Nashik city view from Pandavleni
|Nickname(s): Wine Capital of India/Napa valley of india|
|• Mayor||Mr. Ashok Devram Murtadak|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Dr. Praveen Gedam|
|• Collector||Deependra Singh Kushwah|
|• Member of Parliament||Mr. Hemant Godse|
|• Metro City||478 km2 (185 sq mi)|
|Area rank||7 th|
|Elevation||600 m (2,000 ft)|
|• Metro City||3,786,973|
|• Density||7,900/km2 (21,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||10th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||MH 15 (Nashik city), MH 41 (Malegaon), MH 51 (Sinnar)|
Nashik (Marathi: नाशिक (pron:ˈnʌʃɪk) ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a city in western India in the state of Maharashtra and ninth most populous city in India. Nashik is located in the north-west of Maharashtra, 171 km (106 mi) from Mumbai and 210 km (130 mi) from Pune and is the administrative headquarters of the Nashik District and Nashik Division. With a population of 1.9 million, Nasik is the fourth largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai , Pune and Nagpur.In terms of area it is second largest city behind Mumbai. and Nashik district is the eleventh most populous district in India. Mumbai, Pune and Nashik are known as golden triangle in Maharashtra.
Nashik is said to be the abode of Lord Rama during his 14 years in exile here. It is located on the banks of the Godavari which originates in the south-west of the city at Trimbakeshwar. It is one of the four places in the world where the Kumbh Mela is held making it one of the holiest Hindu cities. The city is a site for more than 100 ancient temples including the Kalaram Temple and Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple.
Nashik ranks 16th in a global study of fastest developing city conducted by The City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs and has witnessed significant economic progress in the last decade. Nashik is also short listed for the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor as an investment region. The city is also known as the Wine Capital of India since it accounts to a large amount of the country's grape export and there are many vineyards in and around Nashik. It also plays an utmost important role in agriculture. Onion, tomatoes and many other vegetables are exported from Nashik to various parts of the world. In addition, Nashik is known for its picturesque surroundings, climate and tourism.
- 1 History
- 2 Mythology
- 3 Places of Cultural Significance
- 4 Geography
- 5 Climate
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Administration
- 8 Environment
- 9 Kumbh Mela
- 10 Economy
- 11 Sports
- 12 Education
- 13 Transport
- 14 Tourism
- 15 Notable people
- 16 Major Events
- 17 Media
- 18 References
- 19 External links
The city got its present name in 1818 when the Peshwas got control of the city. The Peshwa rule however, did not last long and the British captured Nashik in the very same year. In 1840, one of the first modern libraries of Maharashtra (then, the Presidency of Bombay) was founded at Nashik.
Mauryan Dynasty : Nashik region was included in Mauryan Kingdom ,As per inscription issued by Dharma Maha Matra of Ashoka found at Devtek in Chandrapur district .The inscription states capturing and killing of animals . Also rock-edicts of Ashoka mention the Rashtrika-Petenikas and the Bhoja-Petenikas. According to many scholars, Petenikas were inhabitants of Pratishthana, the Rashtrikas ruled as Maharathis, while the Bhojas held Vidarbha. This region was ruled by vassals of mauryan kingdom (Satvahan ancestors- regional chieftain of Mauryan Empire )
Satavahana Dynasty(207 B.C - 199 A.D): Just 50 years after king Ashoka death Satavahana came into prominence in Western Maharashtra. its founder was Simuka. Just after Simuka ended his rule, his brother Krishna took control of the throne. It was during reign of Krishna, Nashik region was included in the Satavahana Empire. Krishna left an inscription in the cave which he excavated for budhist monks near nashik. Next Ruler for Dynasty was Satakarni I . After his death his wife ,Nayanika/naganika Satakarni took control of throne on Behalf his sons,Vedishri and Shaktishri,Naneghat inscription describes Vedishri as a very brave king, who was a unique warrior on the earth and was the lord of Dakshinapatha (Deccan). Many years after vedishree reign,most of Satavahana territories like Malwa, Nashik , Kathiawar of maharashtra were conquered by Shaka Kshatrapas . Nahapana a Shaka Kshatrapa probably appointed by the contemporary Kushana Emperor, was ruling over Konkan, Poona, Nasik and some other districts of Maharashtra as well as some portion of Central India as far north as Ajmer .
It was Nahapana who excavated pandav-leni . Several inscriptions of his son-in-law Ushavadata (Sanskrit, Rishabhadatta) have been incised in the Pandu-lena caves near Nasik. Ushavadata was the son of Dinika and had married Dakshamitra, the daughter of Nahapana. These records in the Nasik caves describe the charities and conquests of Ushavadata, who was evidently governing Northern Maharashtra and Konkan on behalf of his father-in-law. He got a cave excavated in the Trirashmi hill near Nasik and assigned it to the Buddhist monks.Later Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated Nahapana of shaka dynasty and regained the satavahana honour. He made a daring dash into Vidarbha and occupied Benakata (or the Wainganga district). Thereafter, he invaded Western Maharashtra and defeated Nahapana somewhere in the Nasik district. the Shaka king accepts satavahna vassalage. This is shown by his inscription in one of the Nasik caves, wherein he is called Benakatakasvami or the lord of Benakata (Wainganga district). According to inscription, the king's mother, Gautami Balsari, writes about her son as follows: '...who crushed the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas [the native Indian princes / Rajputs of Rajputana, Gujarat and central India]; who destroyed the Shakas [Western Kshatrapas], Yavanas [Indo-Greeks] and Pahlavas [Indo-Parthians]... who rooted out the Khakharata family [the Kshatrapas of Nahapana]...'. After defeating Nahapana, Gautamiputra called back his silver coins and restruck them. The hoard discovered at Jogal Tembhi in the Nasik district contained more than 10,000 silver coins so restruck.
