A U.S. Army UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter makes its approach into Forward Operating Base Fenty in Nangarhar province (December 2013)
Map of Afghanistan with Nangarhar highlighted
|Coordinates (Capital): Coordinates:|
|• Governor||Mulawee Attaullah ludin|
|• Total||7,727 km2 (2,983 sq mi)|
|• Density||190/km2 (480/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF-NAN|
Nangarhar (Pashto: ننګرهار and Persian: ننگرهار ; Nangarhār) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,436,000. The city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province.
|History of Afghanistan|
Song Yun, a Chinese monk visited Nangarhar in 520 AD, claimed that the people in the area were Buddhists. Yun came across a vihara (monastery) in Nangarhar (Na-lka-lo-hu) containing the skull of Buddha, and another of Kekalam (probably Mihtarlam in Laghman province) where 13 pieces of the cloak of Buddha and his 18 feet long mast were preserved. In the city of Naki, a tooth and hair of Buddha were preserved and in the Kupala cave Buddha's shadow reflected close to which he saw a stone tablet which was at that time considered to be related to Buddha (probably the stone tablet of Ashoka in Darūntah).
The region fell to the Ghaznavids after defeating Jayapala in the late 10th century. It later fell to the Ghorids followed by the Khiljis, Lodhis and the Moghuals, until finally becoming part of Ahmad Shah Durrani's Afghan Empire in 1747.
During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the invading British-led Indian forces were defeated on their way to Rawalpindi in 1842. British-led Indian forces returned in 1878 but retreated a couple of years later. Some fighting took place during the 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War between the Afghan army that were led by King Amanullah Khan and British-Indians near the Durand Line border areas.
The province remained relatively calm until the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan. Nangarhar was used by pro-Pakistani mujahideen (rebel forces) fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. The Pakistani-trained mujahideen received funding from the United States and Saudi Arabia. Many Arab fighters from the Arab World had been fighting against government forces of Mohammad Najibullah, who ultimately defeated them near Jalalabad. In April 1992, Najibullah resigned as President and the various mujahideen took control over the country. When the 1992 Peshawar Accord failed the mujahideen turned guns on each other and started a nation-wide civil war. This was followed by the Taliban take-over in 1996 and the establishment of al-Qaeda training camps in Nangarhar province.
Osama bin Laden had strong position in Nangargar during the late 1990s. He led a fight against US-led forces in the 2001 Tora Bora campaign. He ultimately escaped to Abottabad, Pakistan, where he was killed by members of the United States Navy SEALs in 2011.
After the removal of the Taliban government and the formation of the Karzai administration in late 2001, U.S.-led Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) gradually established authority across the province. Despite this, Taliban insurgents continue to stage attacks against Afghan government forces. The Haqqani Network and militants loyal to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar are often blamed for the attacks, which sometimes include major suicide bombings. Several incursions by Pakistani military forces have also been reported in the districts next to the Durand Line border. The focus of the conflict is on the Kabul and Kunar rivers, which run in Nangarhar province.
Politics and governance
The current governor of the province is Mulawee Attaullah ludin. His predecessor was Gul Agha Sherzai who left office in order to run in the 2014 Afghan presidential election. The city of Jalalabad serves as the capital of the province.
All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police (ANP) along with the Afghan Local Police (ALP). The border with neighboring Pakistan is monitored by the Afghan Border Police (ABP). A provincial police chief is assigned to lead both the ANP and the ABP. The Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP and ABP are backed by the Afghan Armed Forces, including the NATO-led forces.
Nangarhar shares a border with neighboring Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The three regions share very close ties, with significant travel and commerce in both directions.
The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 43% in 2005 to 8% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 22% in 2005 to 60% in 2011.
The Jalalabad plain is one of the principal agricultural areas of Afghanistan. The strong agricultural base, coupled with the crucial trade route connecting Kabul with Peshawar, makes Nangarhar one of the more economically diverse and functional provinces of Afghanistan. Torkham is one of the major border crossings between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is the busiest port of entry between the two countries, serving as a major economical hub for the province.
Nangarhar was once a major center of opium poppy production in the country, the province had reportedly decreased its production of poppy by up to 95% in 2005, one of the success stories of the Afghan eradication program. However, the eradication program has often left peasant farmers destitute and, in 2006, farmers were reported to have surrendered their children to opium dealers in payment on their debts. The illicit poppy cultivation takes place in Khogiani, Ghanikhil, Chaparhar, Sherzad, Toorghar, Shenwari and other remote districts. The farmers cite the lack of water and also poverty as the reasons for poppy cultivation. Poppy was also cultivated in Goshta District, Lalpura which borders Pakistan; but now the people just cultivate wheat and other legal crops.
The Jalalabad Airport is located next to the city of Jalalabad. It serves the populations of Nangarhar, Kunar, Nuristan, and other close-by provinces. The Kabul–Jalalabad Road runs throughout the province, linking Kabul with Peshawar. It is one of the busiest major roads in Afghanistan. There are also roads leading to other districts and other provinces.
|This section requires expansion. (October 2014)|
As of 2013, the total population of the province is about 1,436,000. According to the Institute for the Study of War, "the population is overwhelmingly Pashtun; less than ten percent are Pashai, Tajik, Arab, or other minorities." According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: 91.1% Pashtun; 3.6% Pashai; 2.6% Arab; 1.6% Tajik; and 2.1% other.
Nangarhar is divided into 22 districts, they are as follow:
|Dih Bala||33,294||100% Pashtun,|
|Bihsud||118,934||80% Pashtun, 20% Arab|
|Dara-I-Nur||98,202||30% Pashtun, 70% Pashais|
|Dur Baba||13,479||100% Pashtun|
|Jalalabad||205,423||Pashtun, Tajik, Arab, Pashais|
|Kot||52,154||Created in 2005 within Rodat District|
|Kuz Kunar||42,823||80% Pashtun, 15% Pashais|
|Pachir Aw Agam||40,141|
|Rodat||63,357||Sub-divided in 2005|
|Surkh Rod||91,548||95% Pashtun, 5% Tajik|
The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. Jalalabad is considered the capital of Afghan cricket with many of the national players coming from the surrounding areas. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province.
De Spinghar Bazan is a regional team in the Roshan Afghan Premier League based in Jalalabad. Jalalabad Regional Football Tournament were four local team plays like Malang Jan, Shaheed Qasim, Afghan Refugees and Laghman for to find raw talent in Afghan Premier League.
- Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township about 15 kilometres outside the city of Jalalabad.
- Sherzai Cricket Stadium, second cricket ground in Jalalabad
- Sirajul Emarah Football Stadium in Jalalabad
- "Settled Population of Nangargar province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13". Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Chinese Travelers in Afghanistan. Alamahabibi.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- "AMEER NASIR-OOD-DEEN SUBOOKTUGEEN". Ferishta, History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India, Volume 1: Section 15. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
- Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 2. BRILL. p. 151. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
- Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, https://www.cimicweb.org/AfghanistanProvincialMap/Pages/Nangarhar.aspx
- "Nangarhar Province". Understanding War. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- "Nangarhar Province". Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- "MRRD Provincial profile for Nangarhar Province". Mrrd.gov.af. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- Andrew Ross. "Afghanistan Geographic & Thematic Layers". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- Afghan Premier League
- "International cricket stadium inaugurated in Nangarhar (Video)" (in Pashto). Pajhwok Afghan News. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nangarhar Province.|
- Nangarhar Province by the Naval Postgraduate School
- Nangarhar Province by the Institute for the Study of War
- Nangahar Aerial Pictures
||Laghman Province||Kunar Province|
|Logar Province||Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan|