南宁 · Namzningz
|— Prefecture-level city —|
南宁市 · Namzningz Si
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Prefecture-level city||22,189 km2 (8,567 sq mi)|
|• Urban||6,559 km2 (2,532 sq mi)|
|• Metro||5,264 km2 (2,032 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||6,661,600|
|• Density||300/km2 ( 780/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||440/km2 ( 1,100/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||470/km2 ( 1,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|License plate prefixes||桂A|
|Literal meaning||peace in the south|
Nanning (simplified Chinese: 南宁; traditional Chinese: 南寧, Zhuang: Namzningz, meaning 'South Tranquility') is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.
A county seat called Jinxing was first established at the site in AD 318. This became the administrative seat of a commandery. Nanning was once the territory of the Baiyue people and became the capital of Jinxing Prefecture which was separated from Yulin Prefecture of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.
In 589 the Jinxing commandery was dissolved, and the county was renamed Xuanhua. Under the Tang dynasty (618–907) the prefecture of Yong (邕州Yongzhou) was established there; it was garrisoned to control the non-Chinese districts in Guangxi and on the Yunnan–Guizhou provincial border. In the mid-9th century the Tang and the Yunnan state of Nanzhao fought over it, and after 861 it was briefly occupied by Nanzhao. It remained a frontier prefecture throughout the Song dynasty (960–1279), being the scene of a rebellion led by Nong Zhigao in 1052 and thereafter a garrison town.
In the Yuan Dynasty in 1324, it was renamed Nanning Lu (an administrative division) of Yongzhou Lu meaning "May peace maintain in the southern frontier", hence the name Nanning. Historically, Nanning was famous for trade, and had permanent business offices from other areas in China since the Song Dynasty.
Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties, it was a superior prefecture. In the Ming Dynasty Nanning developed into the commodity distributing center of the Zuo River and the You River with the reputation of "Little Nanjing".
Opened to foreign trade by the Chinese in 1907, Nanning grew rapidly. From 1912 to 1936 it was the provincial capital of Guangxi, replacing Guilin.
Early in the 20th century the city spilled over from the old walled city into a southern suburban area. In the 1930s Nanning became the centre of a "model provincial government" under the warlord Li Zongren, and a spacious modern city was laid out. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), Nanning was temporarily occupied in 1940 by the Japanese. It subsequently became an important U.S. air base supporting the Chinese armies in Guangxi, but during 1944–45 it was again under Japanese occupation.
In 1949 Nanning again became the provincial capital, first of Guangxi province and then (1958) of the renamed Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Until then Nanning had essentially been a commercial center dependent on Guangzhou and on the Xi River system. In the late 1930s a railway was begun, joining Hengyang in southern Hunan province with Guilin, Liuzhou, Nanning, and the Vietnam border, while another was begun from Liuzhou to Guiyang in Guizhou. The construction of the Nanning section of this line was halted in 1940 by the Japanese advances, however, and was not completed until 1951, after which Nanning was directly linked with central China; completion of a branch line to the port of Zhanjiang (in Guangdong) in 1957 gave it a direct outlet to the sea. During the French war in Indochina (1946–54), Nanning was the chief support base in China for the Vietnamese forces, and during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and early 1970s it again became a staging post for the sending of supplies southward to North Vietnam. It was also an important military supply center during the Sino-Vietnam confrontation in 1979.
Formerly an essentially commercial and administrative center, Nanning from 1949 experienced industrial growth. The city is surrounded by a fertile agricultural region producing subtropical fruits and sugarcane; food processing, flour milling, sugar refining, meatpacking, and leather manufacture are important in the city. Nanning has been a center for printing and paper manufacture, and it is also important in heavy industry.
After the recognition of the Zhuang ethnic minority in 1958, Nanning became the chief center for the training of Zhuang leaders. Guangxi University, a large medical school, and a school of agriculture all date from the 1920s.
A cavern at Yiling, 19 km (12 mi) to the northwest, has a 1,100 m passage through picturesque stalactites. In the 1970s colored lights were installed and the cavern was developed as a tourist attraction.
Nanning serves as host for the annual China-ASEAN EXPO (CASEAN EXPO) which began in 2005 and was the venue for the 2006 "World Robotics Olympiad".
