Naringin inhibits some drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450enzymes, including CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, which may result in drug-drug interactions. Ingestion of naringin and related flavonoids can also affect the intestinal absorption of certain drugs, leading to either an increase or decrease in circulating drug levels. To avoid interference with drug absorption and metabolism, the consumption of citrus (especially grapefruit) and other juices with medications is contraindicated.
A variety of other pharmacological effects have been observed in vitro or in animal studies, but their relevance to human health in unknown. These effects include:
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