Nasal palatal approximant
|Nasal palatal approximant|
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j̃⟩, that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j~, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨ỹ⟩.
The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a nasal yod; [j̃] and [w̃] may be called nasal glides.
Transcriptions using ⟨j̃⟩ may actually intend a non-syllabic nasal vowel, [ĩ̯] (that is, the second element of a diphthong), as in Portuguese, or be ambiguous between the two.
Features of the nasal palatal approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
[j̃], written ny, is a common realization of /j/ before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa which do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe and Bini.
|Portuguese||Brazilian||sonho||[ˈsõj̃ʊ]||'dream'||Allophone of /ɲ/ between vowels, nasalizes the preceding vowel. Language's original /ɲ/ sound. See Portuguese phonology|
|Most dialects||cães||[kɐ̃ĩ̯s]||'dogs'||Non-syllabic allophone of /i/ after nasal vowels, or between nasal occlusives and nasal vowels. Brazilian dialects that have [ɪ] prefer [ɪ̯̃] when in coda position.|
|Some dialects||me ame!||[ˈmj̃ɐ̃mi]||'love me!'|
- Palatal nasal
- Nasal labio-velar approximant
- Labiodental nasal, which may be an approximant in the one language in which it is phonemic
- Voiceless nasal glottal approximant
- Index of phonetics articles
- Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
- Canepari, Luciano (2005), "Hindi", A Handbook of Pronunciation, Lincom Europa, p. 335
- Gussman, Edmund (2007), The Phonology of Polish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-926747-7
- Mattos e Silva, Rosa (1991), O Português arcaico – fonologia, Contexto
- Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09155-7
- Vigário, Marina (2003), The Prosodic Word in European Portuguese, De Gruyter Mouton, ISBN 978-3-11-017713-8
- Shosted; Hualde (2010), (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory volume 315) Romance Linguistics 2009: Selected Papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Tucson, Arizona, March 2009, John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 43–61, ISBN 978-90-272-4833-6