. p. 465. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  13. ^ Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (2013). Religion in Japanese History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-231-51509-X. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  14. ^ Donald Calman (2013). Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 1-134-91843-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  15. ^ Gopal Kshetry (2008). FOREIGNERS IN JAPAN: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 1-4691-0244-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  16. ^ J F Moran, J. F. Moran (2012). Japanese and the Jesuits. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-88112-6. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  17. ^ Robert Gellately, Ben Kiernan, ed. (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 277. ISBN 0-521-52750-3. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  18. ^ Gavan McCormack (2001). Reflections on Modern Japanese History in the Context of the Concept of "genocide" (Issue 2001, Part 1 of Occasional papers in Japanese studies). Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. Harvard University, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  19. ^ Olof G. Lidin (2002). Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 1-135-78871-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  20. ^ Amy Stanley (2012). Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan. Volume 21 of Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes. Matthew H. Sommer. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-95238-3. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  21. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (1985). The memory palace of Matteo Ricci (illustrated, reprint ed.). Penguin Books. p. 208. ISBN 0-14-008098-8. Retrieved 2012-05-05. "countryside.16 Slaves were everywhere in Lisbon, according to the Florentine merchant Filippo Sassetti, who was also living in the city during 1578. Black slaves were the most numerous, but there were also a scattering of Chinese" 
  22. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A China no Brasil: influências, marcas, ecos e sobrevivências chinesas na sociedade e na arte brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7. Retrieved 2012-05-05. "Idéias e costumes da China podem ter-nos chegado também através de escravos chineses, de uns poucos dos quais sabe-se da presença no Brasil de começos do Setecentos.17 Mas não deve ter sido através desses raros infelizes que a influência chinesa nos atingiu, mesmo porque escravos chineses (e também japoneses) já existiam aos montes em Lisboa por volta de 1578, quando Filippo Sassetti visitou a cidade,18 apenas suplantados em número pelos africanos. Parece aliás que aos últimos cabia o trabalho pesado, ficando reservadas aos chins tarefas e funções mais amenas, inclusive a de em certos casos secretariar autoridades civis, religiosas e militares." 
  23. ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2012-05-05. "ing Chinese as slaves, since they are found to be very loyal, intelligent and hard working' ... their culinary bent was also evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Fillippo Sassetti, recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks." 
  24. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). 2, illustrated, reprint. p. 225. Retrieved 2012-05-05. "be very loyal, intelligent, and hard-working. Their culinary bent (not for nothing is Chinese cooking regarded as the Asiatic equivalent to French cooking in Europe) was evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Filipe Sassetti recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks. Dr. John Fryer, who gives us an interesting ..." 
  25. ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A China No Brasil: Influencias, Marcas, Ecos E Sobrevivencias Chinesas Na Sociedade E Na Arte Brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  26. ^ Paul Finkelman (1998). Paul Finkelman, Joseph Calder Miller, ed. Macmillan encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 2. Macmillan Reference USA, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. p. 737. ISBN 0-02-864781-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  27. ^ Finkelman & Miller 1998, p. 737
  28. ^ Duarte de Sande (2012). Derek Massarella, ed. Japanese Travellers in Sixteenth-century Europe: A Dialogue Concerning the Mission of the Japanese Ambassadors to the Roman Curia (1590). Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (Issue 25 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 1-4094-7223-X. ISSN 0072-9396. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  29. ^ A. C. de C. M. Saunders (1982). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441–1555. Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-521-23150-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  30. ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  31. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 225. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  32. ^ Dias 2007, p. 71
  33. ^ "Histoire du Japon", p. 72, Michel Vie, ISBN 2-13-052893-7

References[edit]

  • Giving Up the Gun, Noel Perrin, David R. Godine Publisher, Boston. ISBN 0-87923-773-2
  • Samurai, Mitsuo Kure, Tuttle publishing, Tokyo. ISBN 0-8048-3287-0
  • The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy. Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War, Christopher Howe, The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35485-7
  • Yoshitomo Okamoto, The Namban Art of Japan, translated by Ronald K. Jones, Weatherhill/Heibonsha, New York & Tokyo, 1972
  • José Yamashiro, Choque luso no Japão dos séculos XVI e XVII, Ibrasa, 1989
  • Armando Martins Janeira, O impacto português sobre a civilização japonesa, Publicações Dom Quixote, Lisboa, 1970
  • Wenceslau de Moraes, Relance da história do Japão, 2ª ed., Parceria A. M. Pereira Ltda, Lisboa, 1972
  • The Christian Century in Japan (1951), Charles Ralph Boxer
  • They came to Japan, an anthology of European reports on Japan, 1543–1640, ed. by Michael Cooper, University of California press, 1995
  • João Rodrigues's Account of Sixteenth-Century Japan, ed. by Michael Cooper, London: The Hakluyt Society, 2001 (ISBN 0-904180-73-5)
  • Dias, Maria Suzette Fernandes (2007), Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 238, ISBN 1-84718-111-2 

External links[edit]