Nantucket shipbuilding

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Nantucket Forests with tall trees had disappeared from the island millennia before colonial settlement. There were no large trees on Nantucket to provide long dimension timbers for ship building or building construction and importing Live oak from southern states was essential. However, in spite of little financial incentive, seven 'large' ships were built and launched from Brant Point. Two Clipper ships were built for the Old China Trade and five whaling ships were built on Nantucket Island and they add a further chapter to the history of New England Shipbuilding and the History of whaling.[1][2]

Whaleship Essex, original sketch. Rammed and sunk by a whale, off the coast of Chile, 1833

Nantucket Shipbuilding – China Trade / Whaling

Short Trees and Short Timbers[edit]

Nantucket, Massachusetts island lies 30 miles off the southern coastline of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. In 1775, Nantucket was the largest whaling Port in the world, and the third largest port in Massachusetts. However, dominance in this most adventurous, dangerous and potentially lucrative of all maritime trades was not supported by an extensive, local, ship building industry. Early Nantucket Forests were unusual and determined the scope of indigenous and colonial wooden ship building on Nantucket Island. Nantucket island has not been home to forests of tall trees for at least 4,000 years. Continual salt spray and the absence of a rich loam soil forced an unusual dwarf morphology on trees such as oak, beech, cedar and pine. Architectural and ship building timbers of large size were not available to the early European and American colonists of Nantucket island nor to the indigenous Wampanoag who made canoes and used offshore waters, rivers and streams to hunt and fish throughout the year.

Shipbuilding at Brant Point[edit]

Brant Point Lighthouse, Nantucket, 1856

By the late 17th century, the few groves of forest trees on Nantucket were gone except for small numbers of isolated oak and beech trees. These relatively few Nantucket forest trees were cut for firewood, fence posts, and short boards for diverse construction projects. Land was taken for agriculture and stock raising. Reforestation and 'tree farming' would have to wait for the 20th century. Within this historical context, it is surprising that any large ships were built on Nantucket because wood of the required dimensions would have to be imported. There was a thriving ship building industry in New Bedford, Massachusetts, a town whose prominence in whaling and maritime commerce equaled that of Nantucket. Nonetheless, two 'small' clipper ships and several whalers were built on Nantucket Island. Their circumstances provide an interesting footnote to the history of wooden ship building in New England, and the whaling trade in particular.

Brant Point on the north side of Nantucket harbor still has the sandy beach that was a good site for building large wooden ships[3] and it is the locality for the famous Brant Point Light. This historic lighthouse has been destroyed and rebuilt 7 times since first established in 1746 and is still in operation. "Brant Point was lined with ship-yards, and there were shipways, where we took up ships for repairs. Some famous vessels we turned out – stout, oak-bowed whalers, clipper ships, and fleet Schooners that would run down to Havana and be back with a cargo of fruit in less than no time."[4]

Confirming the Brig 'Dolphin' / America, England[edit]

The first ship of notable size recorded as built on Nantucket at Brant Point was the Brig 'Dolphin', launched in 1723 and 30 to 40 tons weight. This 'Dolphin' is mentioned in the small exhibit about Brant Point shipbuilding in the Egan Marine Institute on Nantucket but following her history is extremely difficult.[5] A Captain Thomas Prince, baptized on August 3, 1658, in either Hull or Scituate, Massachusetts, is recorded as Commander of the Brig 'Dolphin'.[6][7]

In several genealogical records, there is mention of a brig 'Dolphin' that saw action in the Revolutionary War for the American Navy. However, these events are more than five decades after the launch of the brig 'Dolphin' at Brant Point.[8] The US Navy published maps and charts from a brig 'Dolphin' in 1854, but this is 131 years after the launch of the brig 'Dolphin' at Brant Point.[9] The online edition of the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships cannot confirm a Brig 'Dolphin' that was built at Brant Point, Nantucket in 1723, nor a fighting ship of this type and name that subsequently fought in the Continental Navy. Although, there is no 'Dolphin' in US Naval Records for the 18th century, the possibility exists that the Nantucket Brig 'Dolphin' never saw official service in the Continental Navy.[10][11]

