Naresuan

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This article is about the Siamese king. For other uses, see Naresuan (disambiguation).
Naresuan
นเรศวร
King of Ayutthaya kingdom
KingNU.jpg
Statue of King Naresuan pouring water on the ground, symbolizing declaration of independence from Taungoo Empire and annex Sukhothai into Ayutthaya cause Personal union status for 145 years, at Naresuan University, Phitsanulok province, Thailand[1]
King of Siam
Reign 29 July 1590 – 25 April 1605
Predecessor Maha Thammaracha
Successor Ekathotsarot
Spouse Chao Khrua Manichan
House Sukhothai Dynasty
Father King Maha Thammaracha
Mother Queen Wisutkasat
Born 1555 Chan Palace, Phitsanulok, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai Protectorate
Died 25 April 1605(1605-04-25) (aged 49)
Wiang Haeng, Chiang Mai, Lanna

King Naresuan (Thai: นเรศวร) or King Sanphet II (Thai: สรรเพชญ์ที่ 2) (1555, 25 April – 1605) was the King of the Ayutthaya kingdom from 1590 until his death in 1605. Naresuan was one of Siam's most revered monarchs as he was known for his campaigns to free Siam from Burmese rule. During his reign numerous wars were fought against Burma.

Naresuan also welcomed the Hollanders to Siam.[2]:242

Early life[edit]

Prince Naret was born in the city of Phitsanulok on the 25 April 1555. He was the son of King Maha Thammarachathirat of Phitsanulok and his Queen Wisutkasat. His mother was a daughter of Maha Chakkrapat and Queen Sri Suriyothai. His father was a Sukhothai noble, who had defeated Vorawongsathirat in 1548 and put Maha Chakkrapat on the throne. Prince Naret, also known as the "Black Prince" (Thai: พระองค์ดำ), had a younger brother Ekathotsarot, known as the "White Prince", and an elder sister Suphankanlaya.[2]:67

In the Second Siege of Ayutthaya (1563–64), King Bayinnaung of Pegu led massive Burmese armies to invade Siam and laid siege to Phitsanulok. Maha Thammarachathirat came to believe that the city would not be able to withstand a long siege, due to scaricity of food and a smallpox outbreak, so he surrendered the city. King Bayinnuang took Phitsanulok and made the Kingdom of Sukhothai a Burmese tributary state; and required Maha Thammarachathirat to send his son – the Black Prince – to Pegu as a hostage to ensure the king's fidelity.[2]:36,67

At Pegu[edit]

In the Third Siege of Ayutthaya (1568–1569), Bayinnaung was able to take the kingdom, and installed Maha Thammarachathirat as a vassal king. After six years of captivity, Prince Naret and his brother the White Prince were released to Ayutthaya, in exchange for their sister Suphankanlaya becoming Bayinnuang's secondary wife in 1571.[2]:63,67,75

Viceroy[edit]

Phitsanulok History

This box contains links to selected
articles with information related
to the history of Phitsanulok Province.

Prehistoric Era

Early Nan River Civilizations · Tai

Khmer Empire

Song Khwae

Singhanavati City-State

Boromma Chayasiri · Nakhon Thai

Sukhothai Period

Wat Chula Manee · Wat Aranyik
Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat

Ayutthaya Period

Boromma Trailokanat
Wat Ratchaburana · Wat Nang Phaya
Boromma Racha III · Naresuan
Boromma Kot

Modern Siam / Thailand

19th Century · 20th Century · Recent Events

Maha Thammarachathirat made Naret the Uparaja ("Viceroy") of Phitsanulok as Naresuan at the age of sixteen.[2]:67-68,75

Naresuan joined his father and the King of Hongsawadi in the expedition to conquer Vientiane but he came down with smallpox and had to return. He built the Chankasem Palace in Ayutthaya for when he visited his parents.[2]:77

