|Type||Drug rehabilitation program|
|Headquarters||Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, US|
|President of Narconon International||Clark Carr|
Narconon is a Scientology front group. It offers purported drug rehabilitation treatment and anti-drug lectures. Both programmes promote the ideology of L. Ron Hubbard; neither is considered valid by mainstream science or medicine.
Narconon is headquartered in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It operates several dozen residential centers worldwide, chiefly in the United States and Western Europe. Narconon is controlled by ABLE, a Scientology corporation, to which Narconon pays 10% of its gross revenue.
The program has garnered considerable controversy as a result of its origins in Scientology and its methods. Its drug rehabilitation treatment has been described as "medically unsafe", "quackery" and "medical fraud", while academic and medical experts have dismissed its educational programme as containing "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling".
In turn, Narconon has claimed that mainstream medicine is "biased" against it, and that "people who endorse so-called controlled drug use cannot be trusted to review a program advocating totally drug-free living." Narconon has said that criticism of its programmes is "bigoted", and that its critics are "in favor of drug abuse ... they are either using drugs or selling drugs", while Scientology head David Miscavige attributes criticism to Scientology's "war" with "the mental health field".
L. Ron Hubbard's writings, which underlie the program, state that drugs and their metabolites are stored in the body's fatty tissues, causing the addict's cravings when partially released later on, and can be flushed out through a regimen comprising elements such as exercise, sauna and intake of high doses of vitamins. This hypothesis is contradicted by experimental evidence, and is not accepted by mainstream medicine or education. Narconon's claimed 80% success rate has been described by drug experts as "simply untrue".
Celebrity supporter Tom Cruise asserts that Narconon is "the only successful drug rehabilitation program in the world", adding "It's a statistically proven fact that there is only one successful drug rehabilitation program in the world. Period." He ascribes criticism of Narconon to religious bigotry, saying "A minority wants to hate - okay. For me, it's connected with intolerance". However, there exist no independently recognized studies which confirm the efficacy of the Narconon program.
Narconon, with the Scientology program, is another example of the workability of Dianetics and Scientology.
Narconon was established 19 February 1966 as a drug rehabilitation program based on "The Fundamentals of Thought" by L. Ron Hubbard and delivered to drug abusers in the Arizona State Prisons. The name "Narconon" originally referred not to an organization but to the program.
Narconon's creator was William C. Benitez, a former inmate at Arizona State Prison who had served time for narcotics offenses. His work was supported by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, and in 1972 Hubbard sponsored the incorporation of Narconon as an organization. It was co-founded by Benitez and two Scientologists, Henning Heldt and Arthur Maren.
Even before Narconon became established, Scientology and Dianetics were promoted as providing a cure for drug addiction. In 1970 the Reverend John W. Elliot, senior minister of the Church of Scientology and chairman of its Drug Abuse Prevention team, announced that "Dianetic Counselling" had "completely cured 30 out of 30 people" who came to the Church of Scientology for help. Rev. Elliott also reported that Dianetics could cure hay fever, asthma and arthritis.
In the early days of Narconon, no distinction was made between Scientology's 'religious' and 'secular' branches; Narconon was considered by Scientologists to be an example of Scientology in action. "Narconon, with the Scientology program, is another example of the workability of Dianetics and Scientology", said an adherant in 1970. "The program has been expanded and is used in all Scientology churches and missions".
The Narconon website reports that the keynote of Narconon is that the “…individual is responsible for his own condition and that anyone can improve his condition if he is given a workable way to do so… man is basically good and it is pain, suffering, and loss that lead him astray.” It positions the program as an approach to rehabilitation without recourse to alternative drugs. This early program did not, however, deal directly with withdrawal symptoms. In 1973, the Narconon program adopted procedures to include drug-free withdrawal.
Twenty-first century 
A number of celebrities have publicly attested that Narconon was helpful in their own lives. Musician Nicky Hopkins and actress Kirstie Alley have credited Narconon for their recovery from addiction to drugs and alcohol. Alley has since become a public spokesperson for Narconon. The New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project has, successfully by some accounts, used Hubbard's sauna detoxification regimen to improve the health of rescue workers exposed to toxic substances from 9/11, although the results are disputed. Toxicologist Dr Ronald E. Gotts described the Narconon / Purification Rundown programme in a 1987 report on its use by California firefighters:
"The treatment in California preyed upon the fears of concerned workers, but served no rational medical function. ... Moreover, the program itself, developed not by physicians or scientists, but by the founder of the Church of Scientology, has no recognized value in the established medical and scientific community. It is quackery."
In 2004 and 2005, "wise at work" magazine and "International Scientology News" each published articles clarifying the relationship between Narconon and Scientology; each placed Narconon in Scientology's 'Division 6B', with responsibility for introducing the public to Scientology services.
By the end of 2005, according to the International Association of Scientologists, Narconon was operating 183 rehabilitation centres around the world. New centres opened in that year included Hastings, UK (now closed), and Stone Hawk, in Battle Creek, Michigan.
On 17 July 2006, Narconon center, Narconon Trois-Rivieres (Three-Rivers) based in Canada, opened up a website at narcodex.ca. Narcodex is a wiki purporting to contain drug information. The domain name of Narcodex.ca is owned by ABLE Canada, another Scientology business entity. The funding for the website came entirely from the Narconon Trois-Rivieres, which also controlled the content on the site. The center was closed by the local health authorities in 2012.
Narconon and Scientology 
Its affiliation with the Church of Scientology has made Narconon itself a focus of controversy. The organization has never denied that many of its administrators are committed Scientologists or that its methods are based on the teachings of L. Ron Hubbard. In its early days, Narconon used unaltered Scientology materials in its courses, and Scientology executives ran the organization (founders Heldt and Maren were high-ranking members of the Church's public-relations department known as the Guardian's Office).
In April 1970, Scientology spokesman Max Prudente described Narconon as, "Based solely on the philosophy and tenets of Scientology", claiming an 85% success rate.
However, as Narconon promoted its drug-treatment services to a variety of governmental jurisdictions within the US, the organization repeatedly found itself at the center of controversy when the Scientology connection was raised by journalists or politicians.
Not only did the Church of Scientology have serious public-image problems, but the link with Scientology raised questions about the constitutional appropriateness of governmental bodies sponsoring a religiously affiliated organization (see Lemon v. Kurtzman). These problems were further intensified by claims that the treatment program was medically unsound and numerous allegations that the Narconon treatment program serves as a fundraising and recruitment program for the Church of Scientology.
By the late 1970s, Scientology was keen to disavow its connection with Narconon. When the FBI raided Scientology offices on 8 July 1977, papers seized revealed that Scientologists were instructed to refer to Narconon and other "front groups" using code names:
Codes should be used for the names of front groups that we do not want connected with the C of S and for anything that gives specific and actual evidence that the C of S is in legal control of B6 groups [of which Narconon was one].
In the 1990s, Narconon was at pains to deny all links to Scientology; in 1994 John Wood, the head of Narconon UK, denied any connection between Narconon and Scientology, saying, "I know beyond doubt that Narconon does not recruit for nor promote the Church of Scientology", despite the final stage in Narconon's process for patients at that time being "Route to nearest Org (Scientology organisation) for further services".
A 1–5 March 1998 Boston Herald series exposed how two Scientology-linked groups, Narconon and the World Literacy Crusade, used anti-drug and learn-to-read programs to gain access to public schools without disclosing their Scientology ties. After the Herald report was published, Heber Jentzsch, president of the Church of Scientology International, confirmed that the church's Los Angeles law firm had hired a private-investigative firm to investigate the personal life of reporter Joseph Mallia, who wrote the series. The Herald noted numerous other instances over the years where reporters were harassed with "noisy investigations" after writing stories exposing Scientology.
In Montreal, Narconon employees describe themselves as 'FSM's, a Scientology abbreviation for Field Staff Member.
Drug rehabilitation programme 
|“||The treatment ... served no rational medical function. Moreover, the program itself ... has no recognized value in the established medical and scientific community. It is quackery.||”|
—Toxicologist Dr Ronald E. Gotts, 
Since its establishment, Narconon has faced considerable controversy over the safety and effectiveness of its rehabilitation methods and the organization's links to the Church of Scientology. The medical profession has been sharply critical of Narconon's methods, which rely on theories of drug metabolism that are not supported by mainstream toxicology. Particular criticism has been directed at the therapy's use of vitamins (including massive doses of niacin) and extended sauna sessions.
The "New Life Program" consists of two principal stages: 'detoxification' and 'rehabilitation'. The "New Life Detoxification Program", adapted from Hubbard's Purification Rundown, consists of six elements: exercise, sauna, supplements, sufficient liquids, regular diet with fresh vegetables, and adequate sleep.
Each US patient spends an average of 3 to 4 months at Narconon, for a fee which ranges from $10,000 to around $30,000.
The detoxification program is based on Hubbard's theory that "small amounts of drugs [and their metabolites] stored in fat are released at a later time causing the person to re-experience the drug effect and desire to use again." According to Narconon, exercise helps to release toxins from body fat as fat deposits are burned for energy, while concurrently releasing chemicals via sweating, sebum (produced by the skin's sebaceous glands), and regular bowel movements.
Experts from mainstream medicine and toxicology have repeatedly argued that Hubbard's method has no validity: "one may from a pharmacological point of view strongly question the idea of using enforced sweating to expel drugs from the body", says Professor Folke Sjoqvist in a 1996 report for the Swedish government, while an Oklahoma Board of Mental Health report from 1990 states that, "Although minute quantities of some drugs may be found in sweat the amount represents a small fraction of drug elimination".
Harris: And the sauna program, what Narconon contends is that in -- it in fact detoxifies your body. True?
Harris: But there's no scientific basis that you can point me to to support that contention, is there, sir?
Casal: You're correct.
Harris: So when Narconon states that the sauna program detoxifies its students, you're not aware, as a medical doctor, of any scientific basis for that contention?
Casal: I agree.
Harris: The vitamin regimen. You're familiar with the vitamin regimen?
Casal: Yes, sir.
Harris: What -- do you have an opinion about whether or not the vitamin regimen is effective at treating addiction?
Casal: I believe that it has very likely no bearing whatsoever on the treatment of addiction.
Narconon asserts that methadone, amphetamines, methamphetamines, morphine, copper, mercury, and other toxins, some consumed years earlier, leave the body by means of sweating. This contrasts with the view of the body's drug retention taken by mainstream science, which has found that most recreational drugs leave the body within a few days (with the exception of marijuana, which in the case of frequent use can remain in the body for up to a month).
According to Narconon, vitamin and mineral supplements are needed to address nutritional deficiencies and offset nutrient loss due to sweating. Other key elements in the program are the use of niacin, which Hubbard believed to increase free fatty acid mobilization, and the inclusion of polyunsaturated fats which he thought to increase the excretion rate of some toxin compounds. Together with a proper amount of sleep, this regime is thought by Narconon to mobilize and eliminate long-term stored toxins.