After Gautamiputra Satakarni most noteworthy successor was Yajnashri Satakari. He conquered all Maharashtra. this can be seen in inscriptions and coins that have been found over a large area. They show that he ruled over a large kingdom extending from Konkan in the west to Andhra desha in the east. He issued among other types the ship-type lead coins indicative of his rule on the maritime province of the Coromandel coast. Within fifty years after Yajnashri Satakarni the rule of the Satavahanas came to an end.By mid of 3rd century the Satvahan King dom fragamented into various parts , each having ruler who claims to be Satvahan descendent . The Satavahanas were liberal patrons of learning and religion.The early kings of the family performed Vedic sacrifices and lavished gifts on the Brahmanas. Krishna, Gautamiputra, Pulumavi and Yajnashri excavated caves and donated villages to provide for the maintenance, clothing and medicines of the Buddhist monks. During this period Nashik was very prosperous . It laid on trade route from Tagara and Pratishthana to Broach and was an important trading centre. The Nashik silk was so famous that so many European historian believe that the stylo of silk and gold brocade that Marco Polo(1290) found being woven at Baghdad and called as nasich and nac originally came from Nashik. These silks were known in Europe in the fourteenth century as nac, nacquts, nachis, naciz, and nasis
Abhira And Ahir Dynasty(220-377 A.D): After fall of Satavahana empire , Abhira Dynasty came into prominence, the Abhiras or Ahirs ruled in the north east and the Chutus in Maharashtra and Kuntala. The Puranas state that ten Abhiras ruled for, 67 years. The Nashik inscription peaks of king Madhuriputra Ishvarasena, the Abhir and a son of Shivadatla. This dynasty originated in A. D. 249-50, an era called Kalachuri or Chedi in later times. During this time Nashik was called as Triashmi by some Sanskrit poets of Tribes.The founder of the Abhira dynasty was Rajan Ishvarasena, the son of Shivadatta, who has left an inscription in cave IX at Nasik. It records the investment of hundreds of Karshapanas in certain guilds at Nasik for providing medicines for the sick among the Buddhist mendicants residing in the Viharas of Trirashmi. Ishvarasena started an era commencing in A.D. 250, which later became known as the Kalachuri-Chedi era. The earlier dates of this era come from Northern Maharashtra, Gujarat, Central India and Vidarbha. Judging by the expansion of this era, Ishvarasena and his descendants seem to have ruled a large territory comprising Gujarat, Konkan and Northern Maharashtra. Ishvarasena was followed by nine other kings of the family . They state that they rule for 167 years.
Traikutakas(490 A.D): The Traikutakas took their family name from the mountain Trikuta which borders the Nasik district on the west. The names of three Traikutaka kings, viz., Indradatta, Dahrasena and Vyaghrasena have become known from their inscriptions and coins found in the Nasik district and Gujarat. Dahrasena performed an Ashvamedha and was, therefore, an independent king. A copper-plate grant discovered at Pardi in the Surat district records the donation, by Dahrasena, of the village Kaniyas-Tadakasarika in the Antarmandali vishaya to a Brahmana residing at Kapura.Dahrasena was succeeded by his son Vyaghrasena who had to acknowledge the supremacy of the Vakataka king Harishena. His copper-plate grant, dated in the year 241 (A.D. 490) of the Abhira era was discovered at Surat and records the donation of the village Purohita-palIika.
Vishnukundins: After the downfall of the Vakatakas in the beginning of the sixth century A.D. Vidarbha was occupied for some time by the Vishnukundin king Madhavavarman I. He married a Vakataka princess who was probably a daughter or some other near relative of the last known Vakataka Emperor Harishena. He took advantage of the opportunity afforded by the downfall of the Vakatakas and extended his dominion far and Wide. He performed several Vedic sacrifices including eleven Ashvamedhas. That he had brought even Western Maharashtra under his rule is shown by his copper-plate grant discovered at Khanapur in the Satara district. His grandson Madhavavarman II describes himself as the lord of Trikuta and Malaya. So he may have ruled in Western Maharashtra for some time.
Kalachuris (550-573 A.D) : The Vishnukundins were, however, ousted from Maharashtra and Vidarbha by the Kalachuri king Krishnaraja, who rose to power in about A.D. 550. He ruled from Mahishmati, modern Maheshvara, in the former Indore State. His coins have been found over a wide territory extending from Rajputana in the north to Maharashtra in the south in the village Devlana in the Baglan taluka of the Nasik district. The hoard comprised 82 coins. The coins were known as Krishnarajarupakas and have been mentioned in the Anjaneri plates dated in the year 461 of the Abhira era (corresponding to A.D. 710-11). They were therefore in circulation for at least 150 years after the time of Krishnaraja.Krishnaraja was succeeded by his son Shankaragana, whose copper plate, grant has been discovered at Abhona in the Nasik District.It is dated in the year 347 of the Abhira era, corresponding to A.D. 597.The grant shows that Shankaragana was, like his father, ruling over an extensive kingdom stretching from Malva in the north to at least the Nasik and Aurangabad districts in the south.Shankaragana was succeeded by his son Buddharaja, who was involved in a struggle with the Chalukya king Mangalesha on the southern frontier of his kingdom soon after his accession.
Chalukyas of Badami(543A.D-754 A.D):
The Chalukyas of Badami rose to power in the first half of the sixth century A.D. The Badami stone inscription of Pulakeshin I, who is the first independent ruler of this dynasty, is dated in A.D.543. He performed the Ashvamedha and several other Shrauta sacrifices. He was succeeded by his son Kirtivarman I, who made some conquests in South India and is described as the night of destruction to the Nalas (of the Bastar district), the Mauryas of Konkan and the Kadambas of Vanavasi (in North Kanara).When Kirtivarman died,his younger brother Mangalesha succeeded him. Mangalesha's reign ended in disaster and he lost his life in a civil war with his nephew Pulakeshin II.The capital of Pulakesin II in the beginning of his reign was Badami in the Bijapur district.The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang calls him the lord of Maharashtra. This shows that he must have visited him somewhere in Maharashtra.Several identifications of his capital have been proposed by scholars from the description of it given by the Chinese pilgrim, but the most likely view seems to be that of Fleet and Burgess, who identify it with Nasik. Pulakeshin's grant dated in the Shaka year 552 (A.D. 630) was found at Lohaner in the Baglana taluka of the Nasik district. It is dated in the Shaka year 552 (A.D. 630) and records Pulakeshin's grant of the village Goviyanaka to a Brahmana residing at Lohanagara (modern Lohaner).
