Dudinskaya's mother was Natalia Tagliori, a ballerina coached by Enrico Cecchetti. Trained by Agrippina Vaganova, Dudinskaya matriculated from her school in 1931. She danced all the classical leads at the Kirov Theatre before her frail health forced her to retire in 1951. During her career, she received the total of four Stalin Prizes. In 1957, she was named a People's Artist of the USSR.
Upon her retirement, Dudinskaya became the ballet mistress of the Vaganova School and Kirov Ballet. After Rudolf Nureyev, their disciple, defected to the West, she and her husband, Konstantin Sergeyev, were subjected to reprimands from Soviet officials. Anastasia Volochkova and Ulyana Lopatkina were among the last ballerinas coached by her.
- Movsheson A.G. Natalia Mikhailovna Dudinskaya. Leningrad, 1951.
- G. Kremshevskaya. Natalya Dudinskaya. Leningrad-Moscow, 1964.