Nandi people

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Nandi
Total population
949,000 (2009)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Kalenjin
Religion
Christianity, African Traditional Religion
Related ethnic groups
Kalenjin and other Nilotes

The Nandi are part of the Kalenjin ethnic group found in East Africa. They traditionally have lived and still form the majority in the highland areas of the Nandi Hills in the former Rift Valley Province of Kenya. They speak the Kalenjin language.

History[edit]

Three Nandi warriors, date unknown

Main Article: Kalenjin History

According to the Kalenjin narrative of origin, the Nandi section was formed from the separation of what had been a combined group of Kipsigis and Nandi. They had been living at Rongai near Nakuru as a united group for a century before they were forced to separate due to antagonistic environmental factors, notably droughts and invasion of the Maasai from Uasin Gishu.[2] The Kipsigis moved southwards, settling around Kericho while the Nandi moved west and settled at Aldai.[3]

The traditional Nandi account is that the first settlers in their country came from Elgon, and formed the Kipoiis clan; this name possibly means ' the spirits,' and the name of one of these settlers is recorded as Kakipoch. He is said to have settled in the emet (country) of Aldai in south-western Nandi, and gave his name to a geographical division (pororiet). The site of his grave is still shown on Chepilat hill in Aldai, and is marked by the stump of an ancient olive tree; the account of his burial is that his body was laid on ox-hide, together with his possessions, and left for the hyaenas. Kakipoch's people were joined by a few Kipsikis, who were followed by people from the other branches.[4]

Social Organization[edit]

Political Institutions[edit]

Main Article: Traditional Kalenjin society: Geographic Extent and Divisions

The traditional system of social organisation was broadly similar to that of other Kalenjin. The general structure classified it as a segmented society, though the relative unimportance of kinship groups and the corresponding importance of the territorial unit is a feature more usually associated with stratified communities.[5] The Nandi territory was divided into six districts known as emet (pl. emotinwek), which were divided into divisions known as bororiet (pl. borororisiek) and these were divided into villages known as kokwet (pl. kokotinwek). Relative to other Kalenjin sections, the Nandi administrative system was somewhat unique in having the Bororiet (pl. Bororiosiek) administrative layer.[6]

Within the Nandi and the wider Kalenjin administrative system, the Kokwet was the most significant political and judicial unit in terms of day to day issues. The kokwet elders were the local authority for allocating land for cultivation, they were also the body to whom the ordinary member of the tribe would look for a decision in a dispute or problem which defied solution by direct agreement between the parties. Membership of the council was acquired by seniority and personality and within it decisions were taken by a small number of elders whose authority derived from their natural powers of leadership.[7][8]

The Nandi Bororiet[edit]

People of the same oreet were not necessarily restricted to one bororiet, people could and still change bororiet, due to migration, without necessarily changing their oreet. However, some families were advised, perhaps to avoid recurrent catastrophes, not to live in certain bororiet. For example, if one's family lived in one bororiet but was haunted by repetitive deaths that pointed to a curse, a ceremony reminiscent of 'Kap Kiyai' was performed to allow the family to change their bororiet by 'crossing a river' in the context of 'ma yaitoos miat aino' which literally means that death does not cross a river (body of water). This elaborate ceremony was called 'raret' (rar means trim or cut off). A family with a name Kirorei probably indicates a case of bororiet change which came about as a result of 'rareet' (chopping off). A case in point is the long-standing banning of Kap Matelong (and all Kipkenda?) from inhabiting Chesumei which is populated by the relatively obscure but conservative borioriosiek of Cheptol, Kapno and Tibingot.

