National Bureau of Criminal Identification

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The National Bureau of Criminal Identification (NCBI), also called the National Bureau of Identification[1] was an agency founded by the National Chiefs of Police Union in 1896, and opened in 1897, to record identifying information on criminals and share that information with law enforcement.[2][3] It was located in Chicago until 1902, at which point it was moved to Washington DC. William Pinkerton donated his agency's collection of photographs to the newfound agency.[4] NCBI initially only collected photographs and Bertillon records,[5] which limited the Bureau's effectiveness.[6][7] Its effectiveness greatly increased when it began collecting fingerprints. NCBI ceased to exist as an independent organization when it was absorbed into the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1924.[8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David C. Rapoport (2006). Terrorism: The first or anarchist wave. Taylor & Francis. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-0-415-31651-4. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  2. ^ Colin Evans (12 August 2004). Murder Two: The Second Casebook of Forensic Detection. John Wiley & Sons. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-471-66699-8. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  3. ^ James Andrew Conser; Rebecca Paynich; Terry E. Gingerich (20 October 2011). Law Enforcement in the United States. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-7637-9938-0. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  4. ^ LeRoy Panek (1990). Probable Cause: Crime Fiction in America. Popular Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-87972-486-3. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Simon A. COLE; Simon A Cole (30 June 2009). Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification. Harvard University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-674-02968-2. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Mitchel P. Roth; James Stuart Olson (2001). Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-313-30560-3. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Jonathan Mathew Finn (4 November 2009). Capturing the Criminal Image: From Mug Shot to Surveillance Society. U of Minnesota Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8166-5069-9. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  8. ^ Caroline Sutton (31 August 2010). How Do They Do That?. HarperCollins. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-06-201852-6. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  9. ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation (1 August 1975). Handbook of Forensic Science. The Minerva Group, Inc. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-89499-073-1. Retrieved 18 March 2013.