Nash Rambler

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Nash Rambler
1952 Nash Rambler blue wagon front.jpg
1952 Nash Rambler Custom station wagon
Overview
Manufacturer
Production 1950–55
Assembly
Designer
  • Meade Moore (chief engineer)
  • Theodore Ulrich (body & styling)
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Successor Rambler American

The Nash Rambler is a North American automobile that was produced by the Nash Motors division of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation from 1950 to 1954. On May 1, 1954, Nash-Kelvinator merged with the Hudson Motor Car Company to form American Motors Corporation (AMC). The Nash Rambler was then built by AMC in Kenosha, Wisconsin through 1955.

The Nash Rambler established a new segment in the automobile market and is widely acknowledged to be the first successful modern American compact car.[2][3][4]

The 1950-1955 Nash Rambler was the first model run for this automobile platform. Using the same tooling, AMC reintroduced an almost identical "new" 1958 Rambler American for a second model run. This was a rare feat of having two distinct and successful model runs, an almost unheard of phenomenon in automobile history.[5]

Development[edit]

Nash-Kelvinator's President George W. Mason saw that the company needed to compete more effectively and insisted a new car had to be different from the existing models in the market offered by the "Big Three" U.S. automakers. The Rambler was designed to be smaller than contemporary cars, yet still accommodate five passengers comfortably. Nash engineers had originally penned the styling during World War II.[6]

The new model was the company's entry in the lower-price segment dominated by models from Chevrolet, Ford, and Plymouth (automobile). The Rambler was designed to be lighter and have smaller dimensions than the other popular cars. A strategy of efficiency, Nash could save on materials in its production while owners would have better fuel economy compared to the other cars of the era. The Nash Rambler rode on a 100 in (2,540 mm) wheelbase, and power came from Nash's proven 173 cu in (2.8 L) L-head (flathead) Straight-6 cylinder engine that produced 82 hp (61 kW; 83 PS).

Following the design of the larger "senior" Nash models, the compact Rambler's styling was rounded in form and also had an envelope body with fender skirts that also enclosed the front wheels. This design feature did not impair the car's cornering ability significantly.

1950 Nash Rambler Custom Landau Convertible Coupe

The compact Rambler line was designed with several body styles, but the inaugural year was limited to a single model: a fully equipped 2-door convertible. The decision to bring the new car out first in a higher market segment with more standard features was a calculated risk by Mason. Foremost in this strategy was the need to give the new Rambler a positive public image. Mason knew the car would fail if seen by the public as a "cheap little car". This was confirmed in small car comparisons in the media that described the "well-equipped and stylish, the little Rambler is economical and easy to drive" with no "stripped-down" versions, but in only high end convertible, station wagon, or hardtop (no "B-pillar") body styles.[7] He knew what Crosley was just finding out with its line of mini cars, and what the Henry J would teach Kaiser Motors; namely, that Americans would rather buy a nice used car than a new car that is perceived as inferior or substandard.

Unlike almost all traditional convertibles of the era that used frame-free side windows, the Rambler retained the fixed roof structure above the car's doors and rear-side window frames. This metal structure served as the side guides or rails for the retractable waterproof canvas top. This design allowed Nash to utilize its monocoque (unibody) construction on its new compact. It made the Rambler body very rigid for an open-top car, without the additional bracing required in other convertible models. The convertible top was cable-driven and electrically operated.

In developing this new car, Nash had originally planned to call it the Diplomat. This name would have rounded out the Nash family of cars; as for 1950, the 600 line was renamed the Statesman, and the Ambassador remained the flagship line. When it was learned that Dodge had already reserved the Diplomat name for a planned two-door hardtop body style, Nash delved into its own past, and resurrected the Rambler name from an 1897 prototype and its first production model, in 1902.[8] Rambler was also one of the popular early American automobile brands.

