The Nannerl Notenbuch, or Notenbuch für Nannerl (English: Nannerl's Music Book) is a book in which Leopold Mozart, from 1759 to about 1764, wrote pieces for his daughter, Maria Anna Mozart (known as 'Nannerl'), to learn and play. His son Wolfgang also used the book, in which his earliest compositions were recorded (some penned by his father). The book contains simple short keyboard (typically harpsichord) pieces, suitable for beginners; there are many anonymous minuets, some works by Leopold, and a few other composers including Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and the Austrian composer Georg Christoph Wagenseil. There are also some technical exercises, a table of intervals, and some modulating figured basses. The notebook originally contained 48 bound pages of music paper, but only 36 pages remain, with some of the missing 12 pages identified in other collections.
- 1 Description of the Notenbuch
- 2 Wolfgang Mozart's compositions in the book
- 3 Table of contents
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Description of the Notenbuch
Originally the Notenbuch was a bound volume comprising forty-eight pages of blank music paper, with eight staves on each page. Inscribed with the words Pour le clavecin (French: For the harpsichord), it was presented to Nannerl on the occasion of her eighth name day on 26 July 1759 (or possibly her eighth birthday, which fell on the 30th or 31st day of the same month). Over the course of the next four years or so, the notebook was gradually filled with pieces written out by Leopold and two or three anonymous Salzburg copyists. Wolfgang is thought to have written out four pieces. Curiously none of the pieces was inscribed by Nannerl herself.
In later years, twelve individual pages were removed from the notebook for one reason or another. Of these, four are now considered lost, but the remaining eight have been identified by Alan Tyson (1987):
- two pages in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris;
- one in the Museum Carolino Augusteum, Salzburg;
- two in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City;
- one in the Universitätsbibliothek, Leipzig;
- one survives only as a facsimile and consists of the opening measures of K. 5b;
- one, now in a private collection, consists of a single leaf containing the rest of K. 5b.
The four lost pages have been tentatively reconstructed using a variety of other sources (Nannerl's letters and Georg Nissen's biography of Mozart). It is believed that in its completed state the Notenbuch contained a total of 64 pieces (including exercises and unfinished compositions), of which 52 are in the surviving 36 pages of the book.
Wolfgang Plath (de) (1982) has deduced the existence of five scribes, from a study of the handwriting in the Notenbuch. In addition to Leopold and Wolfgang, three anonymous scribes from Salzburg – known as Anonymous I, Anonymous II and Anonymous III – have been identified. Numbers 58 and 61, thought to be in the four missing pages, are known only from Nissen's material; Plath assumed that these two pieces were copied out by Leopold, who was responsible for more than half the contents of the Notenbuch.
The Notenbuch provides evidence of the collaboration between the young Wolfgang and his father. For example, number 48 is an arrangement of the third movement of Leopold's D major serenade, but the trio also appears as Menuet II in Wolfgang's Sonata K. 6.
The Notenbuch is also useful in providing evidence of Leopold's approach to teaching music. The tables of intervals show that he taught music theory to his children from the start. It seems that he also taught composition from the outset, by means of a given bass line, a melody to be varied, a melody to be continued, and a structural model.
The earliest compositions by Wolfgang are written in Leopold's hand; the father's gentle suggestions for amendments came later.
Wolfgang Mozart's compositions in the book
The Notenbuch contains the following pieces by Wolfgang:
Andante in C, K. 1a
|Andante in C (help·info)|
This piece of music was probably Mozart's first ever composition. It is an extremely short piece, consisting of just 10 measures, and was notated by the composer's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was only five years old when he composed it.
It is normally performed on the harpsichord and is in the key of C. The piece opens with a one-bar phrase in 3/4 time, which is then repeated. A second, modified phrase receives the same treatment. The time signature then changes to 2/4 and in the following four measures Mozart reverts to a typically Baroque style. The piece concludes with a simple authentic cadence.
Allegro in C, K. 1b
|Allegro in C (help·info)|
This is an extremely short piece, consisting of only twelve measures. It was notated by Mozart's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was only five years old when he composed it.
It is normally performed on the harpsichord, and is in the key of C. As the tempo indicates, it is a fast and lively piece. Unlike K. 1a, this piece is not based on repeated phrases. It begins with an ascending scale in the right hand from the dominant (G) to the mediant (E) on the first and third beats of the bars, while the left hand adds a counterpoint on the off beats. After reaching a peak, the right hand drops down in a series of quarter notes and eighth notes, accompanied by a very simple bass part. Curiously, the final cadence takes place between the eighth and ninth measures: in the last four measures, which make up a quarter of the entire composition, Mozart rings various changes on an unadorned C major triad.
Allegro in F, K. 1c
|Allegro in F (help·info)|
Another very short piece, K. 1c runs to twenty-four measures (including repeats). It was composed by Wolfgang on 11 December 1761 in Salzburg. It was notated by Mozart's father, Leopold, as Wolfgang was just five years old at the time.
