Nassarius

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nassarius
Nassarius tiarula.jpg
A live individual of Nassarius tiarula
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Buccinoidea
Family: Nassariidae
Subfamily: Nassariinae
Genus: Nassarius
Dumeril, 1806
Type species
Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularius arcularius Linnaeus, C., 1758
Species

See text

Synonyms[1]
  • Nassa Lamarck, 1799 (Invalid: junior homonym of Nassa Röding, 1798)
  • Aciculina A. Adams, 1853
  • Amycla H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Amyclina Iredale, 1918
  • Arcularia Link, 1807
  • Arculia Jousseaume, 1888
  • Alectrion Montfort, 1810
  • Austronassaria C. Laeron & J. Laseron, 1956
  • Bathynassa Ladd, 1976
  • Chelenassa Shuto, 1969
  • Cryptonassarius Cernohorsky, 1975
  • Eione Risso, 1826
  • Fackia Nordsieck, 1972
  • Glabrinassa Shuto, 1969
  • Hima Leach in Gray, 1852
  • Hinia Leach in Gray, 1847
  • Ilyanassa Stimpson, 1865
  • Mirua Marwick, 1931
  • Nasa Fleming, 1828
  • Nassa Lamarck, 1799 (Invalid: junior homonym of Nassa Röding, 1798)
  • Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847
  • Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Adinopsis) Odhner, 1923
  • Nassarius (Alectrion) Montfort , 1810
  • Nassarius (Arcularia) Link, 1807
  • Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Catillon) Addicott, 1965
  • Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826
  • Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms.
  • Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847
  • Nassarius (Ilyanassa) Stimpson, 1865
  • Nassarius (Nanarius) Woodring, 1964
  • Nassarius (Nassodonta) H. Adams, 1867
  • Nassarius (Naytia) H. Adams & A. Adams 1853
  • Nassarius (Naytiopsis) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Pallacera) Woodring, 1964
  • Nassarius (Phrontis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Proneritula) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassarius (Psilarius) Woodring, 1964
  • Nassarius (Pygmaeonassa) Annadale, 1924
  • Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886
  • Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946
  • Parcanassa Iredale, 1936
  • Profundinassa Thiele, 1929
  • Reticularcularia Shuto, 1969
  • Reticunassa Iredale, 1936
  • Sphaeronassa Locard, 1886
  • Tarazeuxis Iredale, 1936
  • Telasco H. & A. Adams, 1853
  • Tritia Risso, 1826
  • Tritonella Adams, 1852
  • Varicinassa Habe, 1946
  • Venassa Martens, 1881
  • Zeuxis H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853

Nassarius, common name nassa mud snails (USA) or dog whelks (UK), is a genus of minute to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.[1] They are scavengers.

Etymology[edit]

The name is derived from the Latin word "nassa", meaning a wickerbasket with a narrow neck, for catching fish . Nassarius would then mean "someone who uses such a wickerbasket for catching fish".

Ecology[edit]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Species within this genus are found worldwide. These snails usually live on mud flats or sand flats, intertidally or subtidally.

Life habits[edit]

Most Nassarius species are very active scavengers, feeding on crabs and carrion as dead fish, etc. They often burrow into marine substrates and then wait with only their siphon protruding, until they smell nearby food.

Shell description[edit]

The shells of species in this genus have a relatively high cyrtoconoid (= approaching a conical shape but with convex sides) spire and a siphonal notch.

Anatomy[edit]

A live individual of a Nassarius species on an aquarium wall, reflected in the glass

The animal has a long siphon.

Human use[edit]

Archeology[edit]

Several beads made from Nassarius gibbosulus shells are thought to be the earliest known forms of personal adornment, or even jewelry. Two shell beads found in Skhul Cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel are thought to be 100,000 years old, whilst another found at Oued Djebbana, Algeria is believed to be 90,000 years old. A further group of pierced shells, some with red ochre, has been recovered from the Aterian levels at Grotte des Pigeons, Taforalt, Morocco; these Nassarius gibbosulus beads have been securely dated to about 82,000 years ago.[2]

All these examples predate several 75,000 year old Nassarius kraussianus beads which were found at Blombos Cave, South Africa (including some colored with red ochre). These beads had previously been thought to be the oldest examples of jewelry.[3]

Modern uses[edit]

Nassarius vibex is a species which is often selected for marine aquaria. It is often confused with Nassarius obsoletus, a cooler water snail less suited to tropical marine aquarium temperatures. In aquaria, the Nassarius is considered nearly indispensable for keeping sand beds clean and healthy, as these snails tend to burrow and plow through the upper layer in a conch-like fashion, keeping algae and detritus from building up visibly on the surface.