Records for the Royal Navy document several war ships carrying the name 'Dolphin'in the 18th and early 19th centuries, but none were built in America at any locality, Brant Point Nantucket or elsewhere.[12][13][14][15][16]

Clipper ships[edit]

In 1801, the 'small' clipper ship 'Mars' was built at Brant Point for the Old China Trade. Captained by Uriah Swain, 'Mars' set sail for China in 1802. "In 1800, Captain Uriah Swain (1754–1810) took the ship 'Mars' to China, initiating a direct economic relationship between Nantucket and the Far East. Trading in sealskins allowed the ship to load a cargo of Tea and other Chinese goods and souvenirs."[17] There is a discrepancy in dates between those in the Egan Maritime Institute Exhibit[5] and those in the timeline published by the Nantucket Historical Society.[18] There is a trading barque Mars in several late 19th century photographs (albumen prints) in the collection of the New Bedford Whaling Museum.[19] of New Bedford, Massachusetts, but it is unlikely this is the clipper ship built at Brant Point in 1801.

In 1803, the China clipper 'Rose' was built at Brant Point and quickly attained a reputation for speed. On her last voyage under the United States flag, the 'Rose' was captured by the British and finished her days as a dispatch ship for the Royal Navy.[20]

Whaling ships[edit]

'The Charles Carroll'[edit]

In 1832, the whaler 'Charles Carroll' was built for captain and 1/32 share owner Owen Chase the first mate and survivor of the Essex tragedy. This history is confirmed by other references to Capt. Owen Chase.[21][22] .[23][24][25]

Whaling Voyages of the 'Charles Carroll'[edit]

  • "The 'Charles Carroll', Owen Chase, October 10, 1832, and arrived March 3, 1836, 2610 barrels sperm."[26]
  • "The 'Charles Carroll', Owen Chase, August 1836 and arrived February 15, 1840, "nearly full."[27]
  • "The 'Charles Carroll', Thomas S. Andrews, May 29, and arrived December 6, 1843, 1926 barrels sperm, sent home 250 barrels sperm.".[28]
  • In 1844 – "A 'Charles Carroll' whaler was listed for Nantucket, weight 371 tons, Thomas L. Andrews, captain, W.C. Swain owner."[29]
  • "The 'Charles Carroll', Thomas S. Andrews, Pacific Ocean, May 16, and arrived May 29, 1848, 1261 barrels sperm, 473 whale."[30]
  • "The 'Charles Carroll', Josiah C. Long, December 2d, and arrived December 29, 1852, 1050 barrels sperm, 93 whale. [Sold 35 barrels sperm and 200 whale on the voyage.] And the 'Charles Carroll' is sold to New Bedford."[31]

The 'Nantucket'[edit]

At 350 tons, the 'Nantucket' was the first Nantucket Island ship built of Live oak with copper fastenings. See also Quercus virginiana. Construction cost for the 'Nantucket' was $52,000 and the boss carpenter H. G. 0. Dunham came over from the Hillman Shipyard of New Bedford, Massachusetts.[32] The Nantucket (ship)'s short life ended when she was wrecked in 1859.

Two whale shiips under construction at Brant Point, Nantucket – on the launch ways and in dry dock, nd.