Additional historical context of the Nash Rambler, along with the Nash-Healey and the Metropolitan, was that U.S. citizens were exposed to and gained experience with the smaller, more efficient compact and sporty European cars during the Second World War. Along with the styling cues of European designs, the car's input included the approach of more compact cars, which came from Nash-Kelvinator having a wide market overseas. This influence is seen directly in the Pininfarina designed models. AMC would later continue to import European design and styling flair for its products, such as the Hornet Sportabouts by Gucci, the Javelins by Pierre Cardin, and the Matador coupes by Oleg Cassini.

Model years[edit]

1950[edit]

1950–1952
1951 Nash Rambler yellow 2-door hardtop.jpg
1951 Nash "Country Club" 2-door hardtop
Body and chassis
Body style
Powertrain
Engine 173 cu in (2.8 L) I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 100 in (2,540 mm)
Length 176 in (4,470 mm)

The Nash Rambler was introduced on April 13, 1950; in the middle of the model year.[9] The new Rambler was available only as an upmarket two-door convertible — designated the "Landau". Without the weight of a roof, and with a low wind resistance body design for the time, the inline 6-cylinder engine could deliver solid performance and deliver fuel economy up to 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp).

Several factors were incorporated into the compact Nash Rambler's marketing mix that including making the most from the limited steel supplies during the Korean War, as well as the automaker selecting a strategy for profit maximization from the new Rambler line. The new Nash Rambler came only in a convertible body, a style that had a higher price in the marketplace and incorporating more standard features that make the open top models suitable more for leisure-type use than ordinary transportation.[10] With a base price of $1,808 (equivalent to approximately $17,722 in today's funds[11]), the Nash Rambler was priced slightly lower than the base convertible models convertibles from its intended competition. To further increase the value to buyers, the Nash Rambler was well equipped compared to the competition and included numerous items as standard equipment such as whitewall tires, full wheel covers, electric clock, and even a pushbutton AM radio that were available at extra cost on all other cars at that time.

In summary, "it was a smartly styled small car. People also liked its low price and the money-saving economy of its peppy 6-cylinder engine."[12] The abbreviated first year of production saw sales of 9,330 Nash Rambler convertibles.

Nash Rambler Custom convertible

1951[edit]

In 1951, the Nash Rambler line was enlarged to include a two-door station wagon and a two-door pillarless hardtop — designated the Country Club. Both the hardtop and convertible models included additional safety features.[13]

Two levels of trim were available: Custom and Super.

A car tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1951 had a top speed of 80.9 mph (130 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 21.0 seconds. Fuel consumption of 25.2 mpg-imp (11.2 L/100 km; 21.0 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost $1,808 in the U.S., but British sales had not at the time started.[14]

1952 Nash Rambler "Custom Greenbrier" station wagon
1952 interior

1952[edit]

There were no major changes for the 1952 model year. Models included a new Deliveryman 2-door utility wagon for $1,892.[15] The "Custom" models featured Nash's Weather Eye conditioning system and an AM radio as standard equipment. The new Greenbrier station wagons received upgraded trim with two-tone painted exteriors and they were priced at $2,119, the same as the Custom Landau Convertible model.[15]

The 1950-1952 Nash Ramblers "gained instant popularity with buyers who liked its looks, as well as loyalty among customers who appreciated its quality engineering and performance."[1] A total of 53,000 Nash Ramblers were made for the year.[15]

1953[edit]

1953-1955
Nash Rambler Cross Country 1955.jpg
1955 Nash Rambler 4-door Cross Country wagon
Body and chassis
Body style
Powertrain
Engine
  • 184 cu in (3.0 L) I6 (with manual)
  • 195.6 cu in (3.2 L) I6
(with automatic)
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 100 in (2,540 mm) all 2-door models
  • 108 in (2,743 mm) 4-door sedan & wagon
Length
  • 176 in (4,470 mm) all 2-door models
  • 186.4 in (4,735 mm) 4-door sedan & wagon