Pulakeshin was killed in battle at Badami in circa A.D. 642 by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman, who conquered Vatapi and assumed the title of Vatapi-konda (the conqueror of Vatapi).Pulakeshin II was succeeded by his son Vikramaditya I (A.D. 655-681), after a long continued struggle. He appointed his younger brother Dharashraya-Jayasimha to govern South Gujarat, North Konkan and the Nasik district. Jayasimha's Nasik plates are dated in the Abhira year 436 (A.D. 685) and record his grant of the village Dhondhaka on the occasion of the Vishuva or vernal equinox. Dhondhaka is identical with Dhondegaon, 12 miles north by west of Nasik. From two land-grants recently discovered at Anjaneri, a village near Trimbak in the Nasik district, we have come to know of a feudatory family which ruled over Northern Konkan and the Nasik district in the seventh and eighth centuries A.D. This family claimed descent from Harishchandra, the famous legendary king of the Solar race. Svamichandra, who rose to power in the reign of Vikramaditya I, was the founder of this family, and flourished in circa A.D. 660. Three generations of this family are known from the two sets of Anjaneri plates-Svamichandra, his son Simhavarman and the latter's son Bhogashakti alias Prithivichandra, who made the two grants. One of them is dated in the year 461 of the Abhira era, corresponding to A.D. 710-11. It records the grant of eight villages and certain rites, dues and taxes in favour of the god Narayana, who was named Bhogeshvara evidently after king Bhogashakti, and was installed in a temple at Jayapura, modern Jarwar Budrukh near Anjaneri.The second set of Anjaneri plates tells us that Bhogashakti granted certain right, privileges and exemptions to the merchants of Samagiripattana when he resettled the town and the neighbouring villages some time after their devastation. Bhogashakti's successor was probably overthrown by the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga, who, from his Ellora plates, is known to have occupied the Nasik district some time before A.D. 715. Kirtivarman, the last of the Early Chalukyas, was defeated by Dantidurga some time before A.D. 754, when lie issued his Samangad plates. Kirtivarman continued to rule for a few years more, but he had lost the paramount position in the Deccan.
Rashtrakuta Dynasty(754A.D-950A.D) :
The Rashtrakutas who succeeded the Chalukya in the Deccan originally hailed from Lattalura. When they rose to power they were probably residing in the Aurangabad district, where their earlier records have been found. Dantidurga was the real founder of the Rashtrakuta imperial power. Dantidurga made extensive conquests. Dantidurga was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I. who completed the conquests and shattered the power of the Early Chalukyas completely. Krishna I was not only a great conqueror but also a great builder. The Rashtrakuta family produced several great conquerors who boldly invaded North and South India and achieved memorable victories such as Druva , Govinda II . Several copper-plate grants of Govinda III have been found in the Vidarbha and Marathwada Divisions of Maharashtra. It is not possible to give a description of all of them, but we may refer to that discovered in the Nasik district. A set of plates was discovered at Wani in the Dindori taluka of the Nasik district. It was issued by Govinda III and is dated in the Shaka year 730 (A.D. 808) and records the grant of Ambakagram in the Vatanagara vishaya in the Nasikadesha to Brahmana Damodarabhatta, an inhabitant of Vengi, who belonged to the community of the Chaturvedins of that place . Govinda III was succeeded by his son Amoghavarsha I. who was a man of peaceful disposition, but whose reign was full of troubles. In later years The Rashtrakuta feudatories, who rose in rebellion against Govinda IV, deposed him and placed his uncle Baddiga-Amogha varsha III on the throne. The latter was a man of quiet nature and spiritual temperament, who left the administration of the kingdom entirely to his ambitious and able son Krishna III. Like some of his illustrious ancestors, Krishna III also led an expedition in North India and captured the forts of Kalanjara and Chitrakuta. He succeeded his father in A.D. 939.
The Rashtrakuta power became weak after the death of Krishna III. Within six years his large empire crumbled to pieces like a house of cards. Tailap II, the founder of the Later Chalukya dynasty, who was a Mahasamanta of the Rashtrakutas, suddenly came into prominence. The Paramara king Vakpati Munja planned to invade the Chalukya dominion but his wise minister Rudraditya advised him not to cross the Godavari, which was the boundary between the Chalukya and Paramara dominions. Munja did not heed his advice and was taken prisoner by Tailapa. He was placed in a prison where he was waited upon by Tailapa's sister Mrinalavati. He fell in love with her and foolishly disclosed to her the plan of his escape. She communicated it to Tailapa, who is said to have made him beg from door to door and then beheaded him. One of the noteworthy successor after Talipa II was the most famous is Vikramaditya VI, the founder of the Chalukya-Vikrama Samvat. He ascended the throne in A.D. 1075. Tailap III, the last Chalukya king, was overthrown by the Kalachuri Bijjala, who was his Commander-in-Chief, in A.D. 1157.
Yadavas( ?-1318 A.D) :
In the last quarter of the twelfth century A.D. the Yadavas of Devagiri came into prominence. They had previously been ruling over Seunadesha (Khandesh) as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The founder of the family was Dridhaprahara, the son of Subahu. His capital was Shrinagara as stated in the Vratakhanda, while from an early inscription it appears to have been Chandradityapura, which is identified with the modern Chandor in the Nasik district. His son and successor was Seunachandra, from whom the country ruled over by him came to be known as Seunadesha. This corresponds to modern Khandesh. It comprised the country extending from Nasik to Devagiri.King Seunachandra established city called Seunpur/Sindiner ( sinnar). From a stone inscription found at Anjaneri near Nasik it appears that there was a minor branch of the Yadava family ruling at Anjaneri. Seunadeva of this branch made some grant to a Jain temple. Seunadeva calls himself Mahasamanta and evidently was dependent on the main branch. This family ruled over a small district of which Anjaneri was the chief city. there were many noteworthy rulers in the Yadava dynasty . In A D. 1294 Ala-ud-din Khilji invaded the kingdom of Ramachandra and suddenly appeared before the gates of Devagiri. Ramachandra was taken unawares and could not hold out long. He had to pay a heavy ransom to the Muslim conqueror. He continued, however, to rule till A.D. 1310 at least; for the aforementioned Purushottampuri plates are dated in that year. He was succeeded by his son Shankaragana some time in A.D. 1311. He discontinued sending the stipulated tribute to Delhi. He was then defeated and slain by Malik Kafur. Some time thereafter, Harapaladeva, the son-in-law of Ramachandra, raised an insurrection and drove away the Muhammedans, but his success was short-lived. The Hindu kingdom of Devagiri thus came to an end in A.D. 1318.During their rule a peculiar style of architecture called Hemadpanti after Hemadri or Hemadpant, a minister of Mahadeva and Ramachandra came into vogue. Temples built in this style are found in all the districts of Maharashtra.Marathi literature also flourished in the age of the Yadavas. Chakradhara, who propagated the Mahanubhava cult in that age, used Marathi as the medium of his religious teaching. Following his example, several of his followers composed literary works in Marathi.