This piece was written for the harpsichord and is usually performed on that instrument today, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This Allegro is Mozart's earliest extant piece in F major. Like K. 1b, it is in a fast tempo. It is in rounded binary form, with repeat signs at the end of each of the sections: ||:A:||:BA:||, where A and B each consists of four bars. The music is simple and classical in style. This piece has been compared to a "jolly south German folkdance".
Minuet in F, K. 1d
|Minuet in F (help·info)|
This minuet in F is another very short piece in extended binary form. The first section is just eight measures long and the second section twelve; both are marked with repeat signs. K. 1d was notated by Leopold Mozart; Wolfgang was five years old when he composed this piece.
It was written for the harpsichord and is usually performed on that instrument, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This dance is Mozart's earliest extant composition in minuet form. As a minuet it is, by definition, stately in feeling and written in 3/4 time. Like all Mozart's compositions in the Notenbuch, the clearest influences on the style are to be found in the pieces he was studying by Leopold Mozart and Georg Christoph Wagenseil.
Minuet in G, K. 1e
|Minuet in G (help·info)|
An extremely short piece (just 30 seconds long), it was probably notated by his father, Leopold Mozart, since Wolfgang was five or six years old at the time.
It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This minuet in G major is in Mozart's first collection of works. As a minuet, it is relatively fast in 3/4 time. Unlike K. 1d, it is far less influenced by the baroque style.
It is largely constructed of phrases which are repeated: every two bars is announced by a descending fifth, after which 4 chords are played, a tune is constructed within this restraint. Each phrase is 8 bars long. In two part harmony, it consists of 3 sections: the opening, a contrasting trio, and reprise of the original.[Not in the score]
Minuet in C, K. 1f
An extremely short piece (just 30 seconds long), it was probably notated by his father, Leopold Mozart, since Wolfgang was only five or six years old at the time.
It was written for the harpsichord and is hence usually performed on the harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used. This minuet is in Mozart's first collection of works. As a minuet it is relatively fast in 3/4 time. It is, unlike K. 1d far less influenced by the baroque style.
It is largely constructed of phrases which are repeated: every two bars is announced by a descending fifth, after which 4 chords are played, a tune is constructed within this restraint. Each phrase is 8 bars long. In two part harmony, it consists of 3 sections: the opening, contrasting trio, and a reprise of the original.[Not in the score] It was, in Köchel's first catalogue listed as K. 1 along with Minuet in G, K. 1e.
Minuet in F, K. 2
This piece, dated "Salzburg, January 1762", consists of a single bar motif which is developed into an eight-bar exposition, which is repeated, and then modulated for another eight bars before being repeated again.
Allegro in B-flat, K. 3
This piece was composed in Salzburg on 4 March 1762 when Mozart was six years old.
Minuet in F, K. 4
Minuet in F, K. 5
Allegro in C, K. 5a
Andante in B-flat, K. 5b
|Andante in B♭ (fragment) (help·info)|
The final surviving piece in the Nannerl Notenbuch, of which only a fragment is left. It runs for 61 measures (including repeats) and usually performed on the Harpsichord, though other keyboard instruments may be used.
Table of contents
The following table summarizes the contents of the Notenbuch.
|1||Menuett in C||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|2||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|3||Menuett in C||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|4||Menuett in G||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|5||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|6||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|7||Menuett in D||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|8||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||Diese vorgehenden 8 Menuetten hat d. Wolfgangerl im 4ten Jahr gelernet
(Wolfgang learned the preceding 8 minuets in his 4th year)
|9||Menuett in A||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|10||Menuett in D||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|11||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||Disen Menuet und Trio hat dr Wolfgangerl den 26ten Januarij 1761 einen Tag vor seinem 5ten Jahr um halbe 10 Uhr in einer halben Stund gelernet
(Wolfgang learned this minuet and trio in half-an-hour around 9:30 on 26 January 1761, one day before his 5th birthday)
|12||Menuett in A||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|13||Menuett in A||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|14||Menuett in F||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|15||Menuett in E||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|16||Menuett in C||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|17||Menuett in F||Leopold||Leopold||–||–||–|
|18||Menuett in B flat||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|19||Menuett in F||Anonymous I||Wolfgang||K. 32||Diesen Menuet hat d. Wolfgangerl auch im vierten jahr seines alters gelernet
(Wolfgang also learned this minuet when he was four years of age)
|K. 32 (Gallimathias musicum), No. 14, is an orchestral version of this piece|
|20||Allegro in C||Wolfgang||Wolfgang||K. 5a||–||Probably added in 1764|
