Nannerl Notenbuch

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The Nannerl Notenbuch, or Notenbuch für Nannerl (English: Nannerl's Music Book) is a book in which Leopold Mozart, from 1759 to about 1764, wrote pieces for his daughter, Maria Anna Mozart (known as 'Nannerl'), to learn and play. His son Wolfgang also used the book, in which his earliest compositions were recorded (some penned by his father). The book contains simple short keyboard (typically harpsichord) pieces, suitable for beginners; there are many anonymous minuets, some works by Leopold, and a few other composers including Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and the Austrian composer Georg Christoph Wagenseil. There are also some technical exercises, a table of intervals, and some modulating figured basses.[1] The notebook originally contained 48 bound pages of music paper, but only 36 pages remain, with some of the missing 12 pages identified in other collections.

Description of the Notenbuch[edit]

Originally the Notenbuch was a bound volume comprising forty-eight pages of blank music paper, with eight staves on each page. Inscribed with the words Pour le clavecin (French: For the harpsichord), it was presented to Nannerl on the occasion of her eighth name day on 26 July 1759 (or possibly her eighth birthday, which fell on the 30th or 31st day of the same month). Over the course of the next four years or so, the notebook was gradually filled with pieces written out by Leopold and two or three anonymous Salzburg copyists. Wolfgang is thought to have written out four pieces. Curiously none of the pieces was inscribed by Nannerl herself.

In later years, twelve individual pages were removed from the notebook for one reason or another. Of these, four are now considered lost, but the remaining eight have been identified by Alan Tyson (1987):

The four lost pages have been tentatively reconstructed using a variety of other sources (Nannerl's letters and Georg Nissen's biography of Mozart). It is believed that in its completed state the Notenbuch contained a total of 64 pieces (including exercises and unfinished compositions), of which 52 are in the surviving 36 pages of the book.

Wolfgang Plath (1982) has deduced the existence of five scribes, from a study of the handwriting in the Notenbuch. In addition to Leopold and Wolfgang, three anonymous scribes from Salzburg – known as Anonymous I, Anonymous II and Anonymous III – have been identified. Numbers 58 and 61, thought to be in the four missing pages, are known only from Nissen's material; Plath assumed that these two pieces were copied out by Leopold, who was responsible for more than half the contents of the Notenbuch.

The Notenbuch provides evidence of the collaboration between the young Wolfgang and his father. For example, number 48 is an arrangement of the third movement of Leopold's D major serenade, but the trio also appears as Menuet II in Wolfgang's Sonata K. 6.[2]

The Notenbuch is also useful in providing evidence of Leopold's approach to teaching music. The tables of intervals show that he taught music theory to his children from the start. It seems that he also taught composition from the outset, by means of a given bass line, a melody to be varied, a melody to be continued, and a structural model.[1]

The earliest compositions by Wolfgang are written in Leopold's hand; the father's gentle suggestions for amendments came later.[3]

Wolfgang Mozart's compositions in the book[edit]

The Notenbuch contains the following pieces by Wolfgang:

Andante in C, K. 1a[edit]

About this sound Andante in C 

This piece of music was probably Mozart's first ever composition. It is an extremely short piece, consisting of just 10 measures, and was notated by the composer's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was only five years old when he composed it.

It is normally performed on the harpsichord and is in the key of C. The piece opens with a one-bar phrase in 3/4 time, which is then repeated. A second, modified phrase receives the same treatment. The time signature then changes to 2/4 and in the following four measures Mozart reverts to a typically Baroque style. The piece concludes with a simple authentic cadence.

Allegro in C, K. 1b[edit]

About this sound Allegro in C 

An extremely short work, consisting of only twelve measures. It was notated by Mozart's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was only five years old when he composed it.