Maratha period : Nashik area was under control of Mughals till ‘Aurangjeb’s death i.e. 1747A.D.
After 1747 A.D. Nashik area fully came under Maratha kingdom.
Chieftain Naroshankar Raje Bahadar built Rameshwara temple and hung Naroshankar bell over there.
Kapaleshwara temple was built in 1738 A.D.
Chieftain Chandrachud built Sundar Narayana temple in 1756A.D.
Chieftain Aadekar rebuilt Kalaram temple in 1790A.D.
Nijam Ul Mulk Asaf Jahan’ died in 1748A.D. and his son Nasir Jung became king. After Bajirao’s death his elder son Nanasaheb became new Peshava. But in this new kingdom era also, Nijam and Maratha conflicts were continued. Nasir Jung got murdered in 1751A.D. and Nijam’s third son took the authority. He attacked Marathas from Aurangabad with the help of French people. But Marathas and Nijam’s third son were agreed on peace talks and battle got cancelled in 1752A.D. According to these peace talks Marathas received all Khandesh area between Godavari and Tapi river under their rule. In 1751A.D, after Nijam’s death Marathas started using the name ‘Nashik’ for the city. As it was called ‘Gulshanabad’ in Nijam’s rule. In 1760-61 A.D, after ‘Salabat Jung’s defeat, Nashik was an important city for Peshavas.
In 1761 A.D. Madhavrao became new Peshava, after Nanasaheb’s death.
1763A.D. – Vinayak Rao abandoned Nashik, Junnar and Sangamner cities. Peshavas appointed Balaji Sakharam as governor of a Bagal province.
Peshava’s were ruling this area till 1818A.D. Thomas Hyslow andbritish army conquered Kopargaon and north side of Chandwad in 1818A.D.
They conquered Thalner from Khandesh area, Chandwad fort on 7th March 1818. At the end of March 1818A.D, British army conquered total Nashik area in battle with Holkars.
British period : British people conquered all Maratha kingdom and declared Nashik as an important city as a Division People from ‘Bhilla’ community started protest against British government. Almost 7000 people from south Nashik and north Ahemadnagar contributed in the protest march. ‘Magoji Naik’ was main leader in the march; he reunited all the tribal people. British army sent lieutenant Henry, T. Thatcher, L. Tailor to deal with the ‘Bhilla’ people. Before attacking ‘Bhillas’, governor of Sangamner and Sinnar area asked ‘Magoji Naik’ to surrender; but he refused. ‘Bhogoji Naik’ was another important leader from the ‘Bhilla’ people. After a tough battle British army could gain the control back in hand over Nashik area. Then there was a peace till 1860A.D. 1860A.D. - Nashik received a rank of ‘separate district’.
1861A.D. - British started Anglo-vernacular school
1864A.D.- Nashik city received a ‘Nagar Parishad’ status. First newspaper in Nashik area started in this period which was called as ‘Nashik news’.
1877A.D.- Gopal Hari Deshmukh and ‘Nyayamurthi Mahadev Ranade’ entered in social life of Nashik city.
1899A.D.- Veer Vinayak Sawarkar whose birthplace is Bhagur in Nashik secretly started ‘Rashtrabhakta’ organization. ‘Mitramela’ group also gave fame to Nashik.
Veer Sawarkar visited London and stayed there. He administered ‘Mitramela’ group from London.
Lokmanya Tilak conducted a protest march against British government in Nashik, on 31 May 1907.
Hutatma Anant Kanhere took part in ‘Mitramela’ group and in its social work.
Anant Kanhere shot dead Mr Jackson, a cruel collector of Nashik, on 21 December 1909.
Krishna Gopal Karve, Narayan Joshi, Ganesh Joshi were got interrogated in Mr Jackson’s murder case.
British government hanged Mr. Kanhere, Karve, and Deshpande for Mr. Jakson’s murder.
British army arrested Veer Sawarkar and kept in prison.
Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar also contributed in Nashik’s development.
Dr Ambedkar fought for rights of untouched people and gave them right to enter Hindu temples. This is called as ‘Kalaram Satyagraha’.British people conquered all Maratha kingdom and declared Nashik as an important city as a Division
Some of the major events in history of Nashik in last 3 centuries were:
- 1615 : The City was captured by Moguls(Kaustubh Shimpi) from Nijamshah Sultan
- 1634 : The City was recaptured by Shahaji Raje for his new state of Nijamshah Headqaurtered in Pemgiri(Near Sangamner)
- 1636 : Shahaji Raje made Pact with Mogul Nashik again moved to Mogul rule
- 1663 : Netaji Palkar recovered "Chauthai" from Nashik for Shivaji Maharaj of Pune
- 1673 : Jadhavrao and Siddi Halal left job of Mogul and joined army of Shivaji Maharaj on Tribak Fort thus Nashik became part of Maratha rule
- 1685 : Aurangjeb Captured Nashik City during Sambhaji Maharaj's rule.
- 1695 : City was raided by Santaji followed by Temporary Maratha Rule
- 1719 : Officially Shahu got right to collect "Chauthai" of City from Moguls of Delhi
- 1725 : The city frequently camped by Marathas who heading to Malwa, Gujrat for campaigns.
- 1734 : The 'Gulshanabad' city was given name 'NASHIK'.
- 1862 : Nashik Road railway station was built.
- 1864 : Nashik Municipality formed
- 1869 : Nashik district formed.