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The city is located on the north bank of the Yong River, the chief southern tributary of the Xi River, and lies some 30 km (19 mi) below the confluence of the Yu and the Zuo rivers. The Yong River (which later becomes the Yu River) affords a good route to Guangzhou and is navigable by shallow-draft junks and motor launches, even though it is obstructed by rapids and sandbanks.
Nanning is situated in a hilly basin with elevations between 70 and 500 m (230 and 1,600 ft) above sea-level. Qingxiu Mountain dominates the southern part of town.
Nanning has a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with an annual mean temperature of 21.82 °C (71.3 °F). Summers are hot and humid with July, the hottest month, having a 24-hour average temperature of 28.4 °C (83.1 °F). Winters are mild and somewhat damp with January, the coolest month, averaging 12.9 °C (55.2 °F) in January. From February to August, rain is most frequent and relative humidity consistently averages above 80%; the annual rainfall is 1,310 millimetres (51.6 in). The area is also frost-free for all but 3 or 4 days a year and snowfall is virtually unheard of in the city. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −2.1 to 40.4 °C (28 to 105 °F).
|Climate data for Nanning (normals 1971−2000, extremes 1961−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.6
|Average high °C (°F)||16.9
|Average low °C (°F)||10.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−1
|Rainfall mm (inches)||35.3
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||11.1||13.2||13.8||13.6||16.6||16.3||16.8||16.2||10.5||8.5||6.8||5.9||149.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||69.6||56.7||61.8||91.4||144.0||161.1||196.8||186.1||185.6||163.7||144.2||123.7||1,584.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||21||18||17||24||35||40||48||47||51||46||44||37||35.7|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration, all-time extreme temperature|
Flora and fauna 
Nanning's warm climate gives it a large amount of biodiversity. There are many species of animals and more than 3,000 species of plants. The city flower is the Jaba flower, an evergreen shrub, and the city tree is the almond tree which is regarded as the backbone tree used for greening and landscaping throughout the city.
Administrative divisions 
- Xingning District (兴宁区)
- Qingxiu District (青秀区)
- Jiangnan District (江南区)
- Xixiangtang District (西乡塘区)
- Liangqing District (良庆区)
- Yongning District (邕宁区)
- Wuming County (武鸣)
- Long'an County (隆安)
- Mashan County (马山)
- Shanglin County (上林)
- Binyang County (宾阳)
- Heng County (横县)
- Nanning High-Tech Business DZ (南宁高新技术产业开发区)
- Nanning Economic and technology DZ (南宁经济技术开发区)
- Nanning Overseas Chinese Investment Zone (南宁华侨投资区)
- Nanning Qingxiu Mountain Resort/ Tourism Area (南宁青秀山风景名胜旅游区)
- Nanning Xiangsi Lake New Area (南宁相思湖新区)
- Nanning Liujing Industrial Park (南宁六景工业园区)
Nanning is home of the 21st tallest building in the People's Republic of China, the Diwang International Commerce Center, at 276 m (906 ft), currently the tallest building in Guangxi and southwestern China (excluding Chongqing). The second tallest building in Nanning is the World Trade Commerce City at 218 meters. The city currently has seven buildings taller than 100 m (330 ft), built or under construction.
Nanning has many parks with tropical lush green landscape, it is one of the "greenest" cities in China, and it's known as "Green City"(绿城). Nanning's downtown skyline is rapidly changing and the city is becoming an important hub in China.
Nanning's GDP in 2007 was 106.3 billion RMB, which was a 17.1% growth over the previous year. The GDP per capita was ¥15,685 (US$2,147), ranking no. 116 among 659 Chinese cities. Foreign exports in 2007 were 10 billion USD. Foreign fixed asset investment was 34.3 billion RMB. Nanning has six development zones and industrial parks, three of which accounted for 6 billion RMB of Nanning's GDP, more than 8% of Nanning's total.
Mineral resources include gold, iron, manganese, aluminum, quartz, silver, indium, coal, marble, and granite. One third of China's different types of mineral resources are found in Nanning.