Effect predicted by Hubbard versus actual effect 
Hubbard's theory (that niacin promotes the release of fat into the body) has been shown to be invalid; niacin in fact has the opposite effect: it binds to and stimulates a G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR109A, which inhibits fat breakdown in the human body's fat cells.
In spite of the medical evidence which shows that the actual effect of niacin on the body is opposite to that predicted by Hubbard, Narconon continues to treat patients on the basis of Hubbard's discredited theories.
High dosage and adverse drug reactions 
Narconon's "drug bomb" includes a niacin dose of 4000 mg/day. The medically recommended daily dose of niacin is 100 mg/day, rising to a maximum of 1000 mg/day; the dosage given by Narconon is therefore four times the medically recommended maximum dose.
Possible adverse drug reactions (side-effects) of high-dosage niacin range from hyperglycemia, cardiac arrhythmias, flushing, rashes, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain, to hepatotoxicity (liver failure). In the case of acute liver failure, historical case fatality rate (risk of death from the condition) has been as high as 80%; present short-term survival rate (assuming the availability of donor liver for transplant) is 65%.
The risk to patients of taking high-dose niacin is one reason why medical experts assessing the Narconon programme have found that it is a danger to patients; the Narconon programme has been banned in a number of jurisdictions including France and Quebec.
Because Narconon doctrines dictate that patients undergoing its programme exhibit physical symtoms relating to the drugs which are (supposedly) being 'sweated out', and because Narconon's staff are not medically qualified or typically qualified in orthodox drug rehabilitation, there is a risk that serious medical symptoms - from niacin overdose, or from other causes - may be misinterpreted by Narconon staff as the desirable effects of detoxification:
The Narconon Program exposes its patients to the risk of delayed withdrawal phenomena such as seizures, delirium and/or hallucinations. ... The Narconon program presents a potential risk to the patients of the Narconon program that delayed withdrawal phenomena such as seizures, delirium or hallucination that are occasionally seen several days after cessation of drugs such as benzodiazepines, may be misinterpreted by Narconon's non-medical staff as the effect of mobilizing the drug from fat during the sauna sweat-out procedure period. There is also a potential risk that the reported re-experience of the abused drugs' effect during the sauna sweat-out program may be the result of misinterpreted symptoms of hyperthermia or electrolyte imbalance...
In a randomised placebo-controlled blind clinical trial of high-dose niacin, medical researchers found "important adverse effects (flushing, chills, and gastrointestinal side effects), severe enough in 9% of these young healthy volunteers to necessitate medical attention". All volunteers in the niacin group experienced some adverse drug effects, including flushing (100%), chills (shaking) (51%), generalized pruritis (itching) (75%), gastrointestinal upset (e.g. nausea, diarrhea) (30%) and tingling sensations in the skin (30%).
The volunteers in the academic study were young and healthy, in contrast with the addicts treated at Narconon, who are more likely (particularly in the case of alcoholics) to have already compromised liver function. The dosage in the niacin study was 500 mg; Narconon gives its patients 4000 mg (a dose eight times higher than the dosage used in the study) each day. It is therefore very likely that a significant number of Narconon patients suffer undiagnosed adverse reactions from the very large amounts of niacin which they are given while resident at Narconon.
'Training routines' 
The remainder of the Narconon course uses "training routines" or "TRs" originally devised by Hubbard to teach communications skills to Scientologists. In the Narconon variant, these courses claim to be designed to rehabilitate drug abusers. These training routines sometimes include TR 8, which involves the individual commanding an ashtray to "stand up" and "sit down", and thanking it for doing so, as loudly as they can. Former Scientologists say that the purpose of the drill is for the individual to "beam" their "intention" into the ashtray to make it move.
Narconon typically claims success rates as high as 75% of the graduates of the Narconon program remaining drug-free for the rest of their lives, and has in the past claimed "very close to a 100% success rate". However, these numbers are highly controversial, and there are no independent studies to back these claims up.
No verifiable evidence for its success rate has been published by Narconon, and independent researchers have found considerably lower rates—at least one website critical of Narconon claims that the rates were as low as 6.6% in the case of a Swedish research study.
Education programme 
In 1999, Scientologists from Clearwater, Florida tried to get a Narconon drug-education program installed into the Pinellas County school district. After a hearing on the matter, a school-district committee refused to allow students to participate in an anti-drug program based on the teachings of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, citing that teaching students about the "tone scale" and other trappings of Scientology was inappropriate for a drug-education program for their schools.
In 2004, Narconon offered an anti-drug program to public schools in California, free of charge. A series of articles in the San Francisco Chronicle on 9 and 10 June 2004, resulted in California school officials investigating Narconon's claims. The study found that Narconon's program did not reflect medically and scientifically based practices and that it offered students misleading information about drug use and abuse.
As a result of the investigation, on 23 February 2005, the state's superintendent of public instruction, Jack O'Connell, officially recommended that all schools in the state reject the Narconon program. O'Connell's secretary announced that the school systems in Los Angeles and San Francisco had dropped the program. The president of Narconon, Clark Carr, responded that the study presented only limited information about his organization's work, and that those efforts were "accurate and relevant to the current challenges children face with drugs."
United Kingdom 
The UK prisons ombudsman recommended to prison governors that Narconon rehabilitation programs not be used in prisons although some schools in the UK are using these programs; The Sunday Times said this was because schools are less aware of Narconon's links to the Church of Scientology.
In September 2012, the 149 Church of England schools in the Diocese of London were warned not to accept offers from Narconon to give lectures to their pupils, following complaints from parents.
A Narconon newsletter claimed that the organisation's anti-drug lectures in Newham schools were funded by blue chip companies including John Lewis, Marks & Spencer, Coutts and Ford, and claimed support from ex-footballer Paul Canoville. Although John Lewis denied making any donations to Narconon and Paul Canoville declared that he had "no connections with this cult whatsoever", Coutts and Ford both said they had given "small sums" of money.
Cecchini/Lennox study 
In 2008, Narconon executive Marie Cecchini published, with Richard Lennox, a paper which claimed to show that the Narconon educational programme reduced drug use among youths. However, the study was funded by Narconon's parent organisation, ABLE, and subsequent correspondence in the same journal asserted that the study's conclusions were contradicted by its own data: that the control group "were more likely to resist pressures to take drugs" than the Narconon group.
Jocelyne Dorfmann, Grancey-sur-Ource, France (1984) 
In 1984, a 34 year-old French woman named Jocelyne Dorfmann died from an untreated epilepsy crisis while undergoing treatment at a Narconon center in Grancey-sur-Ource (near Dijon). The assistant-director of that center was convicted of lack of assistance to a person in danger and the Narconon center was closed.
Medical experts reported that her death was caused by "an epileptic seizure due to the absence of sufficient treatment at its beginning and of emergency treatment during the seizure". Narconon staff failed to call for medical assistance, as a result of which, Dorfmann died.
Paride Ella and Giuseppe Tomba, Valsassina, Italy (1995) 
In 1995, two young men, Paride Ella (22) and Giuseppe Tomba (26) died suddenly at the Narconon centre in Taceno, Valsassina. Paride Ella died of acute kidney failure (symptoms consistent with a niacin overdose), while the recorded cause of death for Giuseppe Tomba was heart attack.
Both patients suffered similar symptoms, vomitting and diarrhoea, for days before their deaths. The young men died within a few days of one another, in the so-called 'detoxification' (ultra-high doses of niacin and other vitamins, multi-hour saunas) stage of the Narconon programme.
The Narconon centre had no medical staff and was unable - in either case - to diagnose the seriousness of their condition. Before the deaths, the village's mayor had asked for the Narconon centre to be closed.
Federica X, Torre dell'Orso, Italy (2002) 
In Italy, a 33-year-old Italian female patient of the Narconon center in Torre dell'Orso died under similar conditions in 2002.
Federica died from peritonitis, according to her autopsy. She first began to suffer from stomach pains on Monday 7 October 2002, and was driven to the first aid station at Meledugno, which she was given painkillers. She was driven to hospital the following evening, where she died soon after being admitted in a coma.
Narconon patient Giovanni Costa later stabbed staff member Rodolfo Savino, whom Costa claimed had ignored Federica's symptoms, and given her insufficient medical aid. Costa was arrested and charged with attempted murder.
Patrick Desmond, Norcross, Georgia, US (2008) 
His family are alleging wrongful death and have filed a lawsuit against Narconon, claiming that Narconon's actions led to his death, and that Narconon falsely claimed to be a licensed inpatient programme.
Atlanta's Channel 2 News said that:
The evidence includes documents with Narconon's letterhead with the word "outpatient" when reporting Patrick's death to state investigators, but letterhead on letters sent to Florida courts omitted the word "outpatient".
Multiple deaths at Narconon Arrowhead, Oklahoma, US (2009-2012) 
In August 2012, Pittsburg County sheriffs and the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health, along with the Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation began an investigation of deaths at Narconon's Arrowhead facility, following the deaths of three patients in a period of nine months.
The investigation includes the recent deaths of four patients: Stacy Dawn Murphy, aged 20, who died at Narconon Arrowhead on 19 July 2012; Hillary Holten, 21, who was found dead at the facility on 11 April 2012; 32-year-old Gabriel Graves, who died there on 26 October 2011; and 28-year-old Kaysie Dianne Werninck, also a patient at Narconon Arrowhead, who was found dead on 3 March 2009.
Narconon in Oklahoma 
|“||Something's terribly wrong there. We sent her there to get better, not to die.||”|
—Robert Murphy, father of deceased Stacy Dawn Murphy, 
Narconon began operations in Oklahoma in 1990, as an unlicensed facility on the site of the Chilocco Indian School near Newkirk, claiming that it did not require a state licence, as it was operating on an Indian reservation. In 1992 it applied for a state licence, and was twice refused by the Oklahoma Mental Health Department, which found "no evidence that drug and alcohol abuse education was part of the program";, and declared the programme "not medically safe"; a decision to which Narconon spokesperson Kirstie Alley responded, "The arrogance and irresponsibility of the mental health board will not survive the outrage of the many thousands of parents, graduates and supporters from the scientific community".
During the period 1989-1992, Narconon (through Scientology attorney Tim Bowles) filed lawsuits against the Oklahoma Board of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, its members, and local newspaper editor Robert Lobsinger (who had written about Narconon's Scientology connection), attempted to influence Newkirk's mayor by contacting his 12-year-old son, and hired a private detective firm to research Narconon's opponents, leading residents to fear retribution if they spoke out against Narconon.
Narconon achieved exemption from the requirement for state licensing in 1992, as a result of approval from the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities. Scientology leader David Miscavige commented on the case in an interview with ABC News Nightline, saying, "There are a group of people on this planet who find us to be a threat to their existence, and they will do everything in their power to stop us. And that is the mental health field. I didn't pick a war with them."