Nandi major bororiosiek[edit]
  • Kap Chepkendi
Chebolool
Sigilaiyekab arap Kerebei
Chebiriir Katuut
Muruto (Kap lolo)
  • Kap Meliilo (mi kericheek ma, gotab ndasimiet)
  • Kap Taalam (Che loklokianu ak gariik, che bo ma ki kiop ko somok, che bo arap Kuna)
  • Kabooch
Cheboing'ong ak lelwek
Kosach nyiim kot koles
  • Kaptumoiis
Nandi minor bororiosiek[edit]
  • Koilegei (che ki sal Tabolwa, Che bo arap Maleel)
  • Kabianga
  • Kapsile
  • Kapno
  • Cheptol
  • Tibingot (Tebee ng'ot?)
  • Murkaptuk
  • Kap Siodoi

Clans (Oreet)[edit]

The Nandi account of the formation of their 17 clans is that four came from the Elgon and Lumbwa groups, viz. the Kipoiis, Kipamwi, Kipkenda and Kipiegen; one wholly from Elgon, the Kipkokos; five from the Elgon and Elgeyo groups, the Kipsirgoi, Moi, Sokom, Kiptopke and Kamwaike; four from the Lumbwa branch alone, the Tungo, Kipaa, Kipasiso and Kapchemuri or Chemur; and the commonly, but wrongly, called Elgoni. The plur. of this word in the Kony dialect is 't-Kony (a Masai form, where 'l=il, not el.) the remaining three from the Lo-'sekelae Masai, viz., Kipkoiitim I'partly also from Elgon), Talai, the medicine-men's clan, (partly also from Kamasya) and Toiyoi.[9]

The Nandi peoples have totems or oreet each identified by an 'animal' or tiondo, which no clan member could eat. The identification by Oreet helped prevent inbreeding since marriage within Oreet was largely not permitted. More details are published at Matelong Family Web. Clan symbols (tiondo) range from birds, wild animals, frog and snake to bees. Although the sun is not an animal, 'she' has oreet and is called 'tiondo' in the same sense as a lion. It is claimed that Kong'ony (crested crane) was the first animal allocated a family. Hence Moi (Kong'ony) is regarded as the 'leader' and in child stories this is shown as the source of babies in a family. The jackal (Kimageet, oreet of Tungo, korap oor) is claimed to have been the last tiondo to be allocated and comes along with several rules of favour (ostensibly to hide the fact that it was the last). Hence, even though the Nandi claim 'Cheptaab oreet age ne wendi oreet age' literally 'a daughter from one clan goes to another clan and belongs in the new clan', to mean a woman has no clan, the Tungo girls are permitted to retain their clan identity.

  • Kipkenda Maimi
Segemiat (bee)
  • Kiboiis
Lelwoot
Solopchoot (coackroach)
  • Mooi
Kong'oony (Crested Crane)
Soeet (Buffalo)
Kergeng, Cheptirkiichet (Dik-dik)
Kipkamoriet
Kogos, Chepkogosiot (Eagle)
  • Kipsirgoi
Toreet (palee kut ak kutung')
  • Kipamui
Kergeng (Antelope)
  • Sogoom
Chepsirereet (Eagle)
  • Talai
Ng'etuny, Lion (Kuutwo, Talai Orkoi)
Ng'etuny, Lion (Talai Nandi)
  • Kipoongoi (che kwees tibiik)
Taiyweet
  • Kibiegen (kap rat setio let)
Moseet (Monkey)
Muriat (rat)
  • Kipaa (koros)
Ndareet (Snake)
Tisiet (Baboon)
  • Toiyoi (moriso)
Ropta (rain)
Birechik (Safari Ants)
  • Kap Oiit
Beliot, kiramkeel koe mooi (Elephant)
Kipleng'wet (rabbit)
  • Kipasiiso (Kap koluu)
Asista (Sun)
  • Kuchwa
Mororochet (frog)
  • Tungo (korap oor)
Kimageetiet (Hyena)
  • Kiptabkei
Chereret (vervet monkey)

Social Institutions[edit]

Age-set (Ibinda)[edit]

The Nandi traditionally practiced circumcision of both sexes, although female circumcision was abandoned as a rite of initiation into adulthood. Boys' circumcision festivals took place about every seven and a half years, and boys circumcised at the same time are considered to belong to the same age set; like other Nilotic groups, these age sets (called ibinda, pl. ibinweek) were given names from a limited fixed cycle. Each age set is further subdivided into a subset (siritieet, pl. siritoiik). About four years after this festival, the previous generation officially handed over defense of the country to the newly circumcised youths. Girls' circumcision, took place in preparation for marriage.