The Rambler received its first restyling in 1953, and resembled the "senior" Nash models that had received all-new "Airflyte" styling the year before. The new styling was again credited to Italian automobile designer Battista "Pinin" Farina.[16] The hood line was lowered and a new hood ornament, designed by George Petty was optional. The "racy" ornament "was a sexy woman leaning into the future, bust down and pointing the way."[17]

The standard engines were increased with manual transmission cars receiving a 184 cu in (3.0 L) I6 producing 85 hp (63 kW; 86 PS), while a 90 hp (67 kW; 91 PS) 195.6 cu in (3.2 L) I6 powered cars with the optional "Hydra-Matic" automatic supplied by General Motors. The Custom models added Nash's "Weather Eye" heating and ventilation system, as well as a radio as standard equipment, with the convertible and hardtop versions all getting a continental tire at no extra cost.[16]

1953 Nash Rambler Deliveryman

The marketing campaign focused on the Nash Rambler as a second family car. Advertisements also featured the wife of Jimmy Stewart and her Country Club 2-door hardtop she described as "a woman's dream-of-a-car come true!" and promoting buyers to spend "one wonderful hour" test driving to discover how "among two-car families - four out of five prefer to drive their Rambler."[16]

A survey of owners of 1953 Ramblers conducted by Popular Mechanics indicated the majority listed their car's economy as the feature they like best.[18] After they had driven a total of 1,500,000 miles (2,400,000 km), owners' complaints included a lack of rear seat legroom, water leaks, and poor dimmer switch position, but none of the Rambler drivers rated acceleration as unsatisfactory.[18] Fully 29 percent had no complaints and "only four percent of Rambler owners described the car as too small and 67 percent rated their Ramblers as excellent over-all."[18]

Production for the model year was 31,788 and included 9 Deliveryman models in the station wagon body, 15,255 Country Club hardtops, 10,598 Convertible Landaus, 10,600 Custom station wagons (of which 3,536 were in the Greenbrier trim and 7,035 with 3M's "Di-Noc" simulated wood-grain trim), and 1,114 standard wagons.[16]

1954[edit]

Nash Rambler 4-door sedan Custom with continental tire

After offering only two-door-only models, Nash introduced a four-door sedan and a four-door station wagon in the Nash Rambler line starting with the 1954 model year. This was the automaker's response to demands of larger families for more roomy Ramblers.[19] The four-door body styles rode on a longer, 108 in (2,743 mm) wheelbase. Following the industry practice at the time, the heater and radio were now made optional. Added to the option list was Nash's exclusive integrated automobile air conditioning system, a "very sophisticated setup" for the time incorporated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning in one system that was "priced lower than any other competing system; at $345, it was a remarkable advance."[20]

The four-door Rambler sedan was at first only available in "Custom" trim. The "Country Club" hardtop became available in the lower-priced "Super" trim and without the "Custom" model's standard Continental tire (external spare tire carrier). The 4-door station wagons were designated Cross Country and featured an unusual roofline that followed the slope of the sedan's roof and then dipped down before leveling and continuing rearward. The design by Bill Reddig allowed the use of the same dies to produce door framing for sedans and station wagons, while the dip in the rear portion of the roof included a roof rack as standard equipment to reduce the visual effect of the wagon's lowered roofline.[19]

There was turmoil in the U.S. automobile market as the Ford-Chevy sales war broke out and the two largest domestic automakers cut prices to gain sales volume.[20] This battle decimated the remaining independent automakers in their search for customers. On May 1, 1954, Nash and Hudson Motor Car Company announced a merger, and the successor corporation was named American Motors Corporation (AMC). Following the merger, Hudson dealers began receiving Ramblers that were badged as Hudson brand cars. The Hudson Ramblers and Nash Ramblers were identical, save for the brand name and minor badging.