It is normally performed on the harpsichord, and is in the key of C. As the tempo indicates, it is a fast and lively piece. Unlike K. 1a, this piece is not based on repeated phrases. It begins with an ascending scale in the right hand from the dominant (G) to the mediant (E) on the first and third beats of the bars, while the left hand adds a counterpoint on the off beats. After reaching a peak, the right hand drops down in a series of quarter notes and eighth notes, accompanied by a very simple bass part. Curiously, the final cadence takes place between the eighth and ninth measures: in the last four measures, which make up a quarter of the entire composition, Mozart rings various changes on an unadorned C major triad.

Allegro in F, K. 1c[edit]

About this sound Allegro in F 

This piece, Allegro for keyboard in F, K. 1c runs to twenty-four measures (including repeats). It was composed by Wolfgang on 11 December 1761 in Salzburg. It was notated by Mozart's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was just five years old at the time.

This piece was written for the harpsichord and is usually performed on that instrument today, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This Allegro is Mozart's earliest extant piece in F major. Like K. 1b, it is in a fast tempo. It is in rounded binary form, with repeat signs at the end of each of the sections: ||:A:||:BA:||, where A and B each consists of four bars. The music is simple and classical in style. This piece has been compared to a "jolly south German folkdance".[4]

Minuet in F, K. 1d[edit]

About this sound Minuet in F 

The minuet in F is a very short piece (around a minute in length) in extended binary form. The first section is just eight measures long and the second section twelve; both are marked with repeat signs. K. 1d was notated by Leopold Mozart; Wolfgang was five years old when he composed this piece.

It was written for the harpsichord and is usually performed on that instrument, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This dance is Mozart's earliest extant composition in minuet form. As a minuet it is, by definition, stately in feeling and written in |3/4 time. Like all Mozart's compositions in the Notenbuch, the clearest influences on the style are to be found in the pieces he was studying by Leopold Mozart and Georg Christoph Wagenseil.[5]

It comprises several phrases each beginning with chords, after which broken chords and triplets are used.

Minuet in G, K. 1e[edit]

About this sound Minuet in G 

Another short piece, of 18 measures, it was probably notated by his father, Leopold Mozart, since Wolfgang was five or six years old at the time.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This minuet in G major is in Mozart's first collection of works. As a minuet, it is relatively fast in 3/4 time. Unlike K. 1d, it is far less influenced by the baroque style.

It is largely constructed of phrases which are repeated: every two bars is announced by a descending fifth, after which 4 chords are played, a tune is constructed within this restraint. Each phrase is 8 bars long. In two part harmony, it consists of 3 sections: the opening, a contrasting trio, and reprise of the original.[Not in the score]

Minuet in C, K. 1f[edit]

A short piece (around a minute in length); it was probably notated by his father, Leopold, since Wolfgang was only five or six years old at the time.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This minuet is in Mozart's first collection of works. As a minuet it is relatively fast in 3/4 time. It is, unlike K. 1d far less influenced by the baroque style.

It is largely constructed of phrases which are repeated: every two bars is announced by a descending fifth, after which 4 chords are played, a tune is constructed within this restraint. Each phrase is 8 bars long. In two part harmony, it consists of 3 sections: the opening, contrasting trio, and a reprise of the original.[Not in the score] It was, in Köchel's first catalogue listed as K. 1 along with Minuet in G, K. 1e.

Minuet in F, K. 2[edit]

A very short work (around a minute in length); it was most likely notated by hist father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was only five or six years old at the time. The entry for this work was composed in Salzburg, in January of 1762.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

This pieces is a single bar motif which is developed into an eight-bar exposition, which is repeated, and then modulated for another eight bars before being repeated again.