In 2012, a paid advert in the Oklahoma Gazette contained allegations from a previously unknown group named "Oklahomans for the preservation of homeland security and american values, (ohsav)" [sic]. The advert referred to recent TV news stories about Narconon and Scientology, named some of Narconon's critics in Oklahoma, and alleged those critics had "subjugated [their] individuality for [their] own thirst for hatred", had an "agenda of religious intolerance, racial discrimination or disdain for corporate America", and blamed them for "public disinformation hate campaigns against Blacks, Jews, Muslims and Scientologists". The advertisement showed the characteristics of a Scientology "DA flier".
Kaysie Dianne Werninck 
The parents of Kaysie Dianne Werninck, who died at Narconon Arrowhead on 3 March 2009, filed a lawsuit against the center claiming her death was "a result of the defendant's [Narconon's] gross negligence". The case was settled.
Gabriel Graves 
Gabriel Graves, who died at the facility in October 2011, was the subject of an open records request made to the Oklahoma State Department of Mental Health by the Tulsa World newspaper, which revealed reports of use and distribution of drugs at the centre. His autopsy recorded his cause of death as 'unknown'.
Hillary Holten 
Hillary Holten, whose parents filed a lawsuit against Narconon Arrowhead, is alleged by her parents to have died due to lack of medical care. Their lawsuit states that she "had a history of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, a condition which required the daily administration of Dexamethasone and in extreme circumstances, an injection of liquid cortisone", and that Narconon Arrowhead did not properly manage her medical condition. Gary Smith of Narconon refrained from comment, adding that "there are federal rights to privacy laws which prohibit us from discussing anything about former clients."
Stacy Murphy 
Stacy Murphy's father said Narconon officials told him that when his daughter was found dead alone in the 'detox' room, she had not been checked on for two and a half hours. "That's too long, if they thought she was overdosed, why didn't they have someone with her the whole time?" he said, adding "We sent her there to get better, not to die". Gary Smith, director of the facility, responded in an email statement that, "It is always deeply saddening when drug addiction takes a life or destroys a family. ... For the family the pain of losing a loved one to addiction is unimaginable."
A patient who was resident at Narconon Arrowhead at the time of Stacy's death said, "There was no doctor there, no nurse on staff. There's nothing like that there ... The staff, they're all former patients. ... My understanding is that everyone there is pretty much a former patient. ... The drugs that would have saved Stacy's life were either not available or no one there knew how to administer it." Now he fears retaliation for talking to the police and media: "I'm afraid for my life."
Stacy's roommate, Destanie Ramsey, called police on the night of Stacy's death in order to leave Narconon Arrowhead, where she said she was being held against her will.
Public and media response 
Protests over the deaths have taken place outside the Narconon centre; on 23/24 June 2012, a protest, planned to include bereaved family members, was disrupted by road resurfacing works outside the facility, paid for by Narconon. Pittsburg County Commission Chairman Gene Rogers explained that, "He (Gary Smith) called me and said they might be having a problem with the public that weekend and he wanted help policing the area and he asked about doing overlaying (of the road)".
Senator Tom Ivester (D-Elk City) commented that, "Clearly something isn’t right and we have a moral obligation to do everything in our power to end this predatory business being run by the Church of Scientology disguised as drug treatment", adding, "This is a disgusting business that preys on desperate family members and their sick loved ones, scamming them out of thousands of dollars with the promise of providing hope and new life. It’s a disgrace to have these people operating in the state of Oklahoma." Senator Ivestor planned to introduce new legislation to curb Narconon's activities.
In response to an NBC Rock Center news report on the facility, Narconon President Clark Carr called its criticism of Narconon "bigoted", and described Narconon as addicts' "last chance for a decent, honest, drug-free life".
'Drugs for sex' allegations 
a place where ... drugs were used by some as barter for sex. He said that it was one of the easiest places he's ever been to get drugs if you want them. He said there were drugs offered for exchange of - physical favours.
Q: So the people at Narconon offer drugs to the - to the - patients in exchange for sex?
A: Female patients - erm - is what he told me.
A former client and a former employee both told us similar stories, but Narconon Arrowhead denies the allegations. We learned the only doctor affiliated with the facility does not work there full-time; a nurse was found guilty of medicaid fraud, and other staff members have criminal records as well.
Lawyers for the family of Heather Landmeier (a young woman who is in a persistent vegetative state after taking a heroin overdose shortly after leaving Narconon Arrowhead) allege that "she had relapsed and was being provided drugs by these two different full-time staff members in exchange for sex ... The facility knows how much drugs is going through that place, how much sex is going on, and they allow it to keep occurring".
State code violations 
Narconon facilities in California were cited repeatedly for violations by state inspectors. Violations included administering medication without authorization, having alcohol on the facility, and not having proper bedding for clients. Narconon has also attempted to silence opposition, including sending letters to neighbors of a proposed facility in Leona Valley, California threatening legal action for criticism. Residents of the Leona Valley were concerned that Narconon would increase crime. The local town council recommended an eight-foot security fence and independent security, which was objected to by Narconon officials.
March 2013, Narcanon Arrowhead- National Association of Forensic Counselors President Karla Taylor told The McAlester News-Capital that CEO Gary Smith and the employee's certificates were revoked earlier this month. Taylor said she can't say why the certificates were revoked.
In Clearwater, Florida, an endorsement from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services, which Narconon submitted in support of its application for a state license to conduct anti-drug educational programmes, was found to be a forgery.
Investigation in Russia 
In April 2007, it was revealed that Moscow's South District office of public procurator had begun an investigation into Narconon's activities in Russia. The Moskovsky Komsomolets daily paper reported that legal proceedings were begun against the head of the clinic "Narconon-Standard", for violating bans in Russian medical practices. Russian law enforcement became interested after receiving many complaints from citizens about the high fees charged by Narconon. The Narconon office in Bolshaya Tulskaya St., Moscow was searched, and documents and unidentified medications were seized.
|“||[Narconon] may represent a risk to health||”|
On 17 April 2012, Quebec health officials ordered the Narconon in Trois-Rivières to close, and relocate its 32 residents. After an investigation into Narconon Trois-Rivières' activities by the Centre Québécois d’Agrément (an independent body which monitors the quality of healthcare), the Mauricie Region's Health and Social Services Agency decided not to re-certify Narconon because of their concerns that its methods "may represent a risk to health" of patients.
The Agency's director, Marc Latour, said that Narconon Trois-Rivières was dangerous for patients, that it violated many of the criteria governming rehabilitation centres in Quebec, and that there was no medical supervision and no scientific basis to its treatment. He added that at least four clients had been hospitalised in recent months because of methods used at the centre.
Narconon Trois-Rivières issued a response, saying, "People with drug problems and their families should have a right to choose the program that works for them as these days there are many good alternative programs".
The closure follows a 2-year campaign by ex-Narconon patient and staff member David Love, whose negative experiences at Narconon prompted him to become one of its fiercest critics in Canada. While he was at Narconon Trois-Rivieres, Love reports that,
staff members withheld insulin from a diabetic patient undergoing the sauna treatment. That young man ended up in hospital for three days, Love said. In another [incident], it [Narconon] took away a patient's antidepressants. He jumped from a second-floor window in a suicide attempt.
Before the centre's closure, Narconon had alleged that Love's allegations were fictitious and that he had been bribed to make them; Andre Ahern, Director of Legal Affairs for Narconon Trois-Rivieres, said:
It strikes me most strange that Love is now attacking the very group [Narconon] that per his earlier statements saved his life. He changed his mind, apparently, after he began receiving payments from members of the Anonymous network.
Love is one of five former Narconon patients who have filed a complaint with Quebec's Human Rights Commission, alleging that their drug addiction was exploited by Narconon, in recruiting them into the programme and making them do manual labout while taking part in it. Love also alleges that Narconon Trois-Rivieres earned around $16 million for Scientology between its opening in 2005 and its forced closure in 2012.
Pur Detox suicide attempt 
In September 2012, Pur Detox, a Narconon offshoot, was sued in Orange County, California for negligence, medical malpractice, and negligent supervision.
Arrest of Heber Jentzsch 
In December 1988, the president of the Church of Scientology, Heber Jentzsch, was arrested in Spain after an investigation into Narconon that resulted in (later dropped) allegations that he and the Church of Scientology were defrauding Spanish citizens and running its centers with unqualified staff. Spanish citizens began inundating the courthouse with phone calls complaining of being hoodwinked by Narconon. The judge in the case said at a news conference after the arrests that the only god of the church of Scientology is money, and he compared the church to a pyramid scheme in which members pay increasing sums of money. He said that Narconon swindled its clients and lured them into Scientology. In 1989, 75 Scientologists in Italy were arrested and an investigation showed that "parents of drug addicts were paying heavy monthly fees to Narconon, which advertised itself as a drug rehabilitation and cure center, but getting nothing in return." By the end of 1991 the court found there was no evidence to support prosecutors’ allegations that drug rehabilitation and other programs sponsored by the Church of Scientology in Spain amounted to illicit gathering aimed at activities such as bilking people of money. In April 2002, the charge was formally dropped. The court also ordered that the bail bond deposited for his release in 1988 be returned to the Church along with interest, which nearly doubled the original amount.
Slatkin fraud 
On 8 November 2006, the Associated Press reported that Narconon was one of the Scientology groups that would pay back a total of 3.5 million dollars of illegal funds from EarthLink co-founder Reed Slatkin:
"Slatkin, who was once an ordained Scientology minister, paid $1.7 million from his scheme directly to Scientology groups, while millions of dollars more were funneled through other investors to groups affiliated with the church, bankruptcy trustee R. Todd Neilson said in court filings. Among the church groups to receive ill-gotten gains from Slatkin's scheme were Narconon International, the Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International and the Church of Scientology Western United States, the filings said. The $3.5 million being returned by the church groups was the result of a negotiated compromise, Scientology attorney David Schindler and Alexander Pilmer, an attorney for Neilson, said." 
Head of Narconon deported from Kazakhstan 
In July 2008, the head of Narconon in Kazakhstan was deported: Kazakh Justice Minister Zagipa Baliyeva announced that "foreigners from the USA, Georgia, South Korea and Japan have been deported from the country by law-enforcement agencies and in line with court rulings for violating the rules regarding the stay of foreigners and carrying out missionary activities without registration. In particular, with a further ban on entering Kazakhstan for five years, the head of the Narconon public foundation affiliated with the Church of Scientology has been deported," adding, "27 cases were uncovered where heads of non-traditional religious organizations violated the law on the freedom of conscience and religious organizations; in particular, materials propagating radical ideas and teachings of non-traditional religions were seized from them".
Accusation of website graphics design/layout plagiarism 
Insurance fraud allegations 
In April 2013, agents of the insurance commissioner of Georgia and the Gwinnett County, Georgia District attorney's office searched the group's offices in Norcross, Georgia, questioning employees as they arrived at work and impounding more than a dozen computers and boxes full of documents. The state Insurance Commissioner said during the investigation that "We have credible information that indicates that insurance fraud is taking place with Narconon". The family of one patient said that the group was billing insurance companies for treatments that had never been given, and the doctors for whom the costs were being billed claimed never to have met the patient.