1955[edit]

1955 Nash Rambler brochure describing the interiors
1955 Hudson Rambler Super 2-door
1955 Rambler Country Club

The Nash Rambler's most significant change for the 1955 model year was opening the front wheel wells resulting in a 6-foot (2 m) decrease in the turn-circle diameter from previous year's versions, with the two-door models having the smallest in the industry at 36 ft (11 m).[21] The "traditional" Nash fixed fender skirts were removed and the front track (the distance between the center points of the wheels on the axle as they come in contact with the road) was increased to be even greater than was the Rambler's rear tread.[21] Popular Science magazine described the altered design for 1955: the "little Rambler loses its pants."[22]

As part of the facelift for 1955, the Rambler's grille was also redesigned with only the center emblem differentiating the cars now sold by both Nash and Hudson dealers. The Rambler was a new model for Hudson dealers and it replaced the compact Hudson Jet.[23]

The interiors of the economical Nash Rambler were designed by Helene Rother to also appeal to the feminine eye. American Motors featured "Created to Your Discriminating Taste" in the car's marketing knowing what women looked for in a car and Rother's designs featured elegant, stylish, and expensive fabrics that coordinated in colors and trim.[24]

Model and trim combinations were again reshuffled with a two-door Suburban and Club two-door sedans available in "Deluxe" or "Super" versions. Four-door sedans and wagons came as Super or Custom models, while a new Deluxe four-door sedan was introduced. The pillarless Country Club hardtop was reduced to only the "Custom" trim, while the convertible model was no longer available.

Fleet sales only versions included a Deliveryman wagon that was not shown in the regular catalog, as well as another new model, a three-passenger business coupe: a two-door sedan with no rear seat.[25]

The automaker's marketing effort included sponsorship of the Disneyland television show on the ABC network. The inaugural broadcast was on 25 October 1955; just five days after the new Ramblers debuted in both Nash and Hudson dealerships, quickly becoming one of the top watched programs in the U.S., thus helping AMC sell more cars.[26]

The focus continued on economy and a Rambler four-door set an all-time record for cars with automatic transmissions of 27.47 mpg-US (8.56 L/100 km; 32.99 mpg-imp) in the 1955 the Mobil Economy Run.[25]

The U.S. domestic market was turning to bigger and bigger cars; therefore, prospects for the compact Nash Rambler line was limited and production was discontinued after the 1955 model year.[5]

Motorsports[edit]

The smallest car in the July 13, 1951, 400-lap NASCAR sanctioned Short Track Late Model Division race in Lanham, Maryland, was a Nash Rambler Country Club (two-door hardtop).[27] Owned by Williams Nash Motors of Bethesda, Maryland, the car was driven to victory by Tony Bonadies.[28] He stayed in the back of the 25-car field on the quarter-mile track until making a steady move up to the lead position. The Nash Rambler was also the only car to run the entire 100-mile (161 km) race without making a pit stop.[29][30]

On July 18, 1952, the NASCAR Short Track race at the Lanham Speedway, was 400 laps on 0.2-mile paved oval for a total of 80 mi (129 km) miles.[31] Tony Bonadies finished the race in 4th place in a 1952 Nash.[32]

Replacement[edit]

The sales war between Ford and Chevrolet that took place during 1953 and 1954 reduced the market share for the remaining automakers trying to compete against the standard-sized models offered by the domestic Big Three (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler).[33] American Motors responded to the changing market by focusing development on the 108 in (2,743 mm) wheelbase four-door versions that it had introduced in 1954.[5] Production of the original compact Nash Rambler ended in 1955 as AMC introduced an all-new Rambler for the 1956 model year. These used the 108 in (2,743 mm) wheelbase and became larger cars, but were "compact" compared to ones made by the Big Three. The bigger Rambler models were sold by both Nash and Hudson dealers and they carried respective Nash and Hudson brand logos.[34]

The new for 1956 Rambler was arguably "the most important car American Motors ever built" in that it not only created and defined a new market segment, emphasized the virtues of compact design, but also enabled the automaker to prosper in the post-World War II marketplace that shifted from a seller's to a buyer's market.[35] The new Ramblers came only as four-door models. Along with the usual four-door sedan and station wagon was a new four-door hardtop sedan, as well as an industry first, a four-door hardtop station wagon.[36][37] An OHV version of the 195.6 cu in (3.2 L) engine was also introduced for 1956 to replace the L-head version that was used in previous models. The OHV I6 was the only engine available in the 1956 Ramblers as the new AMC V8s did not appear until the 1957 model year.

