Born near Mocksville, North Carolina, Gaither completed preparatory studies. He attended Bardstown College. He studied medicine. He was graduated from Jefferson Medical College and began practice in Columbia, Kentucky. He served as assistant surgeon in the War of 1812. He served as member of the State house of representatives 1815–1818.
Gaither was elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses (March 4, 1829 – March 3, 1833). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection 1832 to the Twenty-third Congress. He served as delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1849. He was again a member of the State house of representatives 1855-1857. He resumed the practice of medicine. He died in Columbia, Kentucky, August 12, 1862. He was interred in Columbia Cemetery.
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