Nashik also participated in the freedom struggle of India. On 21 December 1909, 17-year-old Anant Kanhere shot the Collector of Nashik, Jackson in a theatre named Vijayanand theatre, where he had gone to see a play Sharada. Jackson died on the spot. The people involved in the incident, Anant Laxman Kanhere, Krishnaji Gopal Karve and Vinayak Ramchandra Deshpande were sentenced to death by hanging and were hanged soon after.
In 1930, the Nashik Satyagraha was launched under the leadership of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar for the entry of Dalits in Kalaram Temple. In 1931, a meeting of the Bombay Province Charmkar Parishad was organised in Nashik to work out the Chambhars' position with regard to the Second Round Table Conference in which Babasaheb was going to participate. In 1932, Babasaheb organized his temple entry movement for the abolition of untouchability in Nashik.
There is a confusion whether it is pronounced Nasik or Nashik. Before 1982 both the city and district were called by the name Nasik. In 7 November 1982 the population of Nasik City exceeded to 1.2 million, so as per incorporation rules, Nasik City became a Corporation. Since then the city name has changed to Nashik City.
According to Ramayana, Lord Rama, the King of Ayodhya, made Nashik his home during his 14 years in exile. At the same place Lakshmana, cut off the nose of Surpanakha and thus this place was named as "Nasik" (in Sanskrit Nasika means nose). Several other references to the Ramayana can be found in Nashik, which includes the Sita Gumpha caves, from where Sita, Lord Rama's wife, was abducted by Ravana. Danda (alias Dandaka, a kingdom and a forest had the same name) was a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. Ravana's governor Khara ruled this province. It was the stronghold of all the Rakshasa tribes living in the Dandaka Forest. It is roughly the Nashik District, Maharashtra with Janasthana (Nashik city) as its capital. It was from here that the Rakshasa Khara attacked Raghava Rama of Kosala, who lived with his wife and brother at Panchavati (modern day Nashik), not far away.
Dandakaranya: This is one of the oldest forest areas from south region. This was widely spread from Vindhya mountain ranges to the banks of Krishna River. In Ramayana, we found stories about how this forest has been named as Dandakaranya. Dand, The youngest son of King Ikshwaku, was arrogant and mad since childhood. Because of Dand’sincapability, his father offered a distant region located between Vindhya and Shaival mountains. Dand populated his own town called "Madhuvant Nagar" between these two peaks and stayed there. He appointed Shukracharya as his priest. He was indomitable for many years. Once he went to Shukracharya’s hermitage where he saw shukracharya’s elder daughter ‘Araja’. And he fall in love with Araja and he took disadvantage of hers. But when he realized what he did he got frightened with the thoughts of getting cursed by Shukracharya.Hense he ran away to his township. When shukracharya returned to hermitage he came to know what happened in his absence. He cursed "Dand" that "Indra (King of heaven) will shower dust in your Madhuvant Nagar and you’ll be buried in it with all your power and money..!"
Places of Cultural Significance
Located on the northeastern part of Maharashtra state, Nashik is a major Hindu pilgrimage city with rich culture and heritage. It is located on the banks of the sacred river named Godavari, on the western part of the Deccan Peninsula. This is the third largest industrial township of Maharashtra state.
Panchavati has significant religious significance for Hindus with a temple complex on the bend of the Godavari river, which includes Kalaram Temple. It is a pilgrimage site, with the Kumbh Mela, the largest peaceful gathering in the world – involving over 100 million people in 2013, taking place here once every twelve years in rotation with Haridwar, Allahabad, and Ujjain.
In Hindu theology, as outlined in the epic Ramayana, Panchavati was the place in the forest of Dandakaranya (Danda Kingdom), where Rama built his home along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshman during their period of exile in the wilderness. Panchavati literally means "a garden of five banyan trees". These trees are said to have been there during the exile of Lord Rama. There is a place called Tapovan where Lakshmana, the brother of Rama, cut off the nose of Surpanakha, the sister of Ravana, when she attempted to kill Sita. The entire Aranya Kanda (book of the forest) of Ramayana is set in Panchavati.
It is the oldest of its kind in the Maharashtra. Visitors can come across various Buddhist Viharas. Also the caves house extensive writings in Brahmi scripts. Behind the caves, Asia’s famous artillery center is located. The Indian Army possesses the center and the entry of civilians is restricted.
This tank is a holy place for Hindus. Devotees believe that a dip in this tank will fulfill their wishes. According to Hindu mythology, Lord Rama bathed in this tank during his stay in Nashik.
Located seven km away from Nashik, this temple with intricate architecture was constructed out of white marble. Tourists can see carvings of 18 chapters from Bhagawad Gita, the great Indian religious text.
This temple is dedicated to Lord Rama. It was built in 1794. Tourists are enthralled by its huge 70 feet black stone structure. The temple’s gold-plated copper pagodas are enriched with intricate art work.
Situated on the corner of Ahillyabai Holkar bridge, this temple was built in 1756 by Chandrachud. The sanctum sanctorum houses the idol of Lord Vishnu.
This Gumpha (meaning cave) is located near Panchavati in Nashik and it is one of the crowd pullers of the city. Tourists can reach the cave after taking steep, narrow flights of steps. Within the cave, visitors can worship the idols of Lord Rama and his consort Sita Devi, along with his brother Lord Lakshmana. Hindu mythology says, it was from this place Sita Devi was kidnapped by the demon King called Ravana.
Tourists who are really interested in gaining information about various currency systems of ancient India must visit this museum in Nashik. The museum houses a huge collection of real coins, replicas, line drawings, articles and photographs of coins.
Being a well known holy place of India, this shrine is one among the 12 Jyotirlingas. It is just 30 km from Nashik. The shrine houses a Shiva Linga in the sanctum sanctorum. Devotees believe that a person will attain salvation after visiting this temple. The sacred river Godavari originates here.
This, one of the oldest temples dedicated to Lord Shiva, is located six km away from Nashik on the road to Gangapur. The temple is located on the banks of the Godavari river.