Narconon also market and operates Narconon facilities under other names, partly to hide they are part of Scientology. There are also other Scientology-affiliated drug rehabilitation groups that are based on the Purification rundown.
- Drug Free Ambasadors is a Narconon programme targeting schools and youth organizations.
- Pur Detox (also Pür Detox with an umlaut) is a Scientology-affiliated clinic in Dana Point, California. The clinic has come under scrutiny due to a lawsuit by one of the former patients.
- Novus Medical Detox Center and Suncoast Rehabilitation Center are trade names or subsidiaries of Narconon Spring Hill Inc., California.
- Sober Living in Orange County is the purification rundown operated at the Orange County Scientology Org itself.
- Rainbow Canyon Rehabilitation Center or just Rainbow Canyon is the name of a Narconon center in Caliente, Nevada.
- Teen-anon or Streetcats is a Narconon program at the Narconon Vista Bay facility.
- Israel Says No to Drugs is an Scientology-affiliated organization based in Jaffa.
- The Truth About Drugs and Foundation for a Drug-Free World are slogans under which Scientology and Narconon advertise their programmes while concealing their Scientology origins,
- Say No to Drugs Say Yes To Life or Yes to Life, No to Drugs is a front group for Narconon and Scientology, organizing races and street festivals to support Narconon.
See also 
- Front organization
- Clear Body, Clear Mind
- Purification Rundown
- Narconon Day
- New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project
- Second Chance Program
- Project Chanology
- Association for Better Living and Education
- "Drugs charity is front for 'dangerous' organisation; Insight; Focus". Sunday Times. 7 January 2007. "Narconon's international website claims: "The ministry of health in England (sic) has also directly funded Narconon residential rehabilitation." But the Department of Health denies any knowledge of this. ... Professor Stephen Kent, a Canadian academic who is an authority on Scientology, said: "The connection between Narconon and Scientology is solid. Of course, Scientology tries to get non-Scientologists involved in the programme, but the engine behind the programme is Scientology." ... The British government expressed concern about Narconon as long as eight years ago. A 1998 memo from the Home Office's drug strategy unit warned that the charity had its "roots in the Church of Scientology and (is) not in the mainstream of drug rehabilitation". Tower Hamlets council in east London advises its schools against using Narconon. DrugScope, one of the UK's main drug charities, said: "We feel that the quality of Narconon's information is not objective and non-judgmental. It does not have any credibility." Stephen Shaw, the prisons ombudsman, advised that inmates in British jails should not receive drug education from Narconon because it is so "closely associated with the Church of Scientology"."
- Robert W. Welkos; Joel Sappell (27 June 1990). "Church Seeks Influence in Schools, Business, Science". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 September 2012. "A fourth article did not mention Hubbard by name, but reported favorably on Narconon, his drug and alcohol rehabilitation program, which is run by Scientologists."
- Marshall, John (24 January 1980). "The Scientology Papers / Hubbard still gave orders, records show". The Globe and Mail. "A document with FBI number 7822, dated Nov. 5, 1976, and signed by Judy Taussig, a U. S. national official of Scientology, defined the correct use of the codes. They were to be used, the court learned, for groups or actions that we don't want connected to LRH or MSH. This is handled by coding their names. Also coding the group or action if it falls into categories #1-#8 That list included incriminating activities, unpunished crimes, and things like lobbying where this is prohibited in non-profit corporations, or money deals that might provoke government tax offices. The document also said the codes should be used for words of actions that could tend to dispute the fact that the C of S motives are humanitarian, i.e., harass, eradicate, attack, destroy, annihilate ... spreading a rumor, entrapment, stir up opposition. And codes should be used for the names of front groups that we do not want connected with the C of S and for anything that gives specific and actual evidence that the C of S is in legal control of B6 groups. These are groups that are separate legal entities to the C of S. Narconon front. An attachment to the document, listed in the prosecution inventory as item 104 in Box C16, said B6 groups include Narconon, a drug treatment organization staffed by Scientologists and using Mr. Hubbard's mental health techniques."
- "A Turning Point in our History". International Scientology News. 27 May 2004. "The answer is to make every one of our orgs a Central Organisation, a headquarters responsible for every sector of Scientology activity across its entire geographic zone - all of it! ... International Management bodies exist today for each sector of activity; including ... Social Betterment Activities which handle drug rehabilitation [Narconon] ... And each one now emanates from the Central Org into the environment."
- "Creating a New Civilisation: YOUR ROLE". wise at work. 2005. p. 14. "The Public Divisions ... are responsible to emanate [sic] every type of LRH technology ... “Since each Church will be the Central Organization for their area,” Mr. Miscavige explained, “there are displays encompassing every sector — with descriptions understandable by Scientologists and non- Scientologists alike. They both enlighten and generate new activities: from salvaging lives from illiteracy, addiction [Narconon] and crime; to programs for opening new groups to handle community ruins [sic]. It also includes everything to establish new missions, groups and VM chapters.” With such displays, the answer to questions on Scientology, LRH Admin Tech or LRH himself becomes just four words: Go to the org."
- "Scientology Presents Narconon Programme". Westlake Post. 30 April 1970. ""The conference presented current programs effective in alleviating drug problems. No program which employs drug or electric shock therapy was presented, as it has been discovered that groups which condone these techniques have only been pretending to be effective in drug rehabilitation", said Max Prudente, Scientology spokesman. ... "Based solely on the philosophy and tenets of Scientology, the applied religious philosophy, this programme has achieved new and dramatic breakthroughs in the field of drug rehabilitation. Its nearly 85% success ratio has earned high praise from Governors, state and federal officials and correction authorities across the U.S., " Prudente said."
- Reitman, Janet (2011). "The Celebrity Strategy" (Hardback). Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-618-88302-8. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "The use of social reform groups to spread L. Ron Hubbard's ideas had long been an integral part of Scientology, and was in fact one of the original objectives of the Guardian's Office. Since the late 1960s, the church has disseminated its philosophy through a number of organizations with hidden ties to Scientology, notably Narconon, a program that treats drug addiction and promotes Hubbard's holistic detoxification regimen, the Purification Rundown." More than one of
- Kyle Smith (20 April 2007). "DON'T BE TRICKED BY $CI-FI TOM-FOOLERY". New York Post. "Those who want a tan from his celebrity glow will urge a fair hearing for his quackery. Obscure City Councilman Hiram Monserrate suddenly finds himself talked about after issuing a proclamation of huzzahs for L. Ron Hubbard. Three: The Ground Zero maladies are so baffling that workers will try anything. Anyone who feels better will credit any placebo at hand - whether Cruise or the Easter Bunny. In 1991, Time called Scientology's anti-drug program "Narconon" a "vehicle for drawing addicts into the cult" - which the magazine said "invented hundreds of goods and services for which members are urged to give up 'donations' " - such as $1,250 for advice on "moving swiftly up the Bridge" of enlightenment. That's New Age techno-gobbledygook for advice on buying swiftly up the Bridge of Brooklyn. Scientology fronts such as the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project - its Web site immediately recognizable as the work of Hubbardites by its logo, which looks like the cover of a Robert Heinlein paperback from 1971 - hint that their gimmicks might possibly interest anyone dreaming of weight loss, higher I.Q. or freedom from addiction. And you might be extra-specially interested if you've faced heart disease, cancer, Agent Orange or Chernobyl. As Mayor Bloomberg put it, Scientology "is not science." Nope. It's science fiction."
- Richard Behar (6 May 1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". TIME Magazine. "DRUG TREATMENT. Hubbard's purification treatments are the mainstay of Narconon, a Scientology-run chain of 33 alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers -- some in prisons under the name "Criminon" -- in 12 countries. Narconon, a classic vehicle for drawing addicts into the cult, now plans to open what it calls the world's largest treatment center, a 1,400-bed facility on an Indian reservation near Newkirk, Okla. (pop. 2,400). At a 1989 ceremony in Newkirk, the Association for Better Living and Education presented Narconon a check for $200,000 and a study praising its work. The association turned out to be part of Scientology itself. Today the town is battling to keep out the cult, which has fought back through such tactics as sending private detectives to snoop on the mayor and the local newspaper publisher."
- Malcolm Knox (September 2009). "Only Itself to Blame: The Church of Scientology". The Monthly. Retrieved 14 September 2012. "Though a master in using the media and the courts to protect and project its image, Scientology has not always been so ostentatious in its proselytising. The church is an umbrella for subsidiary groups, such as ... Narconon... these groups have been criticised for appearing at Australian schools, community open days, and even having police distribute their material, without declaring their Scientology background. In January 2007, NSW police withdrew anti-drug pamphlets from stations in the Hunter region when it was discovered they were provided by Scientologists. ... Drug Free Ambassadors were handing out their pamphlets on the Gold Coast last ‘schoolies’ week’"
- "What Germans think about their Narconon". Der Spiegel. 21 October 1991. "The enterprising Scientology sect increases its profits thanks to the misery of addicts. The cover organization, Narconon, offers drug rehabilitation therapy that, in the opinion of experts and doctors in the field, is not only useless but also dangerous. ... Narconon closely follows the motto of the Scientology sect's founder, Lafayette Ron Hubbard, who died in 1986 at the age of 74. The discoverer of this pseudo-scientific hocus pocus, gave this advice: Make money, make more money, make other people make money. The disciples at Narconon follow this order. It is officially an independent subsidiary of Scientology. The Scientologists have developed countless supposedly humanitarian initiatives around their church. One example is the commission for the violations of psychiatry against human rights. Another is the organization for the furthering of religious tolerance and interhuman relations. In fact all these activities, like the drug rehabilitation program, are only to further the fame and increase the paying followers of the sect."
- Marina Hyde (19 December 2008). "G2: Lost in showbiz: Adolf Hitler: My Part in His Downfall, by Tom Cruise". The Guardian. "He claims to have "personally - personally! - helped hundreds of people get off drugs" using Scientology's preposterous sauna-based detox programme, Narconon. And in the course of interviews on this subject, he is given to denouncing methadone largely on the basis that it was originally called adolphine after Adolf Hitler. That this is an urban myth only peddled by the Church of Scientology is by-the-by. The point is: do not attempt to justify your use of psychiatric drugs or the invasion of Poland, or he will take you down."