Whaling Voyages of the 'Nantucket'[edit]

  • "The 'Nantucket', (new) David N. Edwards, Pacific Ocean, sailed December 19, 1837, and arrived November 19, 1839, 1480 barrels sperm, 30 whale."[33]
  • "The 'Nantucket', George W. Gardner, June 16, and arrived May 12, 1845, 1279 barrels sperm, 1326 whale."[34]
  • "The 'Nantucket', Benjamin C. Gardner, August 17, and arrived January 7, 1850, 2051 barrels sperm."[35]
  • "The 'Nantucket', Richard C. Gibbs, June 8, and arrived August 31, 1854, 1022 sperm, 63 whale. [Sent home 769 barrels sperm, 100 whale.] Oil sold $1.50/gallon."[36]
  • "The 'Nantucket', Richard C. Gibbs, June 14, 1855, 1022 sperm, 63 whale. [Lost on Nashawena on her homeward passage with 756 bbls sperm, 794 whale on board.] Sold for $950."[37]

The 'Lexington'[edit]

Also built in 1838 of live oak and copper fastenings was the whaler 'Lexington' at 399 tons. She was valued at $24,000 and ended her life when wrecked in 1859. Mrs. Eliza Spenser Brock wrote a detailed and important history of a whaling voyage when she accompanied he husband, and Lexington's captain, on a Lexington whaling voyage in 1853.[38]

Whaling Voyages of the 'Lexington'[edit]

  • The 'Lexington' to Edgartown for fitting out. "August, ship Lexington, of this port, in tow of steamer "Telegraph," for Edgartown, to fit for the Pacific Ocean, upset when rounding Brant Point. She was towed in here and righted that night and left for Edgartown on the 29th, her topmasts all housed."[39]
  • The 'Lexington', Alexander Pollard, November 27, and arrived June 10, 1840, 2185 barrels sperm. [Capt. Pollard died, and Henry W. Davis finished the voyage."[40]
  • The 'Lexington', Henry W. Davis, August 29, and arrived March 14, 1844, 1336 barrels sperm, 1334 whale. [Sent home 125 barrels sperm. Capt. Davis left at Rio sick, Mr. Weeks took charge."[41]
  • The 'Lexington', Edward Weeks, June 26, and arrived July 7, 1848, 1780 barrels sperm, 1404 whale."[42]
  • The 'Lexington', David Bunker, 2d, November 10, and arrived January 22d, 1853, 742 barrels sperm, 229 whale."[43]
  • "The 'Lexington, Peter C. Brock, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, May 21, and arrived June 25, 1856, 310 barrels sperm, 1637 whale. Sold 20 barrels on the voyage. ..."[44]
  • "The 'Lexington', James Fisher, September 19. [Lost on Strong's Island in 1859. Saved 100 barrels whale. ..."[45]
Taking the blubber off, Nantucket Harbor by Josiah Freeman, ?1867–?1890.

The 'Joseph Starbuck'[edit]

In 1838, Joseph Starbuck built the last whaler constructed at Brant Point and named it after himself – the 'Joseph Starbuck'. [46]

Whaling Voyage of the Joseph Starbuck' –

  • "The 'Joseph Starbuck', (new) Sanford Wilber, November 15, and arrived April 3d, 1842, 3221 barrels sperm."[47]

Business model[edit]

Perhaps the highest barrier to a thriving, wooden ship building industry on Nantucket was the whaling industry business model. Nantucket had dominated the American whaling trade for many years and occupies a premier position in the History of whaling. During 1771–1775, Nantucket was the largest whaling port in the world and the third largest seaport in Massachusetts. One hundred and fifty (150) whalers were outfitted in these four years, 20,000 seamen had been employed and 30,000 bbls of Whale oil were brought to Nantucket from successful voyages, almost all of which came from Sperm Whales. Each crew member on a successful Nantucket whaling voyage was paid about $200 upon return, but often they walked away with very little cash as a large bill owed the ship's store had accumulated. Crew on unsuccessful voyages received no substantial payment, if anything.