Nashik is located in northern Maharashtra at 600 m (2,000 ft) from the mean sea level. The river Godavari originates 24 km (15 mi) from Nashik and flows along the northern boundary of the city through the old residential settlement in the city. Nashik lies on western edge of the Deccan Plateau which is a volcanic formation. The soil here is primarily black which is favorable for agriculture. Trimbakeshwar is about 30 km (19 mi) from the city, from where river Godavari originates. The total land area of the city is about 259.13 km2 (100.05 sq mi) which makes it the third largest urban area of Maharashtra after Mumbai Metropolitan Region and the Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad Urban Region (together as second).
|Climate data for Nashik City|
|Average high °C (°F)||28
|Average low °C (°F)||9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||1.1
|Source: wunderground. com|
According to the Census of India, 2011, Nashik had a population of 1,480,769. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Nashik had an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 64%; male literacy was 80%, and female literacy was 66%. In Nashik, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. In the same year (census year 2001) the Nashik Urban Agglomeration had a population of 1,152,326 and thus it was the fourth largest urban area of Maharashtra State after Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur. The projected population of Nashik urban agglomeration (which includes abutting urban areas like Deolali) as on 11 November 2012 is 1,562,769. 52.5% of Nashik's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Nashik is the headquarters of Nashik District and is also the headquarters of Nashik Revenue Division of Maharashtra. Maharashtra has a total of six revenue divisions. The city is administered by the Nashik Municipal Corporation which came into existence in 1982 by combining Nashik Municipality and surrounding civic bodies i.e. Nashik Road Municipality.
A planned area was introduced in Nashik which was designed and executed by CIDCO (New Nashik) which is now administered by the Nashik Municipal Corporation.
Deolali, which is also a part of the Nashik urban agglomeration, has a separate civic body called the Deolali Cantonment Board.
Solid waste management
In the entire Nashik Municipal Corporation area about 225 MT of solid waste is generated per day. Unlike other Indian cities, this garbage is collected by vehicles titled 'Ghantagadi' (meaning the vehicle with a bell); a system which has resulted into a 'garbage dump free' city. Smaller versions of the ghantagadi ply in the congested old city areas. A plant has been set by the Nashik Municipal Corporation near Pandav Leni (Pandavleni Caves) to process the garbage and convert into compost.
Rain water harvesting
The Nashik Municipal Corporation has made it mandatory for new constructions in the city to install a rain water harvesting system without which a completion certificate is not granted to the construction. This measure is expected to help recharge the aquifers and augment the ground water level in the city.
Nashik host one of the largest religious gatherings in the world known as Maha Kumbh. Kumbh mela (festival) is celebrated once in twelve years. The Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Allahabad, the Purna (complete) Kumbh takes place every twelve years at four places in Allahabad, Haridwar, Ujjain, and Nashik. Previous kumbh mela was in year 2003. Next kumbh mela will be held from 15 August to 13 September in 2015.
A new organization Kumbha.org is collaborating with MIT to bring innovative solutions to 2015 Kumbh via a Kumbhathon model. The innovation is applicable for 'pop-up cities' in developing counties. During October 2014 INKtalks, the MIT and Nasik team presented their plans.
There are many private healthcare facilities as well as a government run civil hospital. The Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (MUHS) is situated at Nashik. Nashik has many major corporate hospitals like Apollo Hospital, Wockhardt Hospital, Sahyadri Hospital, etc.
There is a Hindustan Aeronautics Limited aircraft manufacturing plant located 10 mi (16 km) from Nashik, which employs about 7000 people.HAL is one of the largest employers in nashik city and there is further scope of aerospace manufacturing development with the liberalization of defence policy of the government. The Currency Note Press  and India Security Press are located in Nashik Road, where Indian currency and government stamp papers are printed respectively. Manufacturers who have set up plants in the Nashik MIDC area include:Bosch India, Mahindra and Mahindra, CEAT, Thyssen Krupp, Epcos, Atlas Copco, Crompton Greaves, ABB, GlaxoSmithKline, Cipla, L&T, Schneider Electric, Jindal Steel, Lear Corporation, Kirloskar, IBP, Coca Cola, Siemens, Parle G, Shalimar Paints.
Nashik is also emerging as a business process outsourcing (BPO/IT) destination and is on a list of the emerging Tier II cities for BPO/IT companies. There are some renowned IT companies in Nashik like Ampcus Tech Pvt.LTD, Datamatics, Winjit Technologies, Tecsys Solutions Pvt. Ltd, Netwin Systems & Software (I) Pvt Ltd, gloStream, Garyhat Vision Technologies Pvt Ltd., RackMyServer, ESDS Software Solutions Pvt Ltd, Aress Software & Education Technologies (P) Ltd, WNS Global Services, SG STUDIO 4 Technologies Pvt. Ltd., ZTEK Consulting Pvt.Ltd.etc. Currently there is one private IT park called Vascon, and another under construction at Ambad named Anand Mahindra IT Park. Accenture is setting up its new unit in Nashik, which will be functional in few months. 18 new IT companies have also started construction in Nashik.
There are two thermal power plants, the Nashik Thermal Power Station and the Indiabulls Power Ltd Sinnar. Also, Suzlon energy has wind power generation in Sinnar.. The Government has granted permission for starting four sugar factories under private sector as a result of the liberalisation. One sugar factory in private sector has started functioning in Satana Block (Dwarkadhish). Copper and Brass utensils were made by Tambats (Kansaras) who came from Gujrat some 300 years ago. Other industries were silk and silk dyeing, Calico Printing, blanket weaving, paper manufacture etc.
There is also has some textile industry, e.g. carpet weaving in remote areas like Surgana Block, with export quality carpets prepared in and around Umbarthan. NABARD has selected Yeola Block for development of Paithani Cluster. To facilitate the export a Container Freight Station has been started at MIDC Ambad by the Central Government. Subsequently Co-Operative Industrial Estates have been started at Sinnar, Manmad, Yeola, Igatpuri, Kalwan, Pimpalgaon and Malegaon.
Nashik also has 36 world class wineries out of 74 in Maharashtra. The district has been identified for the purpose of establishment of Wine Park and Food Park.Nashik is known as the "wine capital of India". Nashik has also many liquor manufacturing factories, such as United Spirits Ltd, Pernod-Ricard, and Sula Vineyards. To meet the requirements of trained personnel and skilled people, training arrangements have been made at Govt. ITI, Private ITI, Polytechnic Colleges, Engineering Colleges.