- "CRUISE BATTLES JOURNALIST OVER SCIENTOLOGY BOASTS". World Entertainment News Network. 3 May 2005. "Hollywood hunk TOM CRUISE battled a German journalist over his controversial Scientology religion recently, claiming the faith ran the world's most successful drug rehabilitation program. ... When asked if Cruise had an official role to recruit new Scientologists, the MINORITY REPORT heart-throb replied, "I'm a helper. For instance, I myself have helped hundreds of people get off drugs. "In Scientology, we have the only successful drug rehabilitation program in the world. It's called Narconon." The Spiegel reporter quickly countered, "That's not correct. Yours is never mentioned among the recognised detox programs." Defiant Cruise replied, "You don't understand what I am saying. It's a statistically proven fact that there is only one successful drug rehabilitation program in the world. Period." The journalist answered, "With all due respect, we doubt that", before adding "Scientology is not considered a religion there (Germany), but rather an exploitative cult with totalitarian tendencies". After the reporter labelled Scientology a "cult", Cruise became defensive. He said, "We've won over 50 court cases in Germany. And it's not true that everyone in Germany supports that line against us. "A minority wants to hate - okay. For me, it's connected with intolerance.""
- Dana Goodyear (14 January 2008). "Letter from California / Château Scientology / Inside the Church’s Celebrity Centre". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 September 2012. "Stephen Kent, a sociologist at the University of Alberta who specializes in alternative religions and has interviewed many former Scientologists"
- "Narconon International Contact Info." Narconon. Retrieved on 25 December 2010. "Narconon International 4652 Hollywood Boulevard Hollywood, CA 90027 ."
- "Narconon license agreement". Narconon International. Association for Better Living and Education. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005.
- "NARCONON to give awards". The Phoenix Gazette. 19 May 1970. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "General information regarding the technology of Scientology, upon which NARCONON is based, can be secured from the Institute of Applied Philosophy"
- "The Four Basic Social Programs". The Hawaiian-American. 17 December 1975. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "We talked with Rev. Diana Harris, Pastor of the Church of Scientology of Hawaii ... and she gave us a complete background on the church's social programs for those in need in our community. ... Another community program the church offers is Narconon - a program designed to assist persons to get off drugs and to keep off drugs. The program was utilized in Oahu State Prison for awhile and enjoyed a very high rate of success, according to Pastor Harris. They [Scientology] have been asked to consider re-introducing the program to the prison at a later date."
- Farley, Robert (30 March 2003). "Detox center seeks acceptance". St Petersburg Times. "When Narconon opened its Chilocco facility in 1991, the Oklahoma Board of Mental Health issued a blistering assessment in denying its application for certification. "There is no credible evidence establishing the effectiveness of the Narconon program to its patients," the board concluded. It attacked the program as medically unsafe; dismissed the sauna program as unproven; and criticized Narconon for inappropriately taking some patients off prescribed psychiatric medication."
- "30 arrested in Paris crackdown on Scientologists". Agence France-Presse. 14 January 1992. "About 30 Scientologists were arrested -- and 19 of them later indicted -- between May and October 1990 on charges of fraud, conspiracy to defraud and the illegal practice of medicine following the 1988 suicide of a church member in Lyon, eastern France. ... The sect has often found itself in trouble with officialdom the world over, accused of defrauding and brainwashing followers and, in France, of quackery at its illegal anti-drug clinics called "Narconon.""
- Abgrall, Jean-Marie (2001). Healing Or Stealing?: Medical Charlatans in the New Age. p. 193. ISBN 1-892941-51-1. Retrieved 24 September 2012. "Narconon, a subsidiary of Scientology, and the association “Yes to Life, No to Drugs” have also made a specialty of the fight against drugs and treating drug addicts. ... Drug addicts are just one of the Scientologists’ targets for recruitment. The offer of care and healing through techniques derived from dianetics is only a come-on. The detoxification of the patient by means of “dianetics purification” is more a matter of manipulation, through the general weakening that it causes; it is a way of brainwashing the subject. Frequently convicted for illegal practice of medicine, violence, fraud and slander, the Scientologists have more and more trouble getting people to accept their techniques as effective health measures, as they like to claim. They recommend their purification processes to eliminate X-rays and nuclear radiation, and to treat goiter and warts, hypertension and psoriasis, hemorrhoids and myopia. . . why would anyone find that hard to swallow? Scientology has built a library of several hundreds of volumes of writings exalting the effects of purification, and its disciples spew propaganda based on irresponsible medical writings by doctors who are more interested in the support provided by Scientology than in their patients’ well-being. On the other hand, responsible scientific reviews have long since “eliminated” dianetics and purification from the lists of therapies — relegating them to the great bazaar of medical fraud. ... Medical charlatans do not base their claims on scientific proof but, quite to the contrary, on peremptory assertions — the kind of assertions that they challenge when they come out of the mouths of those who defend “real” medicine."
- Asimov, Nanette (2 October 2004). "Church's drug program flunks S.F. test / Panel of experts finds Scientology's Narconon lectures outdated, inaccurate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "The program, Narconon Drug Prevention & Education, "often exemplifies the outdated, non-evidence-based and sometimes factually inaccurate approach, which has not served students well for decades," concluded Steve Heilig, director of health and education for the San Francisco Medical Society. In his letter to Trish Bascom, director of health programs for the San Francisco Unified School District, Heilig said five independent experts in the field of drug abuse had helped him evaluate Narconon's curriculum. ... "One of our reviewers opined that 'this (curriculum) reads like a high school science paper pieced together from the Internet, and not very well at that,' " Heilig wrote Bascom. "Another wrote that 'my comments will be brief, as this proposal hardly merits detailed analysis.' Another stated, 'As a parent, I would not want my child to participate in this kind of 'education.' " Heilig's team evaluated Narconon against a recent study by Rodney Skager, a professor emeritus at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, describing what good anti-drug programs should offer students. "We concurred that ... the Narconon materials focus on some topics of lesser importance to the exclusion of best knowledge and practices," Heilig wrote, and that the curriculum contained "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling.""
- Asimov, Nanette (27 March 2005). "Doctors back schools dropping flawed antidrug program". San Francisco Chronicle. "The California Medical Association has declared unanimous support for school districts that have dropped Narconon and other "factually inaccurate approaches" to antidrug instruction from their classrooms, and will urge the American Medical Association to do the same. Nearly 500 California doctors also endorsed "scientifically based drug education in California schools""
- "Families question Scientology-linked drug rehab after recent deaths". NBC Rock Center. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Town Welcomes, Then Questions a Drug Project". New York Times (The New York Times Company). 17 July 1989. p. A13.
- A Conversation with David Miscavige. with Ted Koppel. 14 February 1992. ABC News Nightline. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZSjVOXAb8U. "DAVID MISCAVIGE: You want... you know, if you... I could have been on here two years ago and you would have brought something up, and it's over now. There have been these cases, but in the end, we come out on top, and I'm telling you, Ted, there are a group of people on this planet who find us to be a threat to their existence, and they will do everything in their power to stop us. And that is the mental health field. I didn't pick a war with them. You can ask them if they feel this way, and they will tell you that."
- Klotter, Julie (2007). "Hubbard's Drug Rehabilitation Program". Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- Berg, Rigmor C. (September 2008). A brief summary and evaluation of the evidence base for Narconon as drug prevention intervention (PDF). Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Centre for the Health Services. pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-82-8121-214-5. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Ernst, E (17 August 2012). "Scientology detox programmes: expensive and unproven". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Mieszkowski, Katharine (1 July 2005). "Scientology’s war on psychiatry". Salon.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Narconon's discredited teachings include the pronouncements that drugs burn up the body's vitamins and minerals, that these vitamin deficiencies cause pain (which prompts more drug use), that rapid vitamin and nutrient losses cause the "munchies" among pot smokers, and that drugs build up in fat tissue and spur flashbacks and a hunger for more drugs. "This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate," the study found. This February, the California State Superintendent recommended a ban on Narconon in California schools, and San Francisco and Los Angeles school districts have indeed outlawed Narconon." More than one of
- California Healthy Kids Resource Center; Deborah Wood, Ph.D. (January 2005). Narconon Drug Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation (Report). California, US: California Department of Education / California Department of Public Health. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/at/narcononevaluation.asp. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Some drug-related information presented in the NDAP [Narconon] and supplementary resources — although aligned with the Narconon drug rehabilitation methodology — does not reflect accurate, widely accepted medical and scientific evidence. Some information is misleading because it is overstated or a distinction between drug use and abuse is lacking. ... This information reflects hypothesized processes of drug metabolism, bioavailability, and psychoactive impact, and is the premise for the Narconon detoxification regimen. This theoretical information does not reflect current evidence that is widely accepted and recognized as medically and scientifically accurate. ... Inaccuracies and misleading inferences were not limited to a single material, but were evident in NDAP elementary, middle and high school presentation outlines and delivery scripts and in the supplementary drug prevention materials available to schools ... Narconon program materials were independently reviewed by fourteen reviewers and three CHKRC staff. Reviewers included five doctors (M.D.s), four board certified in pediatrics and adolescent medicine and/or with specific expertise in addiction and substance abuse; two doctors (Ph.Ds) with expertise in child and adolescent development; one doctor (Ph.D.) with expertise in prevention research and program evaluation of substance abuse programs. Reviewers also included nine school health education specialists (with teaching credentials and/or masters level health or education degrees) including elementary, middle, and high school teachers, university faculty, and school district/county office of education tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse prevention education coordinators."
- (German) "Scientology: Bescheidene Bilanz". Der Speigel. 5 August 1996. Retrieved 14 September 2012. "Drogenexperten halten jedoch auch die jüngsten Zahlen von Narconon für "schlicht erlogen"."[source needs translation]
- Urban, Hugh (2011). "The 'Cult of All Cults'?" (Hardcover). The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion. Princeton University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-691-14608-9. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Although Cruise would divorce Rogers just a few years later, he quickly became Scientology's most outspoken and controversial supporter. Among other things, Cruise claims that Hubbard's technology helped him overcome dyslexia and that Narconon is the only successful drug rehabilitation program in the world." More than one of
- "Scientology And It's [[[sic]]] Applications". Mercer Island Reporter. 8 April 1971. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "Scientology claims to have the only workable technology to find the source of a problem and eradicate it. ... While everyone is looking for a solution to drug abuse, Scientologists have one and use it." Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
- Narconon The Origins of the Narconon Program (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Narconon "L. Ron Hubbard and the Narconon program" (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Drolet, Eve (22 January 1970). "Dianetics Guarantees Victory Over Drugs". Honolunu Advertiser. p. A-2. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "The Reverend John W. Elliott, senior minister of the Church of Scientology and chairman of its Drug Abuse Prevention team, announces that a technique called Dianetic Counselling has completely cured 30 out of 30 persons who came to his group for help. "Dianetic Counselling", says Elliot, "is a new technology which has resolved not only the craving for drugs, but also the after-effects. This will revolutionize the whole area of drug abuse, and the threat it poses to the mental and physical health of the State". ... Elliot feels the vast majority of people have some form of psychosomatic illness. Hay fever, asthma and arthritis are listed in this category by Elliot who says that Dianetics resolves all such problems"
- Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (25 June 1990). "The Courting of Celebrities". Los Angeles Times. p. A18:5. Retrieved 6 June 2006. Additional convenience link at CMU.edu.