Revival[edit]

The revived Rambler American

With AMC's focus on economical automobiles, management saw an opportunity with the economic recession of 1958 to revive the small 100 in (2,540 mm) wheelbase Nash Rambler.[38] The automaker had retained the old tooling and the old model would fit between the bigger 108 in (2,743 mm) wheelbase family-sized Ramblers and the imported two-seat 85 in (2,159 mm) wheelbase Nash Metropolitan. This would be a smaller and more efficient alternative to the standard-sized cars that were marketed by the domestic Big Three at that time. The old Nash design was slightly modified and used for AMC's "new" 1958 Rambler American.[39]

Epilogue[edit]

The book listing the 75 noteworthy American automobiles that made news from 1895 to 1970, documents "the 1950 Nash Rambler was a historic car on two counts: its ancestry and its small size."[40] While other compact-sized cars were introduced by the small independent automakers, such as the Henry J, Hudson Jet, and Willys Aero, only the Rambler survived long enough to establish a real place in automotive history.[5]

Moreover, the compact-sized Nash Rambler automobile evolved into a business strategy for American Motors as the company firmly associated itself with small cars in the U.S. marketplace.[41] In the 1960s, the automaker "prospered on the back of the Nash Rambler, the compact that recalled the name of the vehicle Thomas B. Jeffrey built in 1902 at the Kenosha, Wisconsin factory that continued to be AMC's main production plant."[41]

The Nash Rambler succeeded where others "tried to entice US consumers looking for practical, economical automobiles" during an era "when all Detroit had to offer were pricey, ostentatious behemoths."[42] The Big Three domestic automakers exited the entry-level car market to foreign makes starting in the early 1950s.[42] Nash was the only American manufacturer to get the compact formula right by offering Rambler "well equipped and priced sensibly"; "styling that was fresh, distinctive, and attractive"; and for "the original Rambler’s run in 1950–55 was that there was a full line of Ramblers in many body styles, including a jaunty convertible."[42]