The most valuable whale product was, and still is, Ambergris. Used as a perfume stabilizer, ambergris derives from a secretion initiated by whale physiology when the beak of a giant squid is ingested and then severely irritates the whale's digestive system. During 1771–75, 900 lbs of Ambergris brought in $120,000, which calculates to $133.33/lb or $0.294/gram. Today raw Ambergris sells for about $10/gram and the trade is not illegal as the sperm whale expels ambergris naturally. The Profit/Loss business model required ~60 whales to be killed so that enough barrels of whale oil (~$3,000/bbl) and ambergris could be brought home to Nantucket and ensure a good profit to the ship owners.

Twilight for Nantucket whaleships[edit]

The first American whaling ship entered the Pacific whaling grounds in the 1790s but whaling on a large scale in the Pacific Ocean had dwindled rapidly by the mid 19th century. Stocks of the large whales, particularly sperm whales, had been rapidly depleted. In 1846, a catastrophic fire burnt much of Nantucket town and destroyed the harbor. [48] Men began to leave for the California gold rush in 1849. Petroleum was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859. The last rigged whaling ship to leave Nantucket was the 'Oak' in 1869.[49]

Whaleship "Anne of London", (Susan's Teeth), by E. Burdett (1826–29)

How long could wooden hulled whaleships continue to hunt for Leviathan? The 'Wanderer', whose home port was New Bedford, Massachusetts, is a well-known example of a wooden-hulled, full-rigged whaleship that was active into the 20th century. Anchored off Cuttyhunk Island (Massachusetts) while her captain went looking for crewmen, she was dragged onto rocks and abandoned in 1924. [50] But many years previously, the ship building activity at Brant Point, Nantucket, had come to an end. Although few in number, the clipper and whaling ships built on Nantucket played important roles in the China Trade and whaling history of Nantucket.

Bibliography[edit]

Ocean Whaling Scene, E.Burdett (Nantucket), (1805–32)

