Nanotechnology in fiction
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The use of nanotechnology in fiction has attracted scholarly attention. The first use of the distinguishing concepts of nanotechnology was "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman in 1959. K. Eric Drexler's 1987 book Engines of Creation introduced the general public to the concept of nanotechnology. Since then, nanotechnology has been used frequently in a diverse range of fiction, often as a justification for unusual or far-fetched occurrences featured in speculative fiction.
Notable examples 
In 1881 the Russian writer Nikolai Leskov wrote The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea, which included the concept of text that can be seen only through a microscope at 5,000,000 times magnification.
In his 1956 short story The Next Tenants, Arthur C. Clarke describes tiny machines that operate at the micrometre scale – although not strictly nanoscale (billionth of a meter), they are the first fictional example of the concepts now associated with nanotechnology. Stanislaw Lem's 1964 novel The Invincible involves the discovery of an artificial ecosystem of minuscule robots, although like in Clarke's story they are larger than what is strictly meant by the term 'nanotechnology'.
The 1984 novel Peace on Earth by Stanislaw Lem tells about small bacteria-sized nanorobots looking as normal dust (developed by artificial intelligence placed by humans on the Moon in the era of cold warfare) that has later came to Earth and are replicating, destroying all weapons, modern technology and software, leaving living organisms (as there were no living organisms on the Moon) intact.
The Trinity Blood series features an alien nanomachine found on Mars which is present in the body of the protagonist, Abel Nighroad. These nanomachines are known as Krusnik nanomachines, and feed on the cells of vampires.
Michael Crichton's novel Prey (2002) was one of the earliest nanotechnology-themed books to reach a mainstream audience and is a cautionary tale about the possible risks of developing nanotechnology. In Prey, a swarm of molecule-sized nanorobots develop intelligence and become a large scale threat.
J. C. Lansing's 2011 novel The Book of Kur depicts the rebuilding of the entire world using nanobots provided by an ancient Sumerian god.
Film and Television 
The anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex employs a plotline heavily involved in the use of "micromachines" as a form of treatment against complex diseases after a subject undergoing cyberisation.
On the television show Red Dwarf, nanobots played a notable role in series VII to IX. Nanobots are nanotechnology created to be a self-repair system for androids like Kryten as they can also change anything into anything else. Kryten's nanobots grow bored of their duties and take over the ship Red Dwarf, leaving the crew to try and recapture it aboard the smaller Starbug. In the end the ship they are chasing is actually a smaller Red Dwarf built by the nanobots (which evaded their scanners in the end by coming aboard Starbug), with the rest being changed into a planet. Once the crew discover this and find the nanobots, they force them to rebuild Red Dwarf (as well as Dave Lister's then-missing arm). In the end the nanobots build an enhanced Red Dwarf based on the original design plans. They also resurrect the original full crew killed in the first episode, thus setting out the plot for the last series.
Nanobots were also featured during the Sci-Fi Channel era of Mystery Science Theater 3000, where they were known as "nanites". They were depicted on the show as microscopic, bug-like, freestanding robots with distinct personalities.
Nanotechnology appeared several times in the TV series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis, in the form of the replicators and the Asurans, respectively. A "nanovirus" is also seen in Stargate Atlantis.
In Cowboy Bebop: The Movie (2001), a criminal blows up a tanker trunk containing a nanobot virus that instantly kills thousands.
In the 2003 film Agent Cody Banks, a scientist creates nanobots programmed to clean up oil spills.
In the 2004 film I, Robot, nanites are used to wipe out artificial intelligence in the event of a malfunction and are depicted as a liquid containing tiny silver objects.
In the 2008 film The Day the Earth Stood Still, the alien robot "GORT" disintegrates into a swarm of self-replicating nanobots shaped like bugs that cover Earth and destroy all humans and artificial structures by seemingly devouring them within seconds.
The revamped Knight Rider television series and TV movie incorporate nanotechnology into the Knight Industries Three Thousand (KITT), allowing it to change color and shape, as well as providing abilities such as self-regeneration.
In the 2009 film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, the main plot is to save the world from a warhead containing deadly nanobots called the "Nanomites", which if detonated over a city could destroy it in hours.
Computer Games 
In Total Annihilation nanobots are used to build structures.
In some games of the Mortal Kombat series, the character Smoke is a cloud of nanobots.
In System Shock 2 (1999), "nanites" are used as currency as well as a type of weapon ammo.
In Deus Ex (2000), nanotechnology is an important part of both the plot and game mechanics. A very dangerous technology in the wrong hands, it provides a number of abilities to the protagonist.
The protagonist of Metal Gear Solid 2 (2001) had artificial blood infused with nanomachine that served functions such as healing. Metal Gear Solid 4 (2008) featured a great deal of nanotechnology, such as the Sons of the Patriots, an artificial intelligence/nanomachine network that regulated and enhanced the actions of every lawful combatant in the world.
The computer game Hostile Waters features a narrative involving nanotech assemblers.
In the Ratchet & Clank series, the health system involves nanotechnology. The nanotech can be upgraded by purchase in the first game, or by defeating enemies in other games of the series.
Nanotechnology is also found in Crysis (2007) and Crysis 2 (2011). The protagonists of these games are equipped with a "Nano Suit", which enables them to become stronger, invisible, heavily armored, etc.
In Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2 (2009), Reed Richards creates nanites that are meant to control the minds of supervillains. However, the nanites evolve into a group mind called the Fold which serves as the primary antagonist for the game.
Comics and other media 
In the manga series Battle Angel Alita: Last Order, nanotechnology is referenced numerously and its use is heavily restricted, owing to the loss of Mercury as a potential planetary colony due to a grey goo catastrophe. Its danger and control has become one of the main driving narratives in the story.
Nanomites appear in the G.I. Joe Reinstated series published by Devil's Due.
- Colin Milburn, Nanovision: Engineering the Future, Duke University Press, 2008 ISBN 0-8223-4265-0
- "Tiny Tech, Transcendent Tech – Nanotechnology, Science Fiction, and the Limits of Modern Science Talk" by Daniel Patrick Thurs in Science Communication, Vol. 29, No. 1, 65–95 (2007)
- Bridging the Gaps: Science Fiction in Nanotechnology by José López in International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry, Vol. 10, No.2 (2004), pp. 129–152.
- "The Literature of Promises" by Chris Toumey in Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 3, No. 4 (2008), pp. 180–181.
- Bly, Robert W., 2005, The Science In Science Fiction: 83 SF Predictions that Became Scientific Reality, BenBella Books, Inc., ISBN 1-932100-48-2.
- English translation of The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea, Сhapter the fourteenth: "If you had a better microscope that could magnify five million times," he said, "you would see that each gunsmith had put his name on the shoes he made so that you know which Russian craftsman made which shoe." Google Books. Russian original of Levsha
- Schwarz, James A., Contescu, Cristian I., Putyera, Karol, 2004, Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8247-5050-0.