The Nandi social organisation centres around the age-set, or ibinda. There are seven age-sets (ibinwek) which are rotational, meaning at the end of one ageset new members of that generation are born. The order is roughly as given below. Among the other Kalenjin peoples, an age-set called Korongoro exists. However, among the Nandi, this ageset is extinct. Legend has it that the members of this ibinda were wiped out in war. For fear of a recurrence, the community decided to retire the age-set. Ibinda was given out at initiation and by simple arrangements, there ought to be one ibinda between a father and a son. For example, a Maina cannot beget a Chumo. The Nandi don't consider a woman to have an ageset, hence she can marry any ageset except that in which her father belongs. The Nandi say "ma tinyei ibin gorgo" which means a woman has no ageset.

  • Maina
  • Chumo
  • Sawe
  • Kipkoimet
  • Korongoro (not in Nandi)
  • Kaplelach
  • Kipnyigei
  • Nyongi

Age sub-set (siritiet)[edit]

In each age-set, the initiates were bundled into siritiet or what can be understood as a 'team'. There are four 'teams' or siritoik in an age-set (ibinda) namely:

  • Chongin
  • Kiptaito
  • Tetagaat (literally cow's neck)
  • Kiptoinik (literally young calves)

Religion[edit]

Like other Kalenjin, the Nandi traditionally worshipped a supreme deity, Asis (literally "Sun"), as well as venerating the spirits of ancestors. Their land is divided into six "counties" (emet): Wareng in the north, Mosop in the east, Soiin/Pelkut in the south, Aldai and Chesumei in the west, and Em-gwen in the center. The Orkoiyot, or medicine man, was traditionally acknowledged as an overall leader. The Orgoiyot led not only in spiritual matters but also during wars, as evidenced during the war between the British colonials building the railway and the Nandi warriors. The leader at that time was Koitalel Arap Samoei who was killed by Richard Meinertzhagen, a British soldier. In pre-colonial times, they also enjoyed a fearsome reputation as fighters; Arab slave-traders and ivory-traders took care to avoid the area, and the few that dared attempt to traverse it were killed.

Culture[edit]

Academics[edit]

The Nandi have also produced great scientists and academics like Prof. David Kimutai Some of Moi University, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Paul Ndalut of Chemistry and Biochemistry department at Moi University,Dr. David Ruto (Administrator, Moi University) [1] Dr.Habil, Dr. Seronei Chelulei Cheison formerly of the Technical University of Munich, Germany, and currently the Global Raw Materials Leader at Mars GmbH, Dr Fredrick Sawe( Director Walterreed, Owner-Nursing home Kericho), Dr Saisi Mayo( Dean College of Engineering, Moi University), and Prof. Chelagat Lelei and Prof. Isaack Kosgey, the Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture at Egerton University among others. Prof Mengich(Moi Referral Hospital) Dr Cheruiyot S Lagat of Masinde Muliro University, Dr. Felix K Ngetich, Agriculturalist, Kenyatta University. Among the leading lawyers from the community are Lawyer Paul Birech of Eldoret, Lawyer Paul Lilan of Nairobi, Lawyer Julius Kipkosgey Kemboy of Nairobi and retired judge Barabara Tanui. Among the leading medics from Nandi are Dr.med. Elly Kibet Cherwon of Heidelberg, Germany, one of very few Africans practising medicine in Germany. Elly also deputises the head of the hospital. Dr Vincent Komugor Kiprotich (Makerere university) There is also Dr. Kirongo (Psychiatrist Moi Referral Hospital),Dr Geoffrey Kiprotich Yebei Ngeny MD (Geriatric Medicine-Internal Medicine) of Pittsburg University, Dr Mark Kiplagat Rotich (Geriatrics and Emergency Medicine) of Marion Illinois. Dr Andrew Kibet Cheruiyot (Consultant Trauma KNH), Dr Franklin Rono,Dr Eliud Kireger, Managing Director, Tea Research Foundation of Kenya and former Dean School of Natural Resource and Environmental Managemment, Kabianga University.