In 1581, Bayinnuang died, and was succeeded by his son Nanda Bayin. The viceroy of Innwa then rebelled, forcing Nanda Bayin to call upon the viceroys of Prome, Toungoo, Chiang Mai, Si Sattanakhanahut, and Siam for assistance in suppressing the rebellion. Naresuan marched the Siamese armies to Hongsawadi as ordered, but was slow in arriving This raised Nanda Bayin's suspicions, who ordered his son Minchit Sra, Maha Uparat, to remain in the capital, and then kill Naresuan.[2]:79, 83-84

Naresuan reached Kraeng in June 1583, were he learned that Phraya Ram and Phraya Kiet had been sent by the Maha Uparat to attack Naresuan from the rear while Maha Uparat attacked from the front. Naresuan called a council, which included priests, Phraya Kiat, Phraya Ram and other Mons. Naresuan then "poured water on the earth from a gold goblet to proclaim to the devatas in the presence of the persons assembled that from that day forth Siam had severed friendhip with Hongsawadi and was no longer in amity as of yore."[2]:85-86

Naresuan then levied the Mons to join his campaig and marched onto Hongsawadi, intending to free the Siamese families held captive there. However, Nanda Bayin had already defeated the viceroy of Innwa and was returnig to his capital. Naresuan then retreated after freeing about 10,000 families. Minchit Sra pursued with Surakamma in the advance element. The Burmese caught up with the Siamese at the Satong River. There Surakamma was killed by "the royal gun used by Somdet Phra Naresuan while crossing the Satong river." This sent Maha Uparat's troops in a panic retreat, prompting Maha Uparat to return to the capital.[2]:87-88

Naresuan then held the "ceremony of swearing allegiance" with the people of Sukhothai, drinking the water from the sacred pond of Puay Si. His forces then took Sawankhalok. In 1584 Naresuan brought down all of the men from the northern provinces to the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya in preparartion for the attack of the Hongsawadi army.[2]:92-93

In the same year Nanda Bayin sent two separate armies, one under his uncle the viceroy of Pathein and another from Chiang Mai under his younger brother Noratra Mangsosri. Both were defeated in separate engagements before they could unite, and were driven back in retreat.[2]:94-98 Then in 1585, Naresuan defeated the viceory of Chiang Mai near Pa Mok and Bang Kaeo, capturing their encampment at Ban Saket with 10,000 soldiers, 120 elephants, 100 horses, 400 hundred boats plus arms, ammunition and provisions.[2]:99-107

In 1586, Nanda Bayin himself led the Burmese armies to Ayutthaya and begin the Fourth Siege of Ayutthaya. Nanda Bayin armies laid siege on the city for 5 months but failed to take the city due to an aggressive defense by Naresuan, and retreated.[2]:108-115

In 1590, Maha Thammarachathirat died and Naresuan was crowned King of Ayutthaya as Sanphet II. The Burmese army led by Phra Maha Uparat attacked Siam again, but Naresuan defeated them near Ban Khoi. The Burmese army retreated back to Hongsawadi, losing many men, elephants, horses, arms and ammunition.[2]:116-119

Reign as King of Ayutthaya[edit]

The Elephant Battle[edit]

The elephant battle between Naresuan (right) and Minchit Sra (left) during the Battle of Nong Sarai, as depicted in the seal of Suphan Buri Province.

In 1592, Nanda Bayin ordered his son to attack Ayutthaya again. Minchit Sra, Natshinnaung the son of the viceroy of Toungoo, the viceroy of Prome formed three divisions. Minchit Sra went through Chedi Sam Ong (Three Pagodas Pass) while the other two divisions came by Mae Lamao. The chief of Chiang Mai sent a boat force. Naresuan had been planning to attack Cambodia, because of their border incursions, but then adjusted to the Burmese threat. Naresuan marched towards Suphanburi and encamped his armies at Nong Sarai near the Thakhoi River. Naresuan formed a battle plan which involved a retreat, allowing the Burmese to follow, and then attack the disordered advance with his main army.[2]:12-130

During the battle, the war elephants of Naresuan, Chaophraya Chaiyanuphap and Phu Khao Thong, and Ekathotsarot, Bun Ruang and Chaophraya Prap Traichak, were "in musth" and charged into the midst of the Burmese. Naresuan, seeing Minchit Sra on an elephant under a tree, shouted:

“My brother, why do you stay on your elephant under the shade of a tree? Why not come out and engage in single combat to be an honour to us? There will be no kings in future who will engage in single combat like us."[2]:130-131[3]

Elephant battle between Naresuan and Minchit Sra as wall murals in Phra Ubosot, Wat Suwan Dararam, Ayutthaya, Thailand.

