National Anthem of Manchukuo

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The National Anthem of Manchukuo was one of the many national symbols of independence and sovereignty created to foster a sense of legitimacy for Manchukuo in both an effort to secure international diplomatic recognition and to foster a sense of patriotism among its inhabitants.

During Manchukuo's short 14-year existence, two national anthems were used.

National Anthem of Manchukuo was widely taught in schools and used in ceremonies in Manchukuo.[1] Still Kimigayo was also taught to children as a hymn in their daily ritual showing respect to the Japanese emperor.

1933 Anthem[edit]

滿洲國國歌
National anthem of Manchukuo 1933.jpg

National anthem of  Manchukuo
Lyrics Zheng Xiaoxu
Music Takatsu Toshi, Sonoyama Minpei, Muraoka Gakudō[2]
Adopted March 1, 1933
Relinquished September 5, 1942
Music sample
File:Manchukuo National Anthem 1933.mid

The first national anthem was declared by State Council Decree No.4,[3] dated 24 February Dàtóng 2 (1933)[3] but publicized on March 1. The lyrics were written by Manchukuo's first Prime Minister Zheng Xiaoxu,[4][5] who was devout Confucianist and Qing loyalist in addition to being an accomplished poet and calligrapher.

Traditional Chinese Pinyin English translation
天地內 有了新滿洲 Tiān dì nèi, yǒu liǎo xīn mǎnzhōu (Now) there is the new Manchuria on Earth,
新滿洲 便是新天地 Xīn mǎnzhōu, biàn shì xīn tiān dì and the new Manchuria is our new land.
頂天立地 無苦無憂 造成我國家 Dǐng tiān lì dì, wú kǔ wú yōu, zào chéng wǒ guójiā Let us make our country to be upright and free of sadness,
只有親愛竝無怨仇 Zhǐ yǒu qīn'ài bìng wú yuànchóu with only love and no hate.
人民三千萬 人民三千萬 Rénmín sān qiān wàn, rénmín sān qiān wàn Thirty million people, thirty million people,
縱加十倍也得自由 Zòng jiā shí bèi yě dé zìyóu at ten times more we should still be free.
重仁義 尚禮讓 使我身修 Zhòng rényì, shàng lǐràng, shǐ wǒ shēn xiū, With virtue and li, rectified am I;
家已齊 國已治 此外何求? Jiā yǐ qí, guó yǐ zhì, cǐwài hé qiú? with family in order and with the state well-ruled, there are nothing I want.
近之則與世界同化 Jìn zhī, zé yǔ shìjiè tónghuà For now, may we assimilate with the world;
遠之則與天地同流 Yuǎn zhī, zé yǔ tiāndì tóng liú for the future, may we follow the ways of the Heaven and Earth.


1942 Anthem[edit]

滿洲國國歌
National anthem of Manchukuo 1942.gif
Sheet music

National anthem of  Manchukuo
Lyrics The national anthem committee
Music Kosaku Yamada, Kiyoshi Nobutoki
Adopted September 5, 1942
Relinquished 1945
Music sample

The 1933 anthem was changed on 5 September Kāngdé 9 (1942), by State Council Order No. 201.[6] Manchukuo's second Prime minister Zhang Jinghui cited the 1933 anthem was unsuitable for the current situations of the Empire[7] as the reason for the change. The new anthem, with Manchurian (i.e. Mandarin Chinese) and Japanese lyrics, was written by a committee, according to Zhang.[8] The 1933 anthem was renamed the Manchukuo Independence Song (滿洲國建國歌, pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó jiàn guógē, Japanese Hepburn romanization: Manshukoku-kenkoku uta).

Lyrics[edit]

Traditional Chinese Pinyin English translation
神光開宇宙 表裏山河壯皇猷 Shén guāng kāi yǔzhòu, biǎolǐ shānhé zhuàng huáng yóu With the Universe created in God's Light, the vast land strengthens the Emperor's rule;
帝德之隆 巍巍蕩蕩莫與儔 Dì'dé zhī lóng wēiwēi dàngdàng mò yǔ chóu So full is His virtue, so wide that it is beyond compare
永受天祐兮 萬壽無疆薄海謳 Yǒng shòu tiān yòu xī, wànshòuwújiāng bó hǎi xú May He always receive divine guidance, with his years surpassing the sea;
仰贊天業兮 輝煌日月侔 Yǎng zàn tiān yè xī, huīhuáng rì yuè móu [Let us] worship the divine work, its glory equals the sun and moon.
Japanese Hepburn romanization English translation
大御光 天地に充ち Ohomi-hikari ametsuchi ni michi Filling the world with Divine light,
帝徳は 隆く 崇し Teitoku wa takaku totoshi The Emperor's virtue is noble and worshipped.
豊栄の 万寿ことほぎ Toyosaka no banju kotohogi Let us salute him with long life and prosperity
天つ御業 仰ぎまつらむ Ametsumiwaza ogimatsuramu and we revere the Emperor's deeds

Official Interpretation[edit]

According to the official interpretation of the anthem issued on the same day of its adoption, the "God" in the first line refers to Amaterasu,[9] the sun goddess in Shinto, referring to Manchukuo's adoption of State Shinto as its state religion in 1940. Also, God's Light is interpreted as Arahitogami, i.e. Emperor of Japan. The whole of the first line is interpreted as

"The Divine Work" in the fourth line came from Kangde's Imperial Rescript on the Tenth Anniversary of the Nation on 1 March 1942, in which he mentioned,

and hence interpreted as:

References[edit]

  1. ^ School children practicing national anthem.
  2. ^ 『王道楽土の交響楽 満洲-知られざる音楽史』(岩野裕一著、1999年、ISBN 4276211247
  3. ^ a b Page 9, Manchukuo Government Notices Extra, March 1, Tatung 2 (1933)
  4. ^ Chinese wikipedia
  5. ^ http://david.national-anthems.net/mch.htm david.national-anthems.net
  6. ^ Page 1, Manchukuo Government Notices No. 2493, September 5, Kangde 9 (1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.
  7. ^ Page 3, Annex, Manchukuo Government Notices No. 2493, September 5, Kangde 9 (1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.
  8. ^ The Prime Minister Talks About the Composition of the National Anthem, Page 3, Annex, Manchukuo Government Notices No. 2493, September 5, Kangde 9 (1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.
  9. ^ Explanation of the National Anthem, Head of the Propaganda Office of Manchukuo, Page 3, Annex, Manchukuo Government Notices No.2493, September 5, Kangde 9(1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.
  10. ^ Explanation of the National Anthem, Head of the Propaganda Office of Manchukuo, Page 3, Annex, Manchukuo Government Notices No.2493, September 5, Kangde 9(1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.
  11. ^ Explanation of the National Anthem, Head of the Propaganda Office of Manchukuo, Page 4, Annex, Manchukuo Government Notices No.2493, September 5, Kangde 9(1942). Reprinted 1990 by Shenliao Publishing House, Shenyang.

External links[edit]