|Native to||Botswana, Namibia|
|Native speakers||10,000 (2013)
and about as many L2 speakers
Naro //, also Nharo, is a Khoe language spoken in Ghanzi District of Botswana and in eastern Namibia. There are about 14,000 speakers: 10,000 in Botswana (2004 Cook) and 4,000 in Namibia (1998 Maho). This makes it probably the most-spoken of the Tshu–Khwe languages. Naro is a trade language among speakers of different Khoe languages in Ghanzi District. There is currently a dictionary.
|Aspirate||ph /pʰ/||ch /ǀʰ/||th /tʰ/||tsh /tsʰ/||qh /ǃʰ/||xh /ǁʰ/||tch /ǂʰ/||kh /kʰ/|
|Tenuis||p /p/||c /ǀ/||t /t/||ts /ts/||q /ǃ/||x /ǁ/||tc /ǂ/||k /k/|
|Voiced||b /b/||dc /ᶢǀ/||d /d/||z /dz/||dq /ᶢǃ/||dx /ᶢǁ/||dtc /ᶢǂ/||gh /ɡ/|
|Nasal||m /m/||nc /ᵑǀ/||n /n/||nq /ᵑǃ/||nx /ᵑǁ/||ntc /ᵑǂ/|
|Glottalized||c’ /ᵑǀˀ/||q’ /ᵑǃˀ/||x’ /ᵑǁˀ/||tc’ /ᵑǂˀ/|
|Fricated||cg /ǀχ/||tg /tχ/||tsg /tsχ/||qg /ǃχ/||xg /ǁχ/||tcg /ǂχ/||(kg /kχ/)|
|Fricated ejective||cg’ /ǀχ’/||ts’ /ts’/||qg’ /ǃχ’/||xg’ /ǁχ’/||tcg’ /ǂχ’/||kg’ /kχ’/|
|Fricative||f /f/||s /s/||g /x/||h /h/|
Kg and kg’ only contrast for some speakers: kx’ám "mouth" vs. k’áù "male". The flap r is only found medially except in loan words. An l is only found in loans, and is generally substituted by /ɾ/ medially and /n/ initially. Medial [j] and [w] may be /i/ and /u/; they occur initially only in wèé "all, both" and in yèè (an interjection).
Naro has five vowel qualities, a e i o u, which may occur long (aa ee ii oo uu), nasalized (ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ), pressed (a, e, i, o, u), or combinations of these (ã etc.). There are three tones, written á, a, à. Syllables are of the maximal form CVV, where VV is a long vowel, diphthong, or combination of vowel and m, and may take two tones: hḿm̀ "to see"; hm̀m̀ a xám̀ "to smell". The only consonant that can occur finally is m, except that long nasal vowels such as ãã may surface as [aŋ] ([ŋ] does not otherwise occur). Syllabic /n/ also occurs, as in nna.
Below is an overview of Naro clicks in both orthography and IPA (Visser 2001). The dental click is represented by c. alveolar click by q, palatal click by tc, and lateral click by x. All examples are from Visser (2001).
|c||ǀ||cõose 'owl'||q||ǃ||qaò 'rise (sun, moon)'||tc||ǂ||tcúú 'head'||x||ǁ||xòa 'cave'|
|cg||ǀχ||cgàa 'flesh'||qg||ǃχ||qgóé 'to run'||tcg||ǂχ||tcgáí 'eye'||xg||ǁχ||xgóà 'angry'|
|cg'||ǀχ’||cg'õè 'name'||qg'||ǃχ’||qg'áó 'neck'||tcg'||ǂχ’||tcg'áì 'sharp, spicy'||xg'||ǁχ’||xg'ari 'to squeeze'|
|ch||ǀʰ||cóá 'child'||qh||ǃʰ||qhàò 'people, tribe, kind'||tch||ǂʰ||tchàà 'wide'||xh||ǁʰ||xhãya 'West, Nambia'|
|c'||ǀ̃ˀ||c'áò 'blood'||q'||ǃ̃ˀ||q'óà 'afraid'||tc'||ǂ̃ˀ||tc'ubi 'egg'||x'||ǁ̃ˀ||x'áà 'light (n.)'|
|dc||ǀ̬||dcoàbà 'spider'||dq||!̬||dqàne 'chin'||dtc||ǂ̬||dtcìì 'fat (adj.)'||dx||ǁ̬||dxàí 'cheek'|
|nc||ǀ̃||nco̱à 'red'||nq||!̃||nqàrè 'foot'||ntc||ǂ̃||ntcùú 'black'||nx||ǁ̃||nxào 'joke'|
Naro is a dialect cluster.
- Qabekhoe or Qabekho or ǃKabbakwe
- Tsʼaokhoe or Tsaukwe or Tsaokhwe
- Nǀhai-ntseʼe or Nǁhai or Tsʼao [Not the same as Ts'aokhoe?]
and possibly ǂHaba.
Naro Language Project 
The Naro Language Project is a project currently being undertaken by the Reformed Church in D'kar that aims to describe and develop an understanding of the Naro language, increase literacy by teaching Naro speakers to read and write their language and translate the Bible into Naro. The project was started in the 1980s. The Naro language project has, as of 2007, translated 70% of the Bible into the Naro language.
Below are Naro numerals, from Visser (2001). Only 'one', 'two', and 'three' are native Naro numerals, while the rest have been borrowed from Nama. Orthography is given first, follows by IPA in brackets and then the tones in parentheses (H = high, M = mid, L = low).
- 1. cúí [/úí] (HH)
- 2. cám̀ [/ám̀] (HL)
- 3. nqoana [!noana] (M.L)
- 4. hàka [hàka] (L.M)
- 5. koro [koro] (M.M)
- 6. nqáné [!náné] (H.H)
- 7. hõò [hõò] (HL)
- 8. kaisa [kaisa] (MM.L)
- 9. khòesí [khòesí] (LM.H)
- 10. dìsí [dìsí] (L.H)
- Visser, Hessel (2001) Naro Dictionary: Naro–English, English–Naro. Gansi, Botswana: Naro Language Project. ISBN 99912-938-5-X
- Visser originally wrote the palatal clicks with a base of ⟨ç⟩, but switched to ⟨tc⟩ to make the language more accessible from English-language typewriters and keyboards.
- Map of Naro language from the LL-Map Project
- Information about Naro language from the MultiTree Project
- The Ethnologue report for Naro
- The Kuru Naro Language Project
- Naro basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database