The Nanda Dynasty at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC.
|Today part of|| Bangladesh
The Nanda Dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BC. At its greatest extent, the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.
Establishment of the dynasty
Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated the Panchalas, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few. He expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty c. 345 BC were thought to be of low origin with some sources stating that the dynasty's founder, Mahapadma, was the son of a Shudra mother .
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). According to Plutarch however, the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants. However, the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against Alexander, who invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, since Alexander had to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab, for his forces, frightened by the prospect of facing a formidable foe, mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march any further. This river thus marks the eastern-most extent of Alexander's conquests.
List of Nanda rulers
- Mahapadma Nanda (c. 345 BC – 329 BC)
- Dhana Nanda (Agrammes) (c. 329 BCE – 321 BC)
- Radha Kumud Mookerji, Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 4th ed. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988 ), 31, 28–33.
- "Nanda Dynasty – MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
(345 BC–321 BC)
|Indo-Gangetic Plain||Central India||Southern India|
|Northwestern India||Northern India||Northeastern India|
|Culture||Late Vedic Period||Pre-history|
|6th century BCE||Gandhara||Magadha||Adivasi (tribes)|
|Culture||Shramanic reforms (500-200 BCE)
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga
|5th century BCE||(Persian rule)||Shishunaga dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)|
|4th century BCE||(Greek conquests)|
|Culture||Shramanic reforms (continued)||Pre-history||Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
|3rd century BCE||Maurya Empire||Early Cholas|
|Culture||Preclassical Hinduism[a] - "Hindu Synthesis"[b] (ca. 200 BCE-300 CE)[c][d]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
|2nd century BCE||Indo-Greek Kingdom||Sunga Empire||Adivasi (tribes)||Early Cholas|
|1st century BCE||Yona||Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty|
|1st century CE||Kuninda Kingdom|
|2nd century||Pahlava||Varman dynasty|
|3rd century||Kushan Empire||Western Satraps||Kamarupa kingdom||Kalabhras dynasty|
|Culture||"Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. 320-650 CE)[e]
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
|4th century||Gupta Empire||Kadamba Dynasty|
|5th century||Maitraka||Adivasi (tribes)||Vishnukundina|
|Culture||Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. 650-1100 CE)[f]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
|7th century||Indo-Sassanids||Vakataka dynasty, Harsha||Mlechchha dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)||Pallava|
|8th century||Kidarite Kingdom||Kalachuri|
|9th century||Indo-Hephthalites (Huna)||Gurjara-Pratihara||Chalukya|
|10th century||Pala dynasty||Rashtrakuta|
|Culture||Islamic rule and "Sects of Hinduism" (ca. 1100-1850 CE)[g] - Medieval and Late Puranic Period (500–1500 CE)[h]|
|11th century||(Islamic conquests)