According to automotive historian Bill Vance, the Nash Ramblers "are not much remembered, but they did provide reliable, economical and sturdy service."[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (28 August 2007). "1950-1952 Nash Rambler Specifications". howstuffworks com. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  2. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica 1. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9. first modern American compact car, the Rambler. 
  3. ^ Szudarek, Robert G. (1996). How Detroit became the automotive capital: 100th anniversary. Society of Automotive Engineers. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-614-22229-6. Retrieved 21 August 2012. the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation introduced the first modern compact car in 1950, and revived the name "Rambler" that dated back to 1902 when Thomas B. Jeffery created the first Rambler in Kenosha, Wisconsin. 
  4. ^ Foster, Patrick R. (2004). The Story of Jeep. Krause Publications. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-87349-735-0. Retrieved 21 August 2012. Nash- Kelvinator Corporation, the innovative Detroit-based independent, introduced its Rambler, the first American compact car, in March of 1950. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Vance, Bill (28 July 2006). "Motoring Memories: AMC Rambler American 1958-1960". www.autos.ca. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Mort, Norm (2010). American 'Independent' Automakers: AMC to Willys 1945 to 1960. Veloce Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84584-239-0. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  7. ^ "Report on the small cars". Changing Times, Kiplinger's Personal Finance 7 (9): 14–15. September 1953. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Witzenburg, Gary (April 1984). "The Name Game". Motor Trend: 86. 
  9. ^ "The 1950 Nash Rambler Convertible". The New York Times. 14 April 1950. p. 20. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  10. ^ Car: The Definitive Visual History of the Automobile. DK Publishing. 2011. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7566-7167-9. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  11. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  12. ^ Lent, Henry Bolles (1974). Car of the year, 1895-1970: a 75-year parade of American automobiles that made news. Dutton. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-525-27451-3. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  13. ^ "The New Nash Rambler Country Club Car". The New York Times. 28 June 1951. p. 34. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  14. ^ "The Nash Rambler". The Motor. 18 April 1951. 
  15. ^ a b c Gunnell, John (2004). Standard guide to 1950s American cars. KP Books. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-87349-868-5. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c d Gunnell, p. 166.
  17. ^ Bogart, Angelo Van (2010). 50s Flashback: A Decade of Automotive Excellence. Krause Publications. p. 63. ISBN 9781440214127. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c Clymer, Floyd (November 1953). "The Owners Report on the Nash". Popular Mechanics: 102–106. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  19. ^ a b Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (29 November 2007). "1954 Nash Rambler Model Lineup". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Auto Editors ofConsumer Guide (29 November 2007). "1954 Nash Rambler Deluxe". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "New Cars for 1955". Popular Mechanics 102 (6): 99. December 1954. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  22. ^ "Little Rambler loses its pants". Popular Science 165 (6): 123. December 1954. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  23. ^ Foster, Patrick R. (1993). American Motors - The Last Independent. Krause Publications. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87341-240-7. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  24. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (28 August 2007). "1950-1952 Rambler". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Auto Editors ofConsumer Guide (29 November 2007). "1955 Rambler". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  26. ^ Gunnell, p. 124. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  27. ^ "Lanham Speedway". The Maryland Stock Car Racing Hall of Fame. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  28. ^ "Tony Bonadies". legendsofnascar.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  29. ^ "Nash Rambler wins $1,000 at Lanaham". The Record. 20 July 1951. p. 1. 
  30. ^ "Car #40, Tony Bonadies driver". 3widespicturevault.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  31. ^ "NASCAR Short Track race". ultimateracinghistory.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  32. ^ "Tony Bonadies". ultimateracinghistory.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  33. ^ Flammang, James M. (1994). Chronicle of the American automobile: over 100 years of auto history. Publications International. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-7853-0778-5. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  34. ^ Auto Editors ofConsumer Guide (15 June 2007). "How Rambler Cars Work". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Auto Editors ofConsumer Guide (5 September 2007). "1956-1957 Rambler". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  36. ^ Collector Car Market Review (1999). "Postwar Station Wagons: Mom's Car Makes a Comeback". VMR International. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  37. ^ "Rambler has everything new - even a hardtop wagon". Popular Mechanics 105 (1): 114–117. January 1956. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  38. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (6 November 2007). "1958-1960 Rambler American". Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  39. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (3 October 1957). "100-inch Rambler Revived for 1958; American Motors to Stress Smallest Sizes--Line to Appear This Month". The New York Times. p. 60. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  40. ^ Lent, Henry Bolles (1974). Car of the year, 1895-1970: a 75-year parade of American automobiles that made news. Dutton. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-525-27451-3. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 
  41. ^ a b Feder, Barnaby J. (10 March 1987). "AMC's Long, Hard Struggle". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 
  42. ^ a b c Sass, Rob (11 December 2008). "Detroit's Small Packages Arrived, and Left, Early". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 

References[edit]

  • Conde, John A. (1987). The American Motors Family Album. American Motors Corporation. OCLC 3185581. 
  • Foster, Patrick R. (2004). AMC Cars: 1954-1987 An Illustrated History. Motorbooks. ISBN 978-1-58388-112-5. 
  • Foster, Patrick R. (2004). AMC Performance Cars: 1951-1983 Photo Archive. Motorbooks. ISBN 978-1-58388-127-9. 
  • Foster, Patrick R. (1993). American Motors - The Last Independent. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-240-7. 
  • Gunnell, John, ed. (1987). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-096-0. 

External links[edit]