Nashik is famous for grapes, onions, and tomatoes. Nashik was famous for its table grapes for a very long time. Also known as Wine Capital of India, In early 1925, the Table Grape revolution was started in Ojhar, a small town near Nashik. Today, table grapes are being exported to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.
Bajra is important crop of the district. However other crops like wheat, paddy and other cereals are also grown in various parts of the District. Paddy is mainly grown in tribal belt i.e. Igatpuri, Peth, and Surgana Blocks. Vegetables and onion were the main cash crops for last 30 years. Because of the variety of vegetables and its supply to Mumbai, the district was known as the backyard of Mumbai. After establishment of sugar factories, sugar cane has acquired an important position in the agriculture economy of the district. One sugar factory under private sector at Ravalgaon and other sugar factories under co-operative sector at Niphad, Ranwad, Palse, Materewadi and Vithewadi are functioning in the district. Economic development in the rural area with speed started only after establishment of sugar factories.[clarification needed] The Government has granted permission for starting four sugar factories in the private sector as a result of the liberalisation. One sugar factory in the private sector has been started in Satana Block. This development was however concentrated around the existing sugar factories. For the last 20 years grapes have acquired dominance on the agricultural economy of district. Due to water shortage in Kalwan, Deola, Baglan and Malegaon blocks, the farmers have shifted to pomegranate from sugar cane and grape crops. Some progressive farmers are cultivating flowers in greenhouses.
Nashik traditionally boasts of a Maharashtrian cuisine with influences from Khandesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The modern city however offers a range of restaurants with cuisines ranging from Punjabi, South Indian to Chinese and European cuisines. Variety of decent hotels in Nashik city serve food ranging from regions' spicy fare to international cuisine.
Cricket is the most popular sport in Nashik. The old city also patronizes traditional Maharashtrian sports like Kabbaddi and Kho Kho. The Nashik Gymkhana is the principal place for playing formal sports and also to get formal training. There are three swimming pools, at Ashwin Nagar, Trimbak Road, and at Nashik Road, run by the civil administration. Gulf Cup Dirt Track Racing took place in the city in 2011. In September 2012 the WISA Motor Rally took place in the city. Also, the last 4 years a Nashik Premier League replicating the Indian Premier League has been playing. There are several stadiums in Nashik City, like Chhatrapati Raje Sambhaji Stadium, Anant Kanhere Maidan, Chatrapati Shivaji Stadium, and Mahatma Nagar Ground.
Nashik has been the educational hub of North Maharashtra. The city has two state-run universities, the Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University and the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences. Colleges in Nashik are affiliated to the University of Pune (Savitribai Phule Pune University ).The University of Pune has announced setting up of an additional campus in Nashik which is to be located on Dindori road and spread over 100 acres of land.Today the city houses a large number of private and governmental educational institutions offering higher education in Medicine, Engineering & Technology, Architecture, Pharmacy, Military Management among others. Bhonsala Military School is the oldest residential school in Nashik. Indian Railway has also established its Advanced Training Institute for electrical engineers namely, Indian Railway Institute of Electrical Engineers IREEN here at Nashik. Nashik is also home to private institutions such as Symbiosis School in Ashwin Nagar, Divyadaan: Salesian Institute of Philosophy on Don Bosco Marg off College Road, Sacred Heart Sisters of Sacred Heart Convent High School lies here. Various Colleges like Gokhale Education Society's R. H. Sapat College of Engineering, Management Studies and Research,Jawahar Education Society's Institute of Technology, Management and Research at Gangapur Road, Matoshri Education Society and KTHM College are located here. Nashik also hosts one of the most prominent B-schools in the country: Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management (SIOM), a unique institution for Engineers, that offers management programs in operations under the banner of Symbiosis International University which is ranked 66th in India. The city has now adapted to redefine the system of professional education. Educational giants like Mumbai Educational Trust's (MET) Bhujbal Knowledge City, Sapkal Knowledge Hub and Sandip Foundation have set up their campuses with world-class infrastructure and facilities. These institutions are attracting foreign students to pursue their education in Nashik.
Nashik is on the intersection of two National Highways: the Mumbai–Agra Highway NH-3 and the Nashik–Pune Highway NH-50. Apart from these, other major cities like Aurangabad are connected via a state highway which is also 4 lane highway. Nashik is easily accessible by road from Gujarat state in western India. There are other numerous State Highways which offer very good road connectivity to Nashik. Nashik is well connected to Mumbai through Mumbai Nashik Expressway which is a part of Mumbai-Agra Highway (NH3)connects Dhule and Indore to the city on the other side of the highway. Pune is connected through NH 50 which is to be upgraded into a four lane road soon. City offers best and modern Road infrastructure & also jail road is most populer area in nashik in which famous central jail is sitted.
Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs cheaper transport service for intercity, interstate, interstate travel. It has Three bus stations in Nashik: Nashik Bus Sthanak (CBS-1) at Thakkar bazar, Mahamarg bus stand and old CBS. Its services include semiluxury 2+2 NEEM AARAAM, Parivartan 2+2, Asiad 2+2, and ordinary ST 2+3. Bus services are available for big cities in and around the states like Indore, Amravati, Pune, Aurangabad, Shirdi, Mumbai, Nanded, Nagpur, Akola, Jalgaon, Bhusawal, Latur, Buldhana, Washim, Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur, Ratnagiri, Yavatmal, Ahmednagar, Osmanabad, Solapur, Pandharpur, Surat, Ahmadabad, Vadodara etc.
Nashik city bus service
Nashik city bus service is available from various area in nashik city. it has one depot in Panchvati. City bus service run by MSRTC under the JNNURM.
Gujarat State road transport corporation (GSRTC) also runs from nashik and shirdi for various city in Gujarat. Its service include ordinary services. Bus services are available for Gujarat state like Ahmadabad, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Patan, Palanpur, Gondal, Amreli, Junagad, Rajpipla, Vadodara, Vapi, Valsad, Navsari.
Rajasthan State road transport corporation (RSRTC) Rajasthan state road transport also provide bus service for Udaipur from shirdi.
Karnataka state road transport corporation (KSRTC) Karnataka state road transport also provide bus service to various cities in karnataka like Bidar, Gulbarga, Belgam, Hubli, Bijapur etc. from Nashik and Trymbekashwar.