Allegro in B-flat, K. 3[edit]

A very short, yet lively piece (around a minute in length); it was most likely notated by his father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was six years old at the time. The entry for this work states it was composed in Salzburg, on the 4th of March 1762.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

Minuet in F, K. 4[edit]

A short minuet (around a minute in length); it was most likely notated by his father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was six years old at the time. The entry for this work states it was composed in Salzburg, on the 11th of May 1762.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

Minuet in F, K. 5[edit]

Another short minuet, the last in the Notenbuch; it was most likely notated by his father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was six years old at the time. The entry for this work states it was composed in Salzburg, on the 5th of July 1762.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

Klavierstück in C, K. 5a[edit]

A longer piece (around double the amount of time compared to that of other entires in the Notenbuch); the first piece in the book to be inscribed by the young Wolfgang. The entry date for this work states it was composed in Salzburg, sometime during 1764, the precise date is not known.

It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

Andante in B-flat, K. 5b[edit]

About this sound Andante in B (fragment) 

The final surviving piece in the Nannerl Notenbuch, of which only a fragment is left; notated again by Wolfgang. Estimated to be composed in Salzburg, around 1772.

It runs for 61 measures (including repeats) and usually performed on the Harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.

Table of contents[edit]

The following table summarizes the contents of the Notenbuch.[6]