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- Crouch, Edmund A. C.; Laura C. Green (October 2007). "Comment on "Persistent organic pollutants in 9/11 world trade center rescue workers: Reduction following detoxification" by James Dahlgren, Marie Cecchini, Harpreet Takhar, and Olaf Paepke [Chemosphere 69/8 (2007) 1320–1325]". Chemosphere 69 (8): 1330–1332. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.05.098. PMID 17692360.
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- Marie Price "House nixes honor for substance-abuse facility: The treatment center sparks controversy because of its ties to Scientology" Tulsa World 3 May 2003 pg A19
- United States vs. Mary Sue Hubbard et al., 493 F. Supp. 209, (D.D.C. 1979) (hosted by the Lisa McPherson Trust)
- Charles Rusnell Experts challenge claims of Scientology's sweat-it-out treatment for addicts The Edmonton Journal, 23 May 2006 pg. A2
- Alan McEwen "Scientology-link group is banned", Edinburgh Evening News, 18 March 2004 (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Bracchi, Paul (13 June 1994). "Secret of a drugs 'cure' / Scientology: The Inside Story". Evening Argus. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Asked if it was simply a "front" organisation to recruit people into the cult, Mr wood insisted: "I don't know of many organisations more up-front than the Church of Scientology. ... I know beyond doubt that Narconon does not recruit for nor promote the Church of Scientology and I know that subject is not mentioned nor included in the Narconon syllabus". He said "no Church of Scientology staff members work for Narconon". A Narconon leaflet lists two names with telephone numbers. One is Mr Wood. The other is Peter Mansell - public affairs officer at the national headquarters of Scientology at Saint Hill, East Grinstead. ... We have a copy of the Narconon Technical Line-Up, the final of which led straight to the doors of the cult. The message on the chart reads: "Route to nearest Org (Scientology organisation) for further services if individual so desires." The process is summed up in Narconon News. The headline and slogans speak for themselves: "Narconon is freeing people from crime and drug abuse and starting them up Ron's bridge to total freedom. Who can you start across that bridge.""
- Mallia, Joseph (3 March 1998). "Scientology reaches into schools through Narconon". Inside the Church of Scientology. Boston Herald. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- Jim MacLaughlin and Andrew Gully "Church of Scientology probes Herald reporter - Investigation follows pattern of harassment" Boston Herald 19 March 1998 Pg. 004
- "Narconon Information Center of Montreal". Retrieved 7 October 2006. "© Copyright 2006 Lafleche Dumais & Richard Kelly Narconon FSM."
- Marc Sommer "Addiction Specialists Criticize Detoxification Program" Buffalo News 1 February 2005, pg A6
- Woolsley, Leigh (6 November 2005). "Case for the Cure". Tulsa World.
- Folke Sjoqvist (26 November 1996). Expert advice on Narconon given to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (Report). The National Board of Health and Welfare.
- Findings of Fact regarding the Narconon-Chilocco Application For Certification by the Board of Mental Health, State of Oklahoma, 13 December 1991
- Combs, Pete (1 October 2012). "Narconon Debunked by its own Expert". WBS Radio. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Center for Human Reliability Studies (May 2007). Drug Retention Times (Report). U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security (Office of Security Policy). p. 4. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/908420-mhlTOr/908420.pdf. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Gille A, Bodor ET, Ahmed K, Offermanns S (2008). "Nicotinic acid: pharmacological effects and mechanism of action". Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 48: 79–106. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094746. PMID 17705685.
- Drexel, Heinz (1 December 2009). "Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?". Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 23 (6): 687–692. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00745.x. Retrieved 4 October 2012. "Nicotinic acid / Nicotinic acid has some hybrid position between triglyceride lowering and cholesterol-lowering drugs. The compound decreases both LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by about 15 and 25%, respectively (Table II). In addition it is the strongest HDL raising drug in clinical use at the moment. Moreover, it is the only lipid-lowering drug that considerably lowers lipoprotein(a). There is some limited evidence that nicotinic acid alone is beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events. In addition, there is accumulating evidence from angiographic and ultrasound trials that the combination of nicotinic acid with statins is beneficial especially in patients with low HDL-cholesterol. However, no large-scale trials with hard endpoints have been completed. Two such trials are currently underway."
- "First Step Program / The useful tool to help others be drug free, at your disposal / What is the Drug Bomb?". Narconon. ""Drug Bomb" consists of: 1000mg of [niacin]. This helps counteract any mental disturbance. ... The formula should be given four times a day."
- "Use of Niacin in Attempts to Defeat Urine Drug Testing --- Five States, January--September 2006". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), April 20, 2007. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 20 April 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2012. "Niacin is well established as a medical treatment for hyperlipidemia (3) and available by prescription in 50-mg to 500-mg tablets or capsules. The initial recommended therapeutic daily dose is 100 mg, three times a day, titrated to a maximum daily dose of 1,000 mg (4). Extended-release niacin tablets and capsules (at 125 mg--1,000 mg) also are available by prescription, usually in a dose of 500 mg at bedtime, to a maximum of 2,000 mg per day. The therapeutic use of niacin often is limited by dermatologic and gastrointestinal ADRs (e.g., tachycardia, flushing, rash, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain). These effects usually are self-limited and are more common with dosages >1,000 mg per day, but can occur at any dose. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but serious adverse effect, usually associated with chronic use (5)."
- Keith Parker; Laurence Brunton; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Lazo, John S.; Gilman, Alfred (2006). Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-142280-3.
- Rakela J, Lange SM, Ludwig J, Baldus WP (1985). "Fulminant hepatitis: Mayo Clinic experience with 34 cases". Mayo Clin. Proc. 60 (5): 289–92. PMID 3921780.
- Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV, et al. (2002). "Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (12): 947–54. PMID 12484709.
- "Scientologist-run rehab centre ordered closed in Quebec". CBC News. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "The safety of over-the-counter niacin. A randomized placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN18054903]". BMC Clinical Pharmacology 3 (4). 2003. doi:10.1186/1472-6904-3-4. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Janet Reitman Inside Scientology Rolling Stone, Issue 995. 9 March 2006.
- "The Narconon Therapeutic Training Routine course". Narconon Trois-Rivièrs website. Narconon Trois-Rivièrs. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Church of Scientology The Fundamental Skills of Auditing: Hubbard Professional TR Course (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Hubbard, Narconon Withdrawal Specialist Course. Book 4b, 2004c edition. (pg. 221-236) Narconon Publication. Table of contents
- Hubbard, Narconon Communication & Perception Course Book 4a, 2004 edition. (pg. 447-482) Narconon Publication
- Joseph Mallia "Inside the Church of Scientology; Sacred teachings not secret anymore" Boston Herald 4 March 1998 pg. 025
- "Results of the Narconon Program". www.narconon.org. Narconon International. Retrieved 1 February 2012. "The Narconon Program has one of the highest success rates in the field of drug rehabilitation, with outside studies showing 75% of the graduates going on to lead stable, ethical, productive drug-free lives."
- Special Committee on Non-Medical Use of Drugs: Evidence (Report). Parliament of Canada (37th PARLIAMENT, 1st SESSION). 30 May 2002. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=519415&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=1#T1650. "Mr. Brad Melnychuk [(Executive Director, Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE Canada))]: You asked if we'd spoken or met with researchers coming up with this information. I personally have not. I also cannot say whether or not any staff from Narconon across the globe—because we have Narconons all over—have done that. I would tend to question it, based on the fact that our Narconons are improving, and some of them are very close to a 100% success rate."
- Peter Gerdman (1 May 1981). Utvärderingen av Narconon del 1: En studie om och med en länkrörelse bland drogmissbrukare i Stockholm (Swedish page scans). Retrieved 9 September 2006. (Scans hosted by David Touretzky)
- Shelby Oppel "School panel rejects anti-drug program" Saint Petersburg Times 13 April 1999
- Cavanagh, Sean (2 March 2005). Education Week 24 (25): 4.
- "Schools urged to drop antidrug program", The San Francisco Chronicle, 23 February 2005. (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- "Revealed: how Scientologists infiltrated Britain's schools". The Sunday Times (UK). 7 January 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- "Schools alert on drugs group". Church Times. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Do Sport - Be Drug Free!". Challenge UK; The Newsletter of Narconon United Kingdom. 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012. "Narconon’s ensuing talks in primary schools were supported by donations from the likes of John Lewis, Coutts, M&S, Vintners and Ford, and claimed the support of ex-footballer and anti-drugs campaigner Paul Canoville. Over 2,000 children a year throughout the borough of Newham attended the talks provided by the Sussex-based group."
- "Cult Corner". Private Eye. 24 August 2012. p. 14. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Thousands of primary school kids taught by secret scientologists". The Sun. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- Richard Lennox; Marie Cecchini (2008). "The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial". Retrieved 27 June 2011. Lennox and Cecchini's peer-reviewed paper in the journal Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy presenting the findings of a research study conducted with approximately 1,000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high-school students to test Narconon International’s high-school curriculum efficacy. They evaluated students using the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three time periods: baseline, one month later, and six-month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. The study concluded that at six-month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested; that the strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana; that there were significant reductions measured for alcohol and amphetamines; that the program produced changes in knowledge, attitudes and perception of risk; and that the eight-module Narconon curriculum had thorough grounding in substance abuse aetiology and prevention theory, and reduced drug use among youths.
- "Tax declaration ABLE 2007" (PDF). August 2008. p. 37. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012. "ABLE funded a multi-year study of the delivery of the Narconon drug Education curriculum to high school students in Hawaii and Oklahoma, which was completed and written up in 2007."
- Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 September 2003). "Scientology: Religion or racket?". Marburg Journal of Religion 8 (1). Retrieved 5 September 2012. "For Scientology, using fronts is one way of obtaining funds from government and charity sources (Mallia, 1998c). ... The so-called drug rehabilitation program known as Narconon has been an incredibly profitable front through federal grants and corporate donations (Mallia, 1998c). Fronts may help one another look respectable and make more money. Thus, the Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) may come out in support of Narconon"
- Catt, David (11 June 2008). "Further request for clarification". Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 3 (8). doi:10.1186/1747-597X-3-8. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "In Table 9, item D22 shows that a greater percentage of the control group feel they can easily resist pressures to take drugs than the drug education group (78.8% compared with 74.5%). The text on page 11 of the report states that “students who received the curriculum were more likely to say they could resist pressures to use drugs than those who did not receive the program”. Could I ask the authors to account for this seeming contradiction?"