Nashik Road Railway Station is the major railway station in the city which is around 10 km (6.2 mi) from the central area of the city. Deolali railway station is around 20 km from the city which serves the military cantonment area. Nashik Road railway station is an important railway station for Central Railway it generates highest revenue in Bhusawal division.Manmad railway station comes under Nashik district and serves huge importance for visitors travelling towards Shirdi from North and South India.Igatpuri railway station is another major railway station where DC to AC conversion of electric lines are carried out by changing the engine.It has four major platforms. the fourth platform is announced recently
Nashik Road falls on the Mumbai–Bhusawal route of the Central Railways. Nashik is directly connected to various major cities in India like Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Nagpur, Kanpur, Guwahati etc. There are a few trains connecting Southern and Northern parts of India which travel via Nashik.
Nashik will also be getting a rail connectivity to Pune through Nashik Pune Rail line and to Indore by Manmad Indore Rail Line and a new platform as announced in Rail Budget debate recently.
Nashik was one of the few cities to have tramway in India. It operated for few years in the pre-independence era.
Nashik's Ozar Airport (IATA: ISK, ICAO: VAOZ) is located at a distance of 20 km (12 mi) from the city centre. The new airport terminal at Ozar was inaugurated by Minister Praful Patel on 3 March 2014. This will boost the connectivity and tourism. The flights will soon start from the new terminal. Nashik also has another airport, namely Gandhinagar Airport (IATA: VANR), with a shorter runway, and hence unfit for modern-day passenger aircraft. The government run Vayudoot used to operate a service to Mumbai from, that airport during the 1980s. A military airport is present in Deolali Cantonment.It will carry only domestic flights till date.
There are a number of notable places in or near Nashik, including the Gargoti Museum, which has a collection of zeolites (micro porous crystalline solids), and is located 32 km (20 mi) from Nashik in a town called Sinnar. There is also the Coin Museum, founded in 1980, which has a collection about the Indian currency system, including coins, moulds, dyes, replicas and photographs. About 30 km (19 mi) from Nashik is the Dugarwadi waterfall. Nashik is also called as pilgrimage city. Nashik is one of the places where Kumbh Mela is held. There are holy temples like Shree KalaRam Mandir, Trimbakeshwar Temple, Saptshrungi Vani Gad, Gondeshwar Temple, Shree Sunder Narayan Temple, Muktidham, Bhakti Dham, Shree Kapaleshwar Mahadev, Shree Laxmi Narayan Temple, Shree Someshwar Temple, Shree Ved Temple and Dutondya Maruti. The other major tourist attraction includes Artillery Centre, Nandur Madhmeshwar, Dhammagiri, Saputara, Bhandardara & Kalsubai Peak, Chamber Caves, Shree Godavari Ramkund, Sita Gumpha, Pandavleni Caves, Godavari Ghat, Ramkund, Dadasaheb Phalke Memorial, Veer Savarkar Smarak, Dudhsagar Falls, Jawhar, Blue Lagoon Water Park, Shrine of the Infant Jesus, Yoga Vidya Dham, Akhil Bhartiya Shree Swami Samarth Gurupeeth in Trimakeshwar, Shree Swami Samarth Kendra in Dindori, Shubham Water World and Sula Vineyard.
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- Kusumagraj (Vishnu Vāman Shirwādkar) (eminent Marathi poet, playwright, novelist, short story writer, humanist)
- Vasant Shankar Kanetkar (Marathi playwright and novelist)
- Bahinabai Chaudhary (Marathi poetess)
- Vishnu Digambar Paluskar (Hindustani musician)
- Pandit Dattatreya Vishnu Paluskar (Hindustani classical vocalist)
- Shekhar Ravjiani (Music Director - Lived in Nashik for a couple of years)
- Dadasaheb Phalke (Father of Indian Cinema - Producer, Director and Screenwriter)
- Vinod Khanna (Indian Actor and Producer - Studied at Barnes School in Nashik
- Dilip Kumar (Studied at Barnes School in Nashik
- Rajeev Patil(Marathi Film Director)
- Arjun Rampal (Indian film actor, producer, model and a television host - Lived in Deolali)
- Arshad Warsi (Indian film actor, choreographer and a dancer - Studied at Barnes School in Nashik
- Sayali Bhagat (Indian Actress and Femina Miss India World winner - 2004)
- Ashwini Kalsekar (Indian Actress)
- Lalita Pawar (Indian Actress)
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (Indian pro-independence activistmn, politician, poet, writer and playwright)
- Anant Laxman Kanhere (Indian independence fighter)
- Madhavrao Limaye (Freedom fighter and journalist)
- Krishnaji Gopal Karve (Indian freedom fighter and a revolutionary)
- Tatya Tope (Ramachandra Pandurang Tope - Indian Brahmin Maratha leader and an influential general in the Indian Rebellion of 1857) (Born in Yeola, Nashik District)
- Govind Hari Deshpande (part of the Civil Disobedience Movement)
- Sudhakar Bhalerao (one of the leading science popularizers of Nashik)
- Dattaraya Ramchandra Kaprekar (Indian recreational mathematician)
- 1840 : Sarvajanik Vachanalaya established.
- 1854 : Sharanpur Colony formed.
- 1861 : Deolali Cantonment formed.
- 1862 : Nashik Road railway station was built.
- 1864 : Nashik Municipality formed
- 1869 : Nashik district formed.
- 1894 : Saint Andrew Church built.
- 1894 : Construction work for Victoria Bridge started.
- 1910 : Police Training School established.
- 1922 : Distillery started at Nashik Road.
- 1927 : Security Press formed at Nashik Road.
- 1941 : Artillery Center migrated to Nashik Road from Quetta in Pakistan.
- 1964 : Bosch Limited started Diesel Injector plant.
Nashik has a number of print publications which include Marathi dailies like Deshdoot, Divya Marathi, Sakal, Lokmat,Tarun Bharat, Deshonnati, Gavkari, Maharashtra Times, Pudhari and Loksatta. Hindi newspapers such as a Nav-Bharat, Dainik Bhaskar and Lokmat Samachar. Newspapers published in English and circulated in Nashik are The Punya Nagari, Gavkari, Lokmat Times, etc. The Indian Express, The Times of India, The Economic Times are also available.
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