The personal battle between Naresuan and Minchit Sra was a highly romanticized historical scene known as the "Elephant Battle" (สงครามยุทธหัตถี Songkram Yuddhahatthi.[4]) After narrowly missing Naresuan, cutting his helmet, but Naresuan was able to cut Minchit Sra with his sword while on the back of his elephant. Prince Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot killed the governor of Muang Chacharo. The main Siamese army then arrived and the Burmese were routed and scattered. The King of Hongsawadi then ordered the other two divions to retreat.[2]:131-133

Naresuan's sword, Chaophraya Prap Hongsawadi or "Chaophraya which defeated Hongsawadi", and helmet, Chaophraya Sen Phonlaphai or "Chaophraya which defeated a hudred thousand soldiers.", exist today. Naresuan then built a pagoda on the site of the elephant battle as a victory monument.[2]:134

Naresuan brought before a council of judges those commanders he thought had disobeyed him or were negligent in their duties. The punishment was death. However, Somdet Phra Phanarat, a bhikkhu from Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon, calmed Naresuan enough to have the punishment rescinded. Instead, the guilty commanders were ordered to take Tavoy and Tenasserim for redemption.[2]:136-138

Tavoy and Tenasserim[edit]

In 1592, Naresuan sent Chaophraya Chakri and Phraya Phra Khlang to attack Tenasserim and Tavoy, a Mon city, which fell after a 15 and 20 day siege respectfully. Nanda Bayin launched a Burmese fleet to defend those cities, but arrived too late and was defeated by a combined Siamese fleet. Additionally, a Burmese land force marching from Martaban was ambushed by the combined Chakri and Khlang force, resulting in the capture of 11 Burmese commanders, many elephants, horses, men, arms and ammunition.[2]:138-143

Capture of Lovek[edit]

In 1593, Naresuan then launched a successful campaign to subjugate Cambodia, and executed their king Nakphra Sattha or Chey Chettha. Naresuan then brought Khmer families to populate his northern provinces.[2]:143-144

Capture of Martaban[edit]

As Burmese control over the tributaries had weakened, the Mons took this opportunity to free themselves. The Mon governor of Moulmein rebelled against Pegu and requested Siamese support. Naresuan sent troops to help, and the Burmese abandoned their garrison at Martaban. Nanda Bayin then sent the viceroy of Toungoo to suppress the uprising, but his force was defeated. The Mon provinces then became subject to the Siamese kingdom.[2]:145-147[5]

Invasion of Pegu[edit]

King Naresuan entered Hongsawadi (now Pegu), near Shwemawdaw Paya.

Naresuan then decided to attack Muang Hongsawadi in 1595. He laid siege on the city for three months before retreating when the viceroys of Prome, Toungoo, and Ava sent relief forces. Naresuan did take back many prisoners of war, lessening the fighting strength of the Burmese.[2]:148-150

The Lord of Pyay staged a rebellion against Nanda Bayin in 1595, followed by Toungoo, Rakhine, Lanna, and Lan Xang. King Nokeo Koumane of Lan Xang prepared to march through Lanna to Pegu to rescue the people of Lan Chang held captive. The viceroy of Lanna Chiang Mai then submitted his territory to Siamese control and Naresuan sent Siamese forces to prevent Laotian forces from entering Lanna.[2]:151-155