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Shipbuilding at Brant Point In "Whaling, A Timeline" in "American Maritime History in the Age of Sail 1492–1865", Barnard History Department, Barnard College. Retrieved on October 5, 2008
  2. ^ Shipbuilding on Nantucket, at New Bedford Whaling Museum web site. Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  3. ^ "SPLASH: Boatbuilding on Nantucket", by Joshua B. Gray, Nantucket Today, July 2008, Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  4. ^ Historical description of Brant Point shipyards At usgennet.org, Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Retrieved on October 5, 2008
  5. ^ a b Egan Maritime Institute, Nantucket, Massachusetts, 2008. Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  6. ^ Captain Thomas Prince of the Brig 'Dolphin'1, in Descendants of William Brewster, n.d. Retrieved on October 7, 2008. On a different genealogy page, the same Captain Thomas Prince is listed as born on July 8, 1658, in Hull, Massachusetts(Plymouth County) and died in 1704 in Barbados, West Indies. This Brig 'Dolphin's home port is recorded as Boston.Captain Thomas Prince of the Brig 'Dolphin' 2, cf Roots Web, genealogy web site, n.d.. A son also named Thomas Prince, is listed as a shipbuilder in Duxbury, Massachusetts. He was born on July 10, 1686, in Scituate, Massachusetts (Plymouth County() and died November 2, 1754, in Duxbury, Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Retrieved on October 11, 2008
  7. ^ John Morke, rank unknown, is recorded for a voyage on 'Dolphin', 1732–1753. John Morke, crewman on the 'Dolphin'. In Pre-Revolutionary Diaries at the Massachusetts Historical Society 1635–1790, publ. Massachusetts Historical Society 1988, revised 1992, March 2002. Retrieved on October 11, 2008.
  8. ^ Captain John Cowper of the Brig 'Dolphin' in the Revolutionary War "Captain John Cowper of the same county, who nailing his flag to the masts of the brig 'Dolphin', sailed out of the waters of the Nansemond river into those of the Chesapeake, with a vow that he would attack the first enemy that he met, regardless of her size and armament, and never surrender, and went down at sea in a death grapple with two of the enemy, in full sight of Fortress Monroe, in that heroic manner so graphically portrayed in William Wirt Henry's splendid memoir of his glorious grandsire, Patrick Henry." (Vol. I, p.480) In R.S. Thomas, The Old Brick Church Near Smith Field Virginia\", New River Notes, n.d. Retrieved on October 7, 2008.
  9. ^ Maps and Charts of the Cruise of the brig 'Dolphin' in 1854 In the Roger Baskes Collection, Newberry Library Chicago, last update October 10, 2008. Retrieved on October 8, 2008.
  10. ^ Index for Ships that begin with the letter "D", in Dictionary of American Fighting Ships, Dept. of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 1959–1981. Retrieved on October 7, 2008. The earliest warship named 'Dolphin' that can be confirmed in US Navy historical records was a 10 gun cutter that was purchased in February 1777 at Dover, England, and outfitted for use in the Continental Navy at Nantes, France. She was placed under the command of Lieutenant S. Nicholson and sailed from St. Auzeau, France May 28, 1777, with Reprisal and Lexington, in a squadron commanded by Captain L. Wickes in Reprisal. During a cruise off Ireland this squadron captured and sent into port eight prizes, sank seven, and released three, throwing British shipping circles into an uproar. A 74-gun British war ship gave chase to the squadron and Reprisal drew him off to enable the other ships to reach port safely. 'Dolphin' arrived at St. Malo, France, June 27, 1777, where she was repaired and converted into a packet ship. On September 19 she put into Loire for further repairs. Owing to diplomatic protests by the British that American vessels should not be allowed to use neutral ports to prey upon British shipping, 'Dolphin' was seized by the British."USS Cutter Dolphin, 1777, in Dictionary of American Fighting Ships, Dept. of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 1959–1981. Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  11. ^ The second American 'Dolphin' was a schooner armed with twelve six pounders that was launched at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in June, 1823 Dolphin 2, schooner, 12 six pounders, in Dictionary of American Fighting Ships, Dept. of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 1959–1981. Retrieved on October 12, 2008. During 1825–6, she was captained by 'Mad Jack Percival' who cruised the Pacific looking for mutineers from the whaler Globe and then became the first US naval ship to visit the Sandwich Islands i.e.Hawaiian Islands."Battle of Honolulu" by Dr. T. Lowry, in The Story the Soldiers Wouldn't Tell, Stackpole Books PA n.d. Retrieved on October 12, 2008 'Mad Jack' and the 'Dolphin' crew visit Honolulu and have a rowdy good time. American Heritage Magazine, April 1971. Retrieved on October 12, 2008. The USS schooner 'Dolphin' ended her days when sold in 1835.