Sport[edit]

Like other Kalenjin, the Nandi have produced a number of notable Kenyan athletes. These include great distance athletes like the legendary Kipchoge Keino (Kip Keino), a gold medalist at Mexico (1968) and Munich (1972) Olympic games and Prof. Mike Boit, a Bronze medalist at Munich 1972 Olympics. Others include Peter Koech, Bernard Kipchirchir Lagat who represents the USA and Wilson Kipketer who ran for his adopted home of Denmark. Current world beating athletes like Pamela Jelimo, Richard Mateelong, Wilfred Bungei, Janeth Chepkosgei and Super Henry Rono, United Nations Goodwill Ambassador Peter Rono, Tecla Chemabwai, Kenya Paralympian Henry Kirwa among others are Nandi. The father of Kenyan Steeplechasers Amos Kipwambok Biwott comes from the community.

Politics[edit]

The Nandi people have had remarkable political figures like Jean-Marie Seroney, the first MP for Nandi and Tindiret, Henry Kosgey,Joseph arap Leting who first served as Head of public service then MP. Samwel Ngeny, Kipruto Kirwa, Stanley Metto and Ezekiel Barng'etuny, Dr Joseph Misoy and William Morogo Saina. Philomena Chelagat Mutai cut her teeth as a university student in the 1970s and remains one of the most celebrated of Nandi female political leaders.Gerald Nathaniel Kalya who was the first and long serving Mosop mp,Tamason Barmalel who was chepalungu MP, Dr Sally Kosgei former mp Aldai. William Samoei Ruto who is currently the Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya.

Customs[edit]

Female-female marriages within the Nandi culture have been reported,[10] although it is unclear if they are still practiced, and only about three percent of Nandi marriages are female-female. Female-female marriages are a socially-approved way for a woman to take over the social and economic roles of a husband and father. They were allowed only in cases where a woman either had no children of her own, had daughters only (one of them could be "retained" at home) or her daughter(s) had married off. The system was practiced "to keep the fire"—in other words, to sustain the family lineage, or patriline, and was a way to work around the problem of infertility or a lack of male heirs. A woman who married another woman for this purpose had to undergo an "inversion" ceremony to "change" into a man. This biological woman, now socially male, became a "husband" to a younger female and a "father" to the younger woman's children, and had to provide a bride price to her wife's family. She was expected to renounce her female duties (such as housework), and take on the obligations of a husband; additionally, she was allowed the social privileges accorded to men, such as attending the private male circumcision ceremonies. No sexual relations were permitted between the female husband and her new wife (nor between the female husband and her old husband); rather, the female husband chose a male consort for the new wife so she will be able to bear children. The wife's children considered the female husband to be their father, not the biological father, because she (or "he") was the socially designated father.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ethnologue
  2. ^ Chesaina, C. Oral Literature of the Kalenjin. Heinmann Kenya Ltd, 1991, p. 1
  3. ^ Chesaina, C. Oral Literature of the Kalenjin. Heinmann Kenya Ltd, 1991, p. 30
  4. ^ https://archive.org/stream/cbarchive_102057_remarksuponthehistoryofthenand1927/No._28_3_1927_Huntingford_djvu.txt
  5. ^ Snell, G.S, Nandi Customary Law, (Kenya Literature Bureau: 1954), p.10
  6. ^ Hollis A.C, The Nandi - Their Language and Folklore. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1909, p. 4
  7. ^ Snell, G.S, Nandi Customary Law, (Kenya Literature Bureau: 1954), p.10 - 11
  8. ^ Kipkorir B.E, The Marakwet of Kenya: A preliminary study. East Africa Literature Bureau, 1973, p. 5
  9. ^ https://archive.org/stream/cbarchive_102057_remarksuponthehistoryofthenand1927/No._28_3_1927_Huntingford_djvu.txt
  10. ^ Oboler, Regine Smith (Jan 1980). "Is the Female Husband a Man? Woman/Woman Marriage among the Nandi of Kenya". Ethnology 19 (1): 69–88. doi:10.2307/3773320. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • A. C. Hollis. The Nandi: Their Language and Folklore. Clarendon Press: Oxford 1909.
  • Ember and Ember. Cultural Anthropology. Pearson Prentice Hall Press: New Jersey 2007.

External links[edit]