Napoléon Louis Bonaparte
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|A portrait of Napoléon Louis Bonaparte.|
|Reign||1 July – 9 July 1810|
|Reign||3 March 1809 – 1 December 1813|
|Spouse||Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte|
|Father||Louis I of Holland|
|Mother||Hortense de Beauharnais|
|Born||11 October 1804
|Died||17 March 1831
|Royal styles of
Louis II of Holland
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
Napoléon-Louis Bonaparte (11 October 1804 – 17 March 1831), or Louis II of Holland, was the middle son of Louis I of Holland, and Hortense de Beauharnais. His father was the younger brother of Napoléon I and King of Holland, while his mother was the daughter of Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoléon's first wife.
Napoléon Louis's elder brother, Napoléon Charles, died in 1807, when he was only four years old. On his death, Napoléon Louis became Prince Royal of Holland. It also made Napoléon Louis the eldest nephew of the Emperor, who at the time had no children, and likely eventual successor, a status he lost on 20 March 1811, when his uncle's second wife, Marie Louise, gave birth to a son, Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, styled King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt.
In 1809 Napoléon appointed him as Grand Duke of Berg, a status he kept to 1813.
For the nine days between his father's abdication and the fall of Holland to the invading French army in 1810, Louis Napoléon reigned as Lodewijk II, King of Holland.
When Napoléon was deposed in 1815 after the Battle of Waterloo the House of Bourbon was restored to the throne of France. Napoléon Louis fled into exile, but the Bonapartes never abandoned the thought of restoring the Napoleonic Empire.
Napoléon Louis married his first cousin, Charlotte, the daughter of Joseph Bonaparte, eldest brother of Napoléon I. He and his younger brother Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte settled in Italy, where they espoused liberal politics and became involved with the Carbonari, an organization fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy. On 17 March 1831, while fleeing Italy due to a crackdown on revolutionary activity by Papal and Austrian troops, Napoléon Louis, suffering from measles, died in the arms of his brother in Forlì. Eventually the Napoleonic Empire was restored by Napoléon Louis's younger brother who became Napoléon III in 1852.
Title and styles
- 5 May 1807 – 1 July 1810: His Royal Highness the Prince Royal of Holland
- 1 July 1810 – 9 July 1810: His Majesty the King of Holland
- 3 March 1809 – 1 December 1813: His Grand Ducal Highness the Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves
Full title as King of Holland
His Majesty Louis II, By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Kingdom, King of Holland.
|Ancestors of Napoléon Louis Bonaparte|
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- Bresler 1999, pp. 94–95
Napoléon Louis BonaparteBorn: 11 October 1804 Died: 17 March 1831
|King of Holland
1 July 1810 – 9 July 1810
Title next held byWilliam I
as King of the Netherlands
|Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves
3 March 1809 – 1 December 1813
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
|Heir to the Dutch throne
as Prince Royal of Holland
5 May 1807 – 1 July 1810
Title next held byWilliam Frederick
as Prince of Orange