  12. ^ The earliest recorded Royal Navy 'Dolphin' is a fireship/6th rate built in 1690 at Chatham, rebuilt in 1711 at Portsmouth. BU in 1730.
  13. ^ HMS 'Dolphin', 6th rate 1690, Maritime History (Michael Phillips), January 11, 16January, February23 October, November 10, 2005. Internet Archive 2006, retrieved on October 8, 2008
  14. ^ A 6th rate warship of 20 guns named Dolphin was built at the Deptford Dockyard in 1731 renamed Firebrand in 1755 and captured in 1760. HMS 'Dolphin', 6th rate 1731-1 At Sailing Navies, 2002–2008. Retrieved on October 8, 2008. HMS 'Dolphin', 6th rate 1731-2 Maritime History (Michael Phillips), January 11, 16January, February23 October, November 10, 2005. Internet Archive 2006, retrieved on October 8, 2008.
  15. ^ A 24 gun, 6th rate (frigate) HMS Dolphin (1751) was built in Woolwich in 1751. She saw service in the Mediterranean and the deep southern latitudes of Patagonia, This 'Dolphin' then saw successful action against the French, and rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed to Tahiti. She was broken up in 1777. HMS Dolphin, 6th rate 1751 Maritime History (Michael Phillips), 1995, 2000. Internet Archive 2005, retrieved on October 8, 2008
  16. ^ In 1781, a 'Dolphin' of 44 guns built in Chatham was part of a squadron escorting a large fleet of merchantmen to the Baltic when forced to engage the Dutch fleet. Heavy fighting inflicted serious casualties on both sides, and the Dutch claimed victory. By 1794 this 'Dolphin', was a hospital ship and then went through successive incarnations until broken up in 1817.HMS Dolphin, 5th rate 1794 Maritime History (Michael Phillips), 1995, 2000. Internet Archive 2005, retrieved on October 8, 2008
  17. ^ Clipper Ship 'Mars, built Brant Point 1800?, 1802?, In "An Island in Time.. An Overview of the NHA's Collections with Accompanying Timeline", Historic Nantucket, Vol 49, no. 1 (Winter 2000), p.12-38, Nantucket Historical Society, 2000. Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  18. ^ In "An Island in Time.., An Overview of the NHA's Collections with Accompanying Timeline", Historic Nantucket, Vol 49, no. 1 (Winter 2000), p.12-38, Nantucket Historical Society, 2000, Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  19. ^ Trading Bark 'Mars', late 19th century, in New Bedford Whaling Museum Photo Archives. Retrieved on October 3, 2008
  20. ^ Clipper Ship 'Rose', Brant Point 1803 At usgennet.org, Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Retrieved on October 5, 2008
  21. ^ Captain Owen Chase, whaler 'Charles Carroll' 1832-6, in [CHASE-L] Note from the chronicles 1918 by Lonnie Chase", July 2000 at Roots Web. Retrieved on October 3, 2008. The history of the 'Charles Carroll' began with some notoriety as her first captain was Owen Chase, who was First Mate on the Whaleship Essex. Owen Chase was one of only eight men to survive an horrendous journey over thousands of miles of ocean in whaleboats after the Essex was struck and sunk by an enraged sperm whale in the central Pacific.
  22. ^ The Wreck of the Whaleship Essex, n.d. retrieved on October 3, 2008. Owen Chase was connected to several of the founding families of Nantucket. More about Owen Chase, in CHASE-L Archives by Jeffrey Chace, September 2004 at Roots Web. Retrieved on October 3, 2008. After recovering from his ordeal, Owen Chase assumed command of the whale ship 'Charles Carroll'.
  23. ^ "In 1832,a pair of Dorchester entrepreneurs – Elisha Preston and Charles O. Whitmore, formed a syndicate with several well-heeled Boston businessmen to establish whale and cod fisheries on the Dorchester shore. They built a second whaler named after 'Charles Carroll' in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 1828. On October 31, 1833, the snap of wind against canvas sails echoed along Commercial Point, Dorchester. This 'Charles Carroll', a trim 386-ton New England whaler glided out of her home port, bound for the Pacific Ocean. In 1836, she returned with 2,000 bbl sperm Whale oil and a fortune in whalebone." "The Stately Ships of Commercial Point", by Peter F. Stevens, The Dorchester Reporter, Boston Neighborhood News, Inc 2000. Retrieved on October 3, 2008. The whaler 'Charles Carroll' Newburyport, Massachusetts, 1828. In Good Old Dorchester: A Narrative History of the Town, 1630–1893. by William Dana Orcutt, pp.177–8. Published by the author, printed by J. Wilson, University press, 1893. Google Books, February 11, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008
  24. ^ A reference to crewman Elhu M. Pierson who sailed on the Charles 'Carroll' in the late 1850s likely refers to the Newburyport 'Charles Carroll.Elhu M. Pierson on the 'Charles Carroll' late 1850s. In Memorials of Old Bridgehampton, by James Truslow Adams, published by Priv. print. at the press of The Bridgehmapton News, 1916, p.275. Digitized Google Books, January 28, 2008. Complete text download, retrieved on October 3, 2008