After these series of upheavals in the Burmese Empire, Naresuan decided to attack Pegu again in 1599, using Arakan and Toungoo as allies. However, before Naresuan arrived at the city, the forces of Arakan and Toungoo had already invested the city. The viceroy of Toungoo ended up taking the populace back to Toungoo, abandoning the city to the forces of Arakan to loot what property was left behind, and then setting flames to the palace and monasteries.[2]:156-162

Invasion of Toungoo and Lanna[edit]

Naresuan occupied Pegu while Minye Thihathu II Viceroy of Toungoo had already taken Nanda Bayin to Toungoo. Naresuan requested Minye Thihathu send Nanda Bayin back to him but Minye Thihathu refused, stating His Majesty of Hongsawadi was unwell. After that Naresuan laid siege to Toungoo for two months but retreated due to lack of food.[2]:162-166

Death[edit]

Natshinnaung killed Nanda Bayin while he was held captive in Toungoo. Nyaungyan Min then crowned himself as the King of Ava to counter the viceroys of Toungoo and Prome. Siam was then free of a Burmese threat for four years until the King of Ava went on a campaign to subjugate the Shans. When he advanced as far as Theinni, this caused Naresuan to raise an army of 200,000 men to counter the threat to his kingdom. He advanced as far as the Fang District of Chiang Mai Province before falling ill and then died after three days. His brother King Ekathotsarot became his successor as king.[2]:173-180

Recent studies of Burmese records by historians of Silpakorn University showed that he returned to Wiang Haeng, where he died of disease, probably smallpox.

Many Shan believe King Naresuan was cremated and his ashes interred in a stupa in Mongton, in the Daen Lao Range, in the southern part of the Shan State.[6]

Legacy[edit]

According to Damrong Rajanubhab, "Naresuan was recorded as a brave and glorious king. Therefore his glory is evident up to the present day. The kingdom of Siam at that period was widest in extent, opulent and redounding in glory."[2]:178

  • Thai baht banknotes
    • 100-Baht note of series 12, issued with the intention of glorifying Thai monarchs in history who have been revered and honored with the title The Great.[7]
    • 50-Baht note of series 16, issued to glorify Thai kings of different periods from past to present.[1]

In media[edit]

Naresuan
Born: 1555 Died: 25 April 1605
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maha Thammarachathirat
King of Ayutthaya
1590–1605
Succeeded by
Ekathotsarot
Preceded by
Maha Thammarachathirat
King of Sukhothai
1569–1583
Succeeded by
Kingdom annexed

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wararat (January 18, 2012). "50 Baht series 16". History and Series of Banknotes. Bank of Thailand. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Back. The images of the statue of King Naresuan: Pouring water on the ground, symbolizing the declaration of independence, King Naresuan with his sword leading his troops to beat the Burmese camp, the statue of King Naresuan at the Don Chedi Memorial compound, Phra Chedi Chai Mongkol located at Wat Yai Chai Mongkol, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Rajanubhab, D., 2001, Our Wars With the Burmese, Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd., ISBN9747534584
  3. ^ Treepet Metkarunchit. การประกาศอิสรภาพ [Declaration of Independence] (in Thai). Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  4. ^ Glenn S., ed. (August 24, 2013). "ยุทธหัตถี" (DICTIONARY). Royal Institute Dictionary - 1982. Thai-language.com. Retrieved 2013-08-24. a war elephant; combat while mounted on war elephants 
  5. ^ ราชการสงครามในสมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช
  6. ^ The Nation, Warrior king remains a very modern mystery, 30 April 2006
  7. ^ Wararat (April 6, 1978). "Series 12". History and Series of Banknotes. Bank of Thailand. Retrieved August 24, 2013. 100 Baht. Back. The monument of King Naresuan the Great, Don Chedi Memorial, in Suphanburi 
  8. ^ Online Reporters (17 Jun 2014). "Thais cheered up by Naresuan movie". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 June 2014. Most people who went to the see the free showing of the film 'The Legend of King Naresuan 5' arranged by the NCPO came away feeling happy, according to a survey by Abac Poll. 

Additional reading[edit]