|21||Menuett in C||Anonymous II||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|22||Marsch in F (I)||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||den 4ten feb. 1761 vom Wolfgangerl gelernet
Learned by Wolfgang on the 4 February 1761
|23||Marsch in F (II)||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|24||Allegro in B flat||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 8||di Wolfgang Mozart à Paris le 21 Novb. 1763
by Wolfgang Mozart in Paris on 21 November 1763
|A piano version of the first movement of Violin Sonata No. 3 in B flat, K. 8|
|25||Andante in F||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 6||–||A piano version of the second movement of Violin Sonata No. 1 in C, K. 6
Probably written in Brussels in October 1763
|26||Menuett in C||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 6||–||A piano version of Menuet I from the third movement of Violin Sonata No. 1 in C, K. 6
Probably written in Brussels in October 1763
|27||Allegro in C||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|28||Allegro in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|29||Klavierstück in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|30||Allegro in C||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|31||Scherzo in C||Anonymous I||Wagenseil||–||del Sgr. Wagenseil
(By Signore Wagenseil)
|32||Scherzo in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|33||Allegro in F||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|34||Allegro in C||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|35||Tempo di menuetto in F||Anonymous II||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|36||Allegro moderato in F||Anonymous I||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|37||Andante in B flat||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|38||Andante in C||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|39||Arietta con Variazioni in A||Anonymous III||C.P.E. Bach||–||–||–|
|40||Allegro in C||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|41||Allegro in G||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|42||Allegro in G minor||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|43||Presto in A||Anonymous III||J. N. Tischer||–||–||–|
|44||Polonaise in F||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|45||Allegro in E minor||Leopold||J. J. Agrell||–||–||–|
|46||Allegro in C||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 6||di Wolfgango Mozart d. 14 octob.
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 14 October)
|A piano version of the first movement of Violin Sonata No. 1, K. 6
Probably composed in Brussels in 1763
|47||Menuett in D||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 7||di Wolfgango Mozart d. 30ten Novbr. 1763 à Paris
(by Wolfgang Mozart in Paris in 1763)
|A piano version of Menuet I from Violin Sonata No. 2 in D, K. 7|
|48||Menuett in F||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 6||di Wolfgango Mozart d. 16ten Julÿ 1762
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 16 July 1762)
|A piano version of the third movement of Leopold's Serenade in D and Menuet II from the third movement of Wolfgang's Violin Sonata No. 1 in C
Composed in Salzburg
|49||Menuett in F||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 4||di Wolfgango Mozart d. 11ten Maÿ 1762
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 11 May 1762)
|Minuet in F, K. 4
Composed in Salzburg
|50||Klavierstück in G||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||Fragment|
|51||Konzertsatz in G||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||–|
|52||Fünf technische Übungen||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||Exercise: Five technical exercises|
|53||Andante in C||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 1a||–||–|
|54||Allegro in C||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 1b||–||–|
|55||Allegro in F||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 1c||–||–|
|56||Minuet in F||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 1d||Menuetto del Sgr. Wolfgango Mozart 16to Decembris 1761
(Minuet by Wolfgang Mozart on 16 December 1761)
|57||Intervalltabelle||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||Exercise: a table of musical intervals|
|58||Menuett in F||Leopold?||Wolfgang||K. 2||–||Minuet in F, K. 2|
|59||Allegro in B flat||Leopold||Wolfgang||K. 3||del Sgr. Wolfgango Mozart 1762. d. 4ten Martij
(by Wolfgang Mozart on 4 March 1762)
|Allegro in B flat, K. 3
Composed in Salzburg
|60||Drei modulierende Generalbaßübungen||Leopold||Anonymous||–||–||Exercise: 3 modulating general basses|
|61||Menuett in F||Leopold?||Wolfgang||K. 5||5. Juli 1762
5 July 1762
|Minuet in F, K. 5
Composed in Salzburg
|62||Menuett in G||Wolfgang||Wolfgang||K. 1e||–||Minuet in G, K. 1e
Probably added in 1764
|63||Menuett in C||Wolfgang||Wolfgang||K. 1f||–||Minuet in C, K. 1f
Probably added in 1764
|64||Andante in B flat||Wolfgang||Wolfgang||K. 5b||–||Fragment of an Andante in B flat, K. 5b (KV 9b in K1)
Probably added in 1764
- Eisen, Cliff, Mozart Studies 2, Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-816343-6
- Eisen, Cliff and Keefe, Simon P., The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-521-85659-0
- Kenyon, Nicholas, The Faber Pocket Guide to Mozart, Faber and Faber Ltd. (2005), ISBN 0-571-22376-1
- Plath, Wolfgang (de) Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, Series IX/27: Klavierstücke, Band (Die Notenbücher) (1982)
- Sadie, Stanley, Mozart; The Early years 1756-1781, Oxford University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0-19-816529-3
- Tyson, Alan, A Reconstruction of Nannerl Mozart's Music Book (Notenbuch) in Music & Letters, vol. 60, no. 4 (October 1979), pp. 389–400