  25. ^ Likewise Captain Henry E. Huntting whose 3rd voyage was the command of the 'Charles Carroll' on which he made several cruises to the Arctic shortly before 1863 is a reference to the Newburyport 'Charles Carroll'. Captain Henry E. Huntting, of the Charles Carroll. In Memorials of Old Bridgehampton By James Truslow Adams, published by Priv. print. at the press of The Bridgehmapton News, 1916, p.267. Digitized Google Books, January 28, 2008. Complete text download, retrieved on October 3, 2008
  26. ^ 'Charles Carroll' whaling voyage 1836. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.27. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  27. ^ Thomas Farel Heffernan Stove by a Whale: Owen Chase and the Essex Wesleyan University Press 1990 Pg 123 – 134 ISBN 978-0-8195-6244-9
  28. ^ 'Charles Carroll' whaling voyage 1843. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.34. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008
  29. ^ Whaler 'Charles Carroll', Nantucket 1844. In History of the American Whale Fishery from Its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876 By Alexander Starbuck, published by The author, 1878, p 412. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized September 13, 2007, at Google Books, complete text download, Retrieved on October 3, 2008.
  30. ^ 'Charles Carroll' whaling voyage 1848. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.37. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  31. ^ 'Charles Carroll' ?last whaling voyage 1852. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.41. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  32. ^ Whaler 'Nantucket' built Brant Point, 1836?, 1838? In Olde Massachusetts: Sketches of Old Times and Places During the Early Days of the Commonwealth by Charles Burr Todd. The Grafton Press, 1907, p.98. Digitized Google Books, January 28, 2008. Complete text download, retrieved on October 3, 2008
  33. ^ 'Nantucket' whaling voyage 1837-9. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.31. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  34. ^ 'Nantucket' whaling voyage 1845. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.35. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  35. ^ 'Nantucket' whaling voyage 1850. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.39. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  36. ^ 'Nantucket' whaling voyage 1854. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.42. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  37. ^ 'Nantucket' whaling voyage 1855. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson, Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.46. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  38. ^ Eliza Spenser Brock's journal, whaling voyage on the 'Lexington', The Journal of Eliza Brock- At Sea on the 'Lexington' by Sherri Federbush, Nantucket Historical Society, 1982, in the Historic Nantucket, Volume 30, Number 1, July 1982, p. 13-17. Retrieved on October 5, 2008
  39. ^ 'Lexington to Edgartown to fit for the Pacific.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.30. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  40. ^ 'Lexington' whaling voyage, 1840.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.31. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  41. ^ 'Lexington' whaling voyage, 1844.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.34. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  42. ^ Lexington' whaling voyage, 1848.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.37. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  43. ^ Lexington' whaling voyage, 1853.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.41. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  44. ^ 'Lexington' whaling voyage, 1856.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.44. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  45. ^ 'Lexington' whaling voyage, 1859.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.47. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  46. ^ Whaler 'Joseph Starbuck', built Brant Point 1838. In Nantucket's Master Mason: Christopher Capen by James L. Dunlap, Nantucket Historical Society, n.d. Retrieved on October 5, 2008
  47. ^ 'Joseph Starbuck' whaling voyage, 1842.. In Catalogue of Nantucket Whalers: And Their Voyages from 1815 to 1870, by Hussey & Robinson. Published by Hussey & Robinson 1876, p.32. Google Books, June 27, 2008. Complete text download retrieved on October 20, 2008.
  48. ^ The Great Nantucket fire of 1846. "Mass Moments", Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities, 2008. Retrieved on October 11, 2008
  49. ^ The whale ship 'Oak' sails from Nantucket in 1869, at New Bedford Whaling Museum web site. Retrieved on October 7, 2008
  50. ^ The 'Wanderer' breaks up, 1924, original vintage photograph, n.d. Retrieved on October 10, 2008
Nantucket Whaler "Rose", scrimshaw by E.Burdett (1805–32)