Natalya Yevgenyevna Gorbanevskaya (Russian: Ната́лья Евге́ньевна Горбане́вская, IPA: [nɐˈtalʲjə jɪvˈɡʲenʲjɪvnə ɡərbɐˈnʲefskəjə] ( ); 26 May 1936 – 29 November 2013) was a Russian poet, translator of Polish literature and civil rights activist. In 2005, she became a citizen of Poland.
Gorbanevskaya was born in Moscow and graduated from Leningrad University in 1964 and became a technical editor and translator. Only nine of her poems were published in official journals, the remainder being privately circulated or published abroad.
Gorbanevskaya was active in what later came to be called the Soviet "dissident movement." She and Liudmila Alexeyeva began publishing the Chronicle of Current Events, a samizdat publication that focused on human rights in the Soviet Union. Gorbanevskaya was also one of eight protesters in the 1968 Red Square demonstration on 25 August 1968 against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Having recently given birth, she was not immediately tried with the other demonstrators. She used this time to publicly follow the trial in the Chronicle of Current Events, and later published the related documents as the collection Noon (published abroad as Red Square at Noon). However, she was arrested in December 1969 and imprisoned in a Soviet psychiatric prison until February 1972.
In December 1975, Gorbanevskaya emigrated to Paris. There, French psychiatrists at their request examined Gorbanevskaya and found her to be mentally normal. They concluded that in 1969-72 she had been committed to a psychiatric hospital for political, not medical reasons.
She was stateless for three decades until Poland granted her citizenship in 2005.
Joan Baez released a song dedicated to Gorbanevskaya called "Natalia", with lyrics by Shusha Guppy, on the live album From Every Stage (1976). Introducing the song, Baez criticized Gorbanevskaya's internment in the psychiatric hospital and said: "It is because of people like Natalya Gorbanevskaya, I am convinced, that you and I are still alive and walking around on the face of the earth." Shusha Guppy herself also recorded it; it was included in her 1974 album "Shusha."
In 2005 Gorbanevskaya participated in "They Chose Freedom", a four-part television documentary on the history of the Soviet dissident movement.
The same year, Gorbanevskaya was scheduled for the Angelus Central European Literature Award.
In August 2013, Gorbanevskaya participated in a rally in Moscow to commemorate the forty-fifth anniversary of the invasion of Czechoslovakia; the rally was quickly dissolved by police, and ten participants (excluding Gorbanevskaya) were taken into custody.
She was a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.
Books and other publications
Gorbanevskaya, Natalya, Poems, Carcanet Press, 1972, ISBN 0-85635-002-8
- "Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Soviet Dissident and Poet, Dies at 77" (in English). NY Times. 2013-12-01. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Alexeyeva, Liudmila; Goldberg, Paul (1993). The Thaw Generation: Coming of Age in the Post-Stalin Era. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press. ISBN 0822959119.
- «Хроника текущих событий», Выпуск 24 (in Russian).
- Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). Soviet psychiatric abuse: the shadow over world psychiatry. Westview Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-8133-0209-9.
- Joan Baez, From Every Stage (A&M: 1976)Rob Horning, "Joan Baez: The Complete A&M Recordings," Popmatters.com http://www.popmatters.com/music/reviews/b/baezjoan-completeam.shtml
- "AKoss-Dyb. Natalia Gorbaniewska uhonorowana przez UMCS" (in Polish). Radio Lublin. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Lublin: Doktorat honoris causa UMCS dla Natalii Gorbaniewskiej" (in Polish). Dziennik Wschodni. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Natalia Gorbaniewska doktorem honorowym UMCS". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Natalia Gorbaniewska doktorem honorowym UMCS" (in Polish). Wirtualna Polska. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- Zamojski, Marcin (2008-10-23). "Angelus Central European Literature Award". Translated by Dominika Chojnacka. News.poland.com. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "10 Russians Detained for Commemorating Czechoslovakian Invasion – Police". RIA Novosti. 2013-08-25.
- "Gorbanevskaya received medal from Charles University" (in English). Radio Prague. 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
- "Prague Declaration: Selected signatories". Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- "Умерла Наталья Горбаневская". Colta.ru.
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Links in English
- http://www.poetrymagazines.org.uk/magazine/record.asp?id=13151 Y. Kublanovsky. Natalya Gorbanevskaya, New Series No. 20 - 2002; (English translation from a review, published in Novy Mir, No.7, 1997, p. 67–68).
- Natalia Gorbanevskaya / Translated by Misha Semenov // Twenty-first Century Russian Poetry. — In: «Big Bridge», No. 17 (2013).
- http://www.arlindo-correia.org/060804.html Poems, with translations into English
- Harrison, Harrison E.; Gorbanevskaya, Natalia (1976). "Red Square at Noon". American Political Science Review 70 (4): 1335–1336. doi:10.2307/1959448.
- 10 poems by Natalya Gorbanevskaya: Audio of her own reading with text translations into different languages
Links in Russian
- http://www.newkamera.de/gor_02.html Bibliography
- http://www.vavilon.ru/texts/gorbanevsk/ Biography and bibliography
- http://www.rvb.ru/np/publication/01text/02/11gorbanev.htm, links
- http://magazines.russ.ru/authors/g/gorbanevskaya/ Biography and bibliography
- http://www.newkamera.de/gor_01.html N. Gorbanevskaya. 6 циклов восьмистиший.
- http://www.poesis.ru/poeti-poezia/gorbanevskaja/biblio.htm bibliography
- http://www.rvb.ru/np/publication/02comm/02/11gorbanev.htm List of publications
- http://gallery.vavilon.ru/people/g/gorbanevskaya/ Photographs and biography
- http://www.goldref.ru/biography/Gorbanevskaja_N.E./1/ Биография
- http://www.hro.org/editions/karta/nr21/demonstr.htm Наталья Горбаневская. Что помню я о демонстрации
- http://www.memo.ru/history/DISS/chr/chr3.htm Информация о демонстрации в бюллетене «Хроника текущих событий»
- http://www.memo.ru/history/DISS/chr/chr4.htm Информация о суде над демонстрантами в бюллетене «Хроника текущих событий»
- http://www.yale.edu/annals/sakharov/documents_frames/Sakharov_008.htm; Письмо Андропова в ЦК про демонстрацию (windows encoding)
- http://ng68.livejournal.com/ Blog of Gorbanevskaya at Livejournal