- County Court of Dijon: judgment of 9 January 1987 (No 118-87)
- Report of LA COMMISSION D'ENQUÊTE SUR LES SECTES (Board of Inquiry into Cults) (Report). ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE. 22 December 1995. http://www.cftf.com/french/Les_Sectes_en_France/cults.html. "Le Tribunal de grande instance de Dijon a, par ailleurs, été amené, dans un jugement du 9 janvier 1987 (no 118-87), à condamner le directeur-adjoint du centre Narconon de Grangey-sur-Ource pour non assistance à personne en danger. Ce centre, créé par l'Eglise de Scientologie, propose des cures de désintoxication en appliquant les méthodes de Ron Hubbard, à savoir la procédure de " purification " , fondée principalement sur plusieurs heures de sauna par jour, des " auditions " et une absorption importante de vitamines. En l'espèce, la victime était depuis longtemps soignée pour épilepsie et s'était adressée à cet organisme car elle souhaitait se " libérer des médicaments " . Le centre l'a, sans examen médical préalable, placée dans une chambre de " sevrage " . Or, les expertises médicales ont montré que le décès était dû à " un état de mal épileptique dû à l'absence de traitement suffisant à son début et de traitement d'urgence pendant l'état de mal. " Le jugement ne laisse aucun doute sur la responsabilité du centre : " Que si Jocelyne Dorfmann avait pris la décision de réduire sa consommation médicamenteuse, puis de l'interrompre au risque de compromettre son état de santé, les prévenus ne l'ont à aucun moment prévenue de la nécessité d'un examen médical d'admission, lequel aurait vraisemblablement permis de contre-indiquer la cure de sevrage ; qu'il est inconcevable que la victime ait pu être acceptée sans cet examen et sans entretien sérieux malgré ses déclarations sur son état de santé et son épilepsie, alors que les prévenus ont reconnu savoir qu'en cas de maladie grave, le traitement médical ne devait pas souffrir d'interruption ; " Que si lors de la survenue de la première crise, les prévenus ont pu se méprendre sur la nature exacte, la répétition des crises et leur intensité croissante devaient leur évoquer une origine distincte d'un état de manque qui, selon les médecins experts, ne peut être confondu avec un état épileptique ; " Qu'ils n'ont pas jugé utile de demander directement à la victime, alors qu'elle était encore consciente, si ces manifestations pouvaient correspondre aux crises d'épilepsie auxquelles elle avait fait allusion ou de faire appel au médecin le plus proche. (...) " --- Translation --- The County Court of Dijon, in addition, was brought, in a judgement of January 9, 1987 (No 118-87), to condemn the director-assistant of the Narconon center of Grangey- on-Ource for nonassistance to someone in danger. This center, created by the Church of Scientology, proposes detoxification by applying the methods of Ron Hubbard, namely the procedure of "purification," based mainly on several hours of sauna per day, "auditions," and a significant absorption of vitamins. In this case, the victim had been in long-term treatment for epilepsy and had addressed this organization because she wished "to be released from drugs." The center A, without preliminary medical examination, placed her in a "weaning" room. However, the medical experts showed that her death was due to "an epileptic seizure due to the absence of sufficient treatment at its beginning and of emergency treatment during the seizure." The judgement does not leave any doubt about the responsibility of the center: "That if Jocelyne Dorfmann had made the decision to reduce her consumption of medication, then to stop it with the risk of compromising her health, the defendants had not at any time prevented it of the need for a medical examination of admission, which would have probably made it possible to contra-indicate the cure of weaning; that it is inconceivable that the victim could be accepted without this examination and serious treatment in spite of her declarations as to her health and her epilepsy, whereas the defendants admitted knowing that in the event of serious illness, medical treatment was not to suffer from interruption; "That if at the time the first crisis occurred, the defendants could mistake its exact nature, the repetition of the crises and their increasing intensity were to evoke to them an origin distinct from a state of lack which, according to medical experts, cannot be confused with an epileptic state; "That they did not consider it useful to directly ask the victim, while she was still conscious, if these demonstrations could correspond to the epileptic fits to which she had referred or to call upon the nearest doctor (...)""
- Biglia, Andrea (20 February 1995). "Tragedia nella lotta alla droga [Tragedy while fighting drugs]". Corriere della Sera.
- (Italian) "Una peritonite curata in ritardo ha ucciso la donna in comunità". la Repubblica (in Italian). 11 October 2002. Retrieved 18 September 2012. [source needs translation]
- Fleischer, Jodie (2 October 2012). "State investigates Narconon Georgia after Channel 2 reveals new evidence / Investigation sparked after death at Scientology-linked facility". wsbtv.com / Channel 2 (TV news). Retrieved 3 October 2012. "ATLANTA — A Georgia drug rehab program with ties to the Church of Scientology is now under a state investigation after Channel 2 Action News showed inspectors new evidence. … a Channel 2 investigation found an outpatient program that posed as inpatient to bring in more money and showed state leaders evidence they have missed for a decade. … sparking new questions about whether Narconon of Georgia is running an illegal residential treatment program."
- "Patrick W. "Ricko" Desmond (1980-2008)". findagrave.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012. "Patrick W. Desmond died of a heroin drug overdose after receiving treatment at a Scientology drug rehab facility Narconon in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Narconon of Georgia, Narconon International, and the Narconon medical director Lisa Carolina Robbins, M.D."
- Christian Boone (7 October 2012). "Norcross drug facility under new scrutiny". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 5 October 2012. "Desmond’s death four years ago has focused attention on a decade’s worth of state investigations of the Norcross-based drug treatment program. Repeatedly, the state fielded complaints that Narconon, while licensed only for outpatient care, was illegally operating a residential facility."
- Fleischer, Jodie (1 October 2012). "2 Investigates: Patient death at Georgia Narconon / Death raises about questions about Scientology-linked program's license". wsbtv.com / Channel 2 (TV news). Retrieved 3 October 2012. "Colleen Desmond toured the classrooms in Norcross and visited the apartments at One Sovereign Place off Roswell Road. "We were assured all along the line, this was an inpatient situation," Desmond said. … The treatment plan was espoused by Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard. / Desmond's Death / Desmond told Fleischer that at the time, she didn't know anything about that plan, or that her son Patrick was drinking and doing drugs with students and staff in those apartments."
- Leflore, Jeanne (7 August 2012). "DA: Narconon Arrowhead under investigation by OKLA Dept. of Mental Health after four deaths". McAlester New Capital. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Narconon Arrowhead sued by parents of patient who died while in treatment". KJRH-TV. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Rehab facility linked to Scientology blamed for deaths of three patients who underwent 'five hours a day in sauna and mega doses of vitamins'". Daily Mail. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Deaths at Scientology drug treatment program Narconon bring investigation". Tampa Bay Times. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Scientology rehab center under fire after string of deaths". New York Daily News. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "Stacy Dawn Murphy, 20, who died July 19 at Narconon Arrowhead in Canadian, Okla. ... Hillary Holten, 21, was found dead at Narconon Arrowhead in April, and Gabriel Graves, 32, died there last October, the Muskogee Phoenix reported. Another patient, 28-year-old Kaysie Dianne Werninck, died there in 2009."
- "Deaths bring probe of Narconon facility in Oklahoma". Tulsa World. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Discovery claimed in Narconon deaths". Muskogee Phoenix. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Narconon has been under investigation since the July 19 death of Murphy, 20, of Owasso. The investigation has expanded to include three other deaths: Hillary Holten, 21, of Carr, who was found dead at Narconon Arrowhead in April; Graves, 32, who died at the facility in October; and the 2009 death of Kaysie Dianne Werninck, 28, according to Pittsburg County Sheriff Joel Kerns."
- ""Somethings terribly wrong there" says father of woman who died at Narconon Arrowhead". McAlester News Capital. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "State Agency Inspecting Narconon". Daily Oklahoman. 21 October 1992. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Newkirk Center OK'd; Mooreland Bid Axed". The Oklahoman. 26 January 1989. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Narconon Claims It's Not Subject to State Regulation". Daily Oklahoman. 11 July 1990. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Narconon Drug Center will Appeal Certification Ruling". Durant (OK) Daily Democrat. 15 December 1991. p. 10-A. Retrieved 6 September 2012. "Mental Health department staff member Dennis Lewelling testified at the hearing that in studying records of the center, he could find no evidence that drug and alcohol abuse education was a part of the program."
- "Grand Opening: Narconon Chilocco New Life Center". Narconon Chilocco. 29 June 1990. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Drug Center Controversy Continues". Durant Daily Democrat, The. 17 December 1991. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- Narconon International v. Oklahoma Board Of Mental Health & Substance Abuse (SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA 07/10/1992). Text
- Narconon International, Inc. v. Anderson (SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA 07/12/1991). Text
- Narconon International, Inc. v. Anderson (SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA). Text
- "Editor Risks Jail Rather Than Pay Narconon Court Costs". The Associated Press. 4 July 1992. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Narconon-Chilocco Drug Treatment Plant May Be Part Of Notorious Religious Cult". Newkirk Herald Journal. 27 April 1989. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Scientology's Oklahoma Nemesis, Bob Lobsinger: "They Lied Every Step of the Way"". Village Voice, The. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012. "They sent one guy around trying to talk to the mayor. He knew who the mayor's kid was, somehow. So he followed the kid into the library and told him he need to talk to his dad. Then he gave him his card," Lobsinger says. "It was just to let the mayor know they knew where his kid was."
- Joel Sappell; Robert W. Welkos (29 June 1990). "On the Offensive Against an Array of Suspected Foes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 September 2012. "People who claim that I have conducted an improper investigation against them probably have so many things to hide," said Ingram. Church lawyer Cooley backed the investigator, saying: "I know of no impropriety that has ever been engaged in by Mr. Ingram or any other (private investigator) for the church. Mr. Ingram has done nothing wrong." ... Scientology attorneys in September mailed an "open letter" to many of Newkirk's 2,500 residents announcing that Ingram had been hired to investigate Narconon's adversaries. ... Ingram tracked down the mayor's 12-year-old son at the local public library, handed him a business card and told the boy to have his father call, Lobsinger said. "It was just a subtle bit of intimidation," he said. "It certainly did not do the mother much good. She was very unnerved." ... "They have a standard pattern," Bilger said of the Scientologists. "They try to be very aggressive. They try to intimidate. This is not the kind of atmosphere we need in the Newkirk community. . . . This tells me they are far from being harmless."
- "New drug clinic splinters Oklahoma town / Oklahoma residents fear being labeled a 'cult town'". The Dallas Morning News. 30 July 1989. Retrieved 5 September 2012. "several residents declined to be quoted, apparently fearing retribution from an organisation that remains mysterious to them. Some said fears were heightened when the treatment center hired a private investigator from Stillwater, Okla. to help them identify the participants in what Narconon's Smith described as a "whispering campaign"."
- "Narconon Gets State Mental Health Exemption". Sunday Oklahoman. 15 August 1992. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "PUBLIC INFORMATION ALERT". Oklahoma Gazette. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "DA: Narconon Arrowhead under investigation by OKLA Dept. of Mental Health after four deaths". McAlester News-Capital. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "In and [sic] earlier case, Narconon Arrowhead settled a lawsuit filed by the parents of Kaysie Dianne Werninck, 28, of St. Augustine Florida who died “as a result of the defendant’s gross negligence,”on 3 March 2009, according to the lawsuit."