No. Piece Copyist Composer K. Added comments Notes
01 Menuett in C Anonymous I Anonymous
02 Menuett in F Anonymous I Anonymous
03 Menuett in C Anonymous I Anonymous
04 Menuett in G Anonymous I Anonymous
05 Menuett in F Anonymous I Anonymous
06 Menuett in F Anonymous I Anonymous
07 Menuett in D Anonymous I Anonymous
08 Menuett in F Anonymous I Anonymous Diese vorgehenden 8 Menuetten hat d. Wolfgangerl im 4ten Jahr gelernet
(Wolfgang learned the preceding 8 minuets in his 4th year)
09 Menuett in A Leopold Anonymous
10 Menuett in D Leopold Anonymous
11 Menuett in F Anonymous I Anonymous Disen Menuet und Trio hat dr Wolfgangerl den 26ten Januarij 1761 einen Tag vor seinem 5ten Jahr um halbe 10 Uhr in einer halben Stund gelernet
(Wolfgang learned this minuet and trio in half-an-hour around 9:30 on 26 January 1761, one day before his 5th birthday)
12 Menuett in A Leopold Anonymous
13 Menuett in A Leopold Anonymous
14 Menuett in F Leopold Anonymous
15 Menuett in E Leopold Anonymous
16 Menuett in C Anonymous I Anonymous
17 Menuett in F Leopold Leopold
18 Menuett in B flat Leopold Anonymous
19 Menuett in F Anonymous I Wolfgang K. 32 Diesen Menuet hat d. Wolfgangerl auch im vierten jahr seines alters gelernet
(Wolfgang also learned this minuet when he was four years of age)
K. 32 (Gallimathias musicum), No. 14, is an orchestral version of this piece
20 Allegro in C Wolfgang Wolfgang K. 5a Probably added in 1764
21 Menuett in C Anonymous II Anonymous
22 Marsch in F (I) Anonymous I Anonymous den 4ten feb. 1761 vom Wolfgangerl gelernet
Learned by Wolfgang on the 4 February 1761
23 Marsch in F (II) Leopold Anonymous
24 Allegro in B flat Leopold Wolfgang K. 8 di Wolfgang Mozart à Paris le 21 Novb. 1763
by Wolfgang Mozart in Paris on 21 November 1763
A piano version of the first movement of Violin Sonata No. 3 in B flat, K. 8
25 Andante in F Leopold Wolfgang K. 6 A piano version of the second movement of Violin Sonata No. 1 in C, K. 6
Probably written in Brussels in October 1763
26 Menuett in C Leopold Wolfgang K. 6 A piano version of Menuet I from the third movement of Violin Sonata No. 1 in C, K. 6
Probably written in Brussels in October 1763
27 Allegro in C Anonymous I Anonymous
28 Allegro in F Anonymous I Anonymous
29 Klavierstück in F Anonymous I Anonymous
30 Allegro in C Anonymous I Anonymous
31 Scherzo in C Anonymous I Wagenseil del Sgr. Wagenseil
(By Signore Wagenseil)
32 Scherzo in F Anonymous I Anonymous
33 Allegro in F Leopold Anonymous
34 Allegro in C Leopold Anonymous
35 Tempo di menuetto in F Anonymous II Anonymous
36 Allegro moderato in F Anonymous I Anonymous
37 Andante in B flat Leopold Anonymous
38 Andante in C Leopold Anonymous
39 Arietta con Variazioni in A Anonymous III C.P.E. Bach
40 Allegro in C Leopold Anonymous
41 Allegro in G Leopold Anonymous
42 Allegro in G minor Leopold Anonymous
43 Presto in A Anonymous III J. N. Tischer
44 Polonaise in F Leopold Anonymous
45 Allegro in E minor Leopold Agrell
46 Allegro in C Leopold Wolfgang K. 6 di Wolfgango Mozart d. 14 octob.
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 14 October)
A piano version of the first movement of Violin Sonata No. 1, K. 6
Probably composed in Brussels in 1763
47 Menuett in D Leopold Wolfgang K. 7 di Wolfgango Mozart d. 30ten Novbr. 1763 à Paris
(by Wolfgang Mozart in Paris in 1763)
A piano version of Menuet I from Violin Sonata No. 2 in D, K. 7
48 Menuett in F Leopold Wolfgang K. 6 di Wolfgango Mozart d. 16ten Julÿ 1762
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 16 July 1762)
A piano version of the third movement of Leopold's Serenade in D and Menuet II from the third movement of Wolfgang's Violin Sonata No. 1 in C
Composed in Salzburg
49 Menuett in F Leopold Wolfgang K. 4 di Wolfgango Mozart d. 11ten Maÿ 1762
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 11 May 1762)
Minuet in F, K. 4
Composed in Salzburg
50 Klavierstück in G Leopold Anonymous Fragment
51 Konzertsatz in G Leopold Anonymous
52 Fünf technische Übungen Leopold Anonymous Exercise: Five technical exercises
53 About this sound Andante in C Leopold Wolfgang K. 1a
54 About this sound Allegro in C Leopold Wolfgang K. 1b
55 Allegro in F Leopold Wolfgang K. 1c
56 Minuet in F Leopold Wolfgang K. 1d Menuetto del Sgr. Wolfgango Mozart 16to Decembris 1761
(Minuet by Wolfgang Mozart on 16 December 1761)
57 Intervalltabelle Leopold Anonymous Exercise: a table of musical intervals
58 Menuett in F Leopold? Wolfgang K. 2 Minuet in F, K. 2
59 Allegro in B flat Leopold Wolfgang K. 3 del Sgr. Wolfgango Mozart 1762. d. 4ten Martij
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 4 March 1762)
Allegro in B flat, K. 3
Composed in Salzburg
60 Drei modulierende Generalbaßübungen Leopold Anonymous Exercise: 3 modulating general basses
61 Menuett in F Leopold? Wolfgang K. 5 5. Juli 1762
5 July 1762
Minuet in F, K. 5
Composed in Salzburg
62 Menuett in G Wolfgang Wolfgang K. 1e Minuet in G, K. 1e
Probably added in 1764
63 Menuett in C Wolfgang Wolfgang K. 1f Minuet in C, K. 1f
Probably added in 1764
64 Andante in B flat Wolfgang Wolfgang K. 5b Fragment of an Andante in B flat, K. 5b (KV 9b in K1)
Probably added in 1764

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Eisen and Keefe, p. 322
  2. ^ Cliff Eisen, 'Leopold Mozart', Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 9 May 2006)
  3. ^ Eisen and Keefe, p. 323
  4. ^ Stanley Sadie (2006), p. 53.
  5. ^ Nicholas Kenyon (2005), p. 251.
  6. ^ Neue Mozart-Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, Band 20

References[edit]

External links[edit]