Nanophase materials are materials that have grain sizes under 100 nanometres. They have different mechanical and optical properties compared to the large grained materials of the same chemical composition.
Transparency and different transparent colours can be achieved with nanophase materials by varying the grain size.
Nanophase materials 
- Nanophase metals usually are many times harder but more brittle than regular metals.
- Nanophase ceramics usually are more ductile and less brittle than regular ceramics.
- Creating Nanophase Materials. Scientific American (subscription required)
- Nanophase Materials, Michigan Tech
- Research on Nanophase Materials, Louisiana State University
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