- Wade, Jarrel (18 August 2012). "Letter recounts death at Narconon Arrowhead". Tulsa World. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "In his month there, he describes his observations about the death of fellow Narconon student Gabriel Graves. "I saw the 'nurse' of the facility crying, walking out of (redacted) room with another staffer," the complainant said about his experience on Oct. 26, the day records show Graves died. "I stood there, shocked and scared. ... It was, however, hinted to us that he may have died of a drug overdose because we were told by one of the staff that came to brief us that we might 'end up like him.' " Graves' autopsy report lists his cause and manner of death as undetermined and unknown, records show. "It should be noted that while I was there the use and distribution of drugs by 'students' ... and staff was rampant," the complainant wrote to Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services officials. "I was asked on numerous occasions if I wanted any drugs, but since I do not do drugs, I declined. I was offered many different types of drugs, ones I had never even heard of. By observation, no one was concerned about the drug use at this time.""
- Peterson, Rachel (27 August 2012). "Yet another Narconon lawsuit under way". McAlester News-Capital. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "News9 OKC Narconon Arrowhead Continued Coverage". Oklahoma, US: News9. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Hillary Holten entered in Narconon's Arrowhead facility for help with her prescription drug addiction in April. Less than 48 hours later she was dead. In a lawsuit filed Thursday, attorneys say Holton had a medical condition, but employees at Narconon didn't provide her with the care, or medication she needed."
- Ortega, Tony (11 August 2012). "Scientology Drug Program Narconon's Licensing "Extremely Vulnerable" After Oklahoma Deaths, Says Insider". Village Voice. Retrieved 19 September 2012. "Rick says Stacy was sent to the "withdrawal unit" of the facility that night once it was discovered that she'd used. And it was there that her condition became grave. "There was no doctor there, no nurse on staff. There's nothing like that there," Rick says. "The staff, they're all former patients. The exception are the people who would drive you to the airport, or the security people. My understanding is that everyone there is pretty much a former patient." Rick says he doesn't hold the staff responsible for what happened. "You really can't expect them to be able to diagnose a drug overdose. I'm not upset with them. It's the direction from the top down that has to be illegal." The staff was just overmatched for what was happening, he says. "The drugs that would have saved Stacy's life were either not available or no one there knew how to administer it." Thursday morning, July 19, he heard that she was dead. "She died before 10 am. I heard about it pretty immediately," he says. His own tenure at the facility ended soon after. "I got kicked out because they found out I was going to the police and the media. That's how upside down the place is." Now, he's trying to stay sober on his own, and Rick says he is fearful after going to the authorities. "I have to pause multiple times a day because of Stacy's death. I feel sick about it. They should have saved her," he says. Instead, he fears that he'll suffer retaliation for helping with the investigation. "I'm afraid for my life.""
- "Woman "held against her will" at Narconon Arrowhead". McAlester News-Capital. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "A young woman says she was held against her will at Narconon Arrowhead and had to be rescued by Pittsburg County Sheriffs officers late Thursday night. ... Ramsey said she wanted out because of the recent death of her roommate at the facility, Stacy Dawn Murphy."
- LeFlore, Jeanne (21 July 2012). "During a planned protest of Narconon Arrowhead, the facility spends $50,000 to work on county road where rally was to take place". McAlester News-Capital. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "The road work took place in June 23 and June 24 during a planned protest by Shirley Gilliam, the mother of Gabriel Graves, a 32-year-old man who was found dead at the facility in October, and Collin Henderson, a former Narconon patient. ... Pittsburg County Commission Chairman Gene Rogers said he was contacted by Smith for help the weekend the protest was scheduled — June 23 and 24th. “He (Gary Smith) called me and said they might be having a problem with the public that weekend and he wanted help policing the area and he asked about doing overlaying (of the road),” Rogers said. Safety, not the protest, was the reason the small section of county road was resurfaced, according to the Narconon director."
- Denwalt, Dale (22 August 2012). "Deaths at drug treatment center being investigated". Daily Elk Citian. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Ivester, Tom. "Ivester plans legislation in wake of Narconon Arrowhead deaths". Senator Tom Ivester. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Oklahoma State Senator on Scientology's Drug Rehab Center: "If This Were a State Facility, It Would Already Be Shut Down". with Tony Ortega. 21 August 2012. http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/2012/08/scientology_tom_ivester.php. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Statement from Narconon International". NBC Rock Center / Narconon International. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Maune, Tess (21 September 2012). "Narconon Records Could Prove Employee Misconduct". Newson6.com / Oklahoma's Own. Retrieved 21 September 2012. "McALESTER, Oklahoma - An Oklahoma drug rehab facility is being forced to hand over records that could possibly disclose that some employees are trading drugs in exchange for sex with patients. ... During her third stint at the facility, her family claims she fell back into the grip of addiction—this time at the hands of Narconon employees. "It got to the point where she had relapsed and was being provided drugs by these two different full-time staff members in exchange for sex," said the Landmeiers' attorney, Donnie Smolen, II. Smolen said when Heather tested positive for drugs and she was kicked out of the program on March 5, 2008, no one in her family was called. Within hours of her release, Heather had overdosed in a Tulsa hotel room. She's now in a persistent vegetative state. "The facility knows how much drugs is going through that place, how much sex is going on, and they allow it to keep occurring," Smolen said. Heather's family has filed a civil lawsuit against Narconon Arrowhead. Smolen said he believes there are more cases like Heather's, but they have been swept under the rug, hidden in employee records."
- Dobuzinskis, Alex. "Proposed Narcanon rehab clinic raises concern among residents." Los Angeles Daily News, 22 July 2006. "?".
- Slutske, Reina. "Narconon Project Hearing Delayed Until January." Santa Clarita Signal, 5 October 2006. "?".
- "What use is the licensing law?". St Petersburg Times. 29 December 1981. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- Staff (6 April 2007). "Proceedings against Scientologists-run clinic instituted in Moscow". Interfax-Religion.
- "Ulyanovsk police search local branch office of Church of Scientology". Interfax-Religion. 18 April 2008.
- CATHERINE SOLYOM (18 April 2012). "Health officials shut down Narconon drug rehab centre; Treatments based on Scientology". Montreal Gazette. "Health officials have ordered the Narconon rehabilitation centre for drug addicts in Trois Rivières to evacuate and relocate its 32 residents, citing concerns over procedures that "may represent a risk to health" and a lack of doctors on staff."
- "Narconon Centre in Rivières ordered to relocate its residents". Montreal Gazette. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Scientologist-run rehab centre ordered closed in Quebec". cbcnews Montreal. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- CATHERINE SOLYOM (20 April 2012). "Inside Narconon's bizarre treatments; David love discusses his strange and painful experiences there. It was like 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest times 10,' he says". The Gazette. "Love also remembers a few who suffered when Narconon staff refused to give them their medicine. On several websites used to attract potential clients, Narconon boasts of its 70-to-75 per cent success rate and entirely drug-free program - which even excludes prescription drugs. In one case, staff members withheld insulin from a diabetic patient undergoing the sauna treatment. That young man ended up in hospital for three days, Love said. In another, it took away a patient's antidepressants. He jumped from a second-floor window in a suicide attempt."
- Andre Ahern, Director of Legal Affairs for Narconon Trois-Rivieres (11 April 2012). "Narconon Trois-Rivieres Drug Rehab True Result". PR Newswire (U.S.) / Narconon press release.
- Reynolds, Matt (18 September 2012). "Patient Sues Scientology-Based Clinic". Courthouse News Service. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "SANTA ANA, Calif. (CN) - A man tried to kill himself at a Scientology-affiliated detox clinic after its "purification rundown" took him off his prescribed medicines in a "quick taper," the man claims in court."
- Stephen Koff "Top Scientologist Arrested in Spain" St. Petersburg Times 22 November 1988 pg. 1A
- Steven Koff "Scientology leader still jailed in Spain; church charges 'persecution'" St. Petersburg Times 10 December 1988
- Ruth Gruber "75 Scientologists go on trial today // 'It should be a lively court session'" St. Petersburg Times 29 March 1989 pg. 11.A
- World Religion News Service, April 11, 2002
- "Spanish court drops charges against Scientology chief after 14 years", Agence France Presse, 11 April 2002
- "Foreign missionaries deported from Kazakhstan". BBC Monitoring Central Asia. Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, Almaty, in Russian. 29 July 2008. "Astana, 29 July: The head of the Narconon public foundation, along with several other foreign missionaries, have been deported from Kazakhstan, Kazakh Justice Minister Zagipa Baliyeva has said."
- Thomas C. Greene "Scientologist Web site rips off urban75.com: Moneyed cult gets hip in the worst way" The Register, 22 January 2001 (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Urban75 "Narconon and urban75 - the ultimate homage" (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- Lester Haines "Scientology exposé finds favour" The Register 26 January 2001 (Retrieved 4 June 2006)
- "Narconon under investigation again". WSB (AM). 2013-04-26.
- "Search warrants executed at Narconon drug rehab clinic". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 2013-04-26.
- Baca, N. "I-Team: Patients Struggle at Scientology Rehab Center". KLAS-TV Las Vegas. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- NarcononUK. "From Warrior to Emissary of Hope - Manchester's Drug Free Ambassador, NarcononUK press release". freestylejournalism.net. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Reynolds, Matt (8th of September 2012). "Patient Sues Scientology-Based Clinic". Courthous News. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Reynolds, Emma (20 September 2012). "Former drug addict sues Scientology-based clinic after he jumped off balcony following week of treatment". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Behrendt, Barbara (April 13, 2009). "Neighbors protest plans to expand Suncoast Rehabilitation Center in Spring Hill". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Sober Living in Orange County home page
- Teen-anon home page at Narconon Vista Bay
- Tarnopolsky, Noga (20 September 2012). "Church of Scientology opens center in Israel, Scientology is expanding abroad, this time to the Middle East". Mail Online. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Muir, Hugh (13 August 2012). "Diary". The Guardian. "• Who else will be sad that the Olympics is over? Well there may well be a post-Games dip among members of L Ron Hubbard's Scientology organisation. For they seemed to be doing good business around Tower Bridge, handing out literature linked to the organisation. The little booklets promised The Truth About Drugs. Neither Scientology nor L Ron are mentioned. Just his Foundation for a Drug-Free World, the web address for which sits on the Scientology website. Everyone was fair game this weekend. Even a passing 15-year-old. That sort of opportunity might not come again."
- Church of Scientology, Toronto. "Scientology Anti-Drug Campaign: Say No to Drugs, Say Yes to Life". Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- DeSio, John (31 May 2007). "The Rundown on Scientology’s Purification Rundown: What Scientologists aren't telling you about their detox program (and how much it’s costing you)". New York Press.
- Proctor, Jeff. "Scientology Base Denied By Officials". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
Official Narconon sites
- NarCONon IS Scientology
- Narconon Drug Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation by the State of California.