Industrial zones 
- Guilin High-tech Industrial Development Zone
- Nanning Economic & Technological Development Area
Nanning is a railway junction for the Nanning–Kunming and Hunan–Guangxi Railways. In November 2008 construction of a high-speed rail line from Nanning to Guangzhou began, which will cut travel time between the two cities from 13 hrs to 3 hrs. The line is set to be 577 km (359 mi) long, of which 61% will be in Guangxi, and will allow trains to run up to 200 km/h (120 mph). It will be completed in four years and cost about 41 billion yuan(about 6 billion U.S. dollars), according to the Ministry of Railways. There are also plans to build a high-speed railway to Pingxiang on the Vietnamese border. The goal is to better integrate Pan-Pearl River Delta and southeast China with members of the ASEAN.
At 2010 census, the total population of Nanning was 6,611,600, among which 2,875,220 million were urban residents (after the adjustment of administrative divisions) and 2,480,340 million in the built up area made of 5 out of 6 urban districts. Nanning is a city in which Zhuang ethnic group live in compact communities, and also the only city in all the autonomous regions of China with open coastal areas. Thirty-five ethnic groups live in compact communities in Nanning, including people of Zhuang, Han, Yao, Hui, Miao, Dong, and Man minorities.
Nanning is the center of science and technology, education, culture and health in Guangxi Province. There are altogether 54 scientific research institutes subordinate to districts. 10 colleges and 50 trade schools are training specialised personnel of all kinds. Now there are 62 mass cultural organizations, 13 performing groups, 8 cinemas, 285 projecting units, over 70 karaoke halls and over 1000 newsstands. Bookshops and cultural markets can be found everywhere.
Nanning has not only local cuisine but also food from other areas of China and abroad. Traditional food culture can be found around most streets of Nanning. Nanning food shares the style of Cantonese food and of Southeast Asia. Chinese cuisine including Guangdong, Szechuan, Hunan and Jiangsu as well as Japanese, Thai and Western cuisines can be found.
Local noodles 
- Laoyou rice noodles (老友粉 Laoyou Fen) is the most popular noodles for Nanning people.
- Shengzha rice noodles (生榨米粉 Shengzha Mi Fen) is another Nanning local rice noodles coming from Pumiao Town, a town in Yongning District.
In 1998 alone, the city received 26,260 overseas tourists, earning foreign exchange totaling US$7.0663 million, some 5.01 percent of the city's total income. An addition of 6.89 million domestic visitors brought RMB 3.23 billion yuan into the city, some 19.95 percent of the total.
The major tourist attractions in Nanning are as following:
- Qingxiu Mountains Landscape (a park at provincial level)
- Guangxi Museum
- Guangxi Medicinal Botanical Garden
- Liangfengjiang River Scenic Spot (a state forest reserve)
- Phoenix Lake Holiday Site
- Minorities Cultural Relics Center
- Western Suburbs Zoo (including the country's largest Crocodile, Elephant,and Hippopotamus Enclosure)
- Golden Scented-Tea Park (the country's largest base for golden scented tea seeds)
- The Ruins of the Battlefield of Kunlunguan
- Yangmei Ancient Town
- Lingshui Hot Spring (a large constant hot spring)
- Mingxiu Park
- Daming Mountain
- The Beiqiu ruins of Dingshi Mountain (one of 1997's 10 Greatest Archaeological Discoveries in China.)
Colleges and universities 
- Guangxi University (广西大学) (founded 1928) features Xingjian College (added in 2005)
- Guangxi University for Nationalities (广西民族大学)
- Guangxi Medical University (广西医科大学)
- Guangxi Teachers College (广西师范学院) (founded 1953)
- Guangxi Arts College (广西艺术学院)
- Guangxi University of Finance and Economics (广西财经学院)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
International relations 
Twin towns — sister cities 
Nanning is twinned with:
- Grudziądz, Poland (2011)
- Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia (1998)
- Provo, Utah, United States (2000)
- Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Austria (2001)
- Amphoe Mueang Khon Kaen, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand (2001)
- Davao City, Philippines (2006)
- Ipoh, Malaysia (2001)
- Yangon, Myanmar (2009)
- Blumenau, Brazil (2010)
- "Profile of Nanning" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年）" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- According to the table on List of tallest buildings in the People's Republic of China
- "High-speed railway to boost trade". Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "China starts construction of Nanning-Guangzhou high-speed rail line". Xinhua. 9 November 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nanning|
- Nanning Government website (Chinese)
- Nanning Government website (English)
- Nanning Here: citizen life introduction (English)
- Nanning Tourism Information Network
- Agricultural Information Network in Nanning City
- Nanning City Library
- Nanning Local TV Station