The shells of various species of Nassarius are popular with shell collectors, and are sometimes used in jewelry and other forms of decoration.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Nassarius has traditionally been subdivided into several subgenera, based on differences in shell morphology, especially the sculpture : Aciculina, Alectrion, Allanassa, Nassodonta, Niotha, Plicarcularia, Profundinassa, Pygmaeonassa, Telasco, and Zeuxis. However, this division is difficult to define, resulting in much confusion. Even phylogenetic analysis shows that the division into these subgenera appears to be uncertain and unreliable. There seem to be two groups within the genus Nassarius with the closest relationship between the subgenera Zeuxis and Telasco. Even the species within the subgenus Plicarcularia do not belong to a single clade. In the end, the molecular phylogeny did not match the previous morphological phylogeny.[4]

Species[edit]

Nassarius (Niotha) bifarius
Nassarius (Nassodonta) dorri
Nassarius multipunctatus (Schepman, 1911)
Nassarius reeveanus
Nassarius reeveanus luctuosa

In the course of time, more than 800 names have been allocated to species in the genus Nassarius, most of which have become synonyms. The following species are accepted names according to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) [1]

Other species in the genus Nassarius include, according to ITIS:[8]

The following species are also mentioned as names in current use by the Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database [16]

Subgenus Nassodonta
Subgenus Niotha
Subgenus Plicarcularia
Subgenus Telasco
Subgenus Zeuxis

Synonymized subgenera[edit]

  • Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Alectryon) Berthold in Latreille, 1827: synonym of Nassarius (Alectrion) Montfort, 1810 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Allanassa) Iredale, 1929: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Amycla) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Amyclina) Iredale, 1918: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Arcularia) Link, 1807 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
    • Nassarius (Arcularia) glabratus (Sowerby, 1842): synonym of Nassarius glabratus (Sowerby, 1842)
  • Nassarius (Austronassaria) C. Laseron & J. Laseron, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Bathynassa) Ladd, 1976: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cencus) Gistel, 1848: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Chelenassa) Shuto, 1969 : synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) Watson, R.B., 1882: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclocyrtia) Agassiz, 1848 : synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Cyclonassa) Swainson, 1840 : synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclops) Montfort, 1810: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Demondia) Addicott, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Eione) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Fackia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Glabrinassa) Shuto, 1969: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hannonia) Pallary, 1914: synonym of Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 :alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Miohinia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Mirua) Marwick, 1931: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nana) Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nanina) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nanarius) Woodring, 1964  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nannia) Philippi, 1844: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nasseburna) de Gregorio, 1890: synonym of Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nassodonta) H. Adams, 1867 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nassarius) Duméril, 1805  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytia) H. Adams & A. Adams 1853  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytiopsis) Thiele, 1929  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Neritula) Herrmannsen, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pallacera) Woodring, 1964: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Phrontis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Panormella) Costa, 1840: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Paranassa) Conrad, 1867: synonym of Nassarius (Ilyanassa) Stimpson, 1865 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Parcanassa) Iredale, 1936 :synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Profundinassa) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Proneritula) Thiele, 1929 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Psilarius) Woodring, 1964 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pygmaeonassa) Annadale, 1924 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Retiarcularia) Shuto, 1969 :synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Reticunassa) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Schizopyga) Conrad, 1856: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tarazeuxis) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tavanothia) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tritia) A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tritonella) A. Adams, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Usita) Noszky, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Venassa) Martens, 1881: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Zaphon) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2010). Nassarius Duméril, 1806. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138235 on 2010-11-30
  2. ^ Bouzouggar, A., Barton, N., Vanhaeren, M., d'Errico, F., Collcutt, S., Higham, T., Hodge, E., Parfitt, S., Rhodes, E., Schwenninger, J.-L., Stringer, C., Turner, E., Ward, S., Moutmir, A. and Stambouli, A. 2007. "82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 4, 2007; http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0703877104v1
  3. ^ Study reveals 'oldest jewellery', BBC News, 22 June 2006
  4. ^ Haitao Li (李海涛), Duan Lin (林端), Hongda Fang (方宏达), Aijia Zhu (朱艾嘉) and Yang Gao (高阳), Species identification and phylogenetic analysis of genus Nassarius (Nassariidae) based on mitochondrial genes , Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, Volume 28, Number 3 / May, 2010, pp. 565-572, doi 10.1007/s00343-010-9031-4
  5. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Naytiopsis) granum; Retrieved 25 February 2011
  6. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) pyrrhus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  7. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) smitsorum; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. ^ "Nassarius". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  9. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Alectrion) aoteanus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  10. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius catallusl; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  11. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) ephamillus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  12. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius miser; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  13. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius karinae; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  14. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Alectrion) spiratus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  15. ^ SysTax : Nassarius zonalis
  16. ^ OBIS : Nassarius
  17. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) emilyae emilyae; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  18. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) grayii; Retrieved 28 Februyary 2011
  19. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Hima) mobilis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  20. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius mundus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  21. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassodonta) dorri; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  22. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Niotha) nigellus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  23. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) burchardi; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  24. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) jonasii; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  25. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) moolenbeeki; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  26. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Telasco) limnaeiformis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  27. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) melanioides; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  28. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) poupini; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  29. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) reunionensis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  30. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) richeri; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  • Cernohorsky W. O. (1984). Systematics of the Family Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 14: 1-356
  • Bernard, P.A. (Ed.) (1984). Coquillages du Gabon [Shells of Gabon]. Pierre A. Bernard: Libreville, Gabon. 140, 75 plates pp
  • Kay C. Vaught (1989). Classification of the Living Mollusca. ISBN 978-0-915826-22-3. 
  • Wolff, W.J.; Duiven, P.; Esselink, P.; Gueve, A. (1993). Biomass of macrobenthic tidal flat fauna of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Hydrobiologia 258(1-3): 151-163

External links[edit]