National Democratic Alliance (India)
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|National Democratic Alliance|
|Seats in the Lok Sabha|
|Seats in the Rajya Sabha|
|Politics of India
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had thirteen constituent parties. Its honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former deputy prime minister who is the acting chairman of the Alliance; Sushma Swaraj, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha; Arun Jaitley, Leader of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha; and Karia Munda, the Deputy Speaker in the Lok Sabha. The coalition was in power from 1998 to 2004. Currently there are sixteen parties in the NDA coalition which is in opposition in the union parliament while holding power in many states.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Present members
- 4 Past members
- 5 Alliance Election wise
- 6 Year by Year Changes
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The National Democratic Alliance was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, and included several regional parties, including the Samata Party and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), as well as the Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP. With outside support provided by the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister. The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional outfits, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a more secure majority. Vajpayee became prime minister for a third time, this time for a full five year term.
The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA unexpectedly suffered a heavy defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Some commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to rural Indians was the explanation for its defeat; others have pointed to its "divisive" policy agenda as the reason.
The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the national president of the Janata Dal(United) political party.
|No||Party||Base State||Withdrawal Date||Reason for Withdrawal|
|1||Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||1999||Aligned with Indian National Congress during 1999 elections |
|2||Lok Shakti||Bihar||1999||Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections|
|3||NTR TDP (LS)||AP||1999||Withdrew Support as TDP gave outside Support for NDA|
|4||J & K National Conference||J & K||2002||Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.|
|5||Samata Party||Bihar||2003||Megeged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003|
|6||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|7||Haryana Vikas Party||Haryana||2004||Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections|
|8||Indian Federal Democratic Party||Kerala||2004||Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress|
|9||All India Trinamool Congress||West Bengal||2007||Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.|
|10||Mizo National Front||Mizoram||2007||MNF abstained in the vote of confidence on 22 July 2008|
|11||Indian National Lok Dal||Haryana||2009||Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.|
|12||Telugu Desam Party||AP||2009||Withdrew support & Founded Third Front in 2009.|
|13||Biju Janata Dal||Odisha||2009||Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.|
|14||Telangana Rashtra Samithi||AP||2009||Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.|
|15||Ladakh Union Territory Front||Ladakh||2010||Merged with BJP.|
|16||Kamtapur Progressive Party||West Bengal||2010||Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.|
|17||Asom Gana Parishad||Assam||2011||Withdrew Support due to Slipts in AGP.|
|18||Uttarakhand Kranti Dal||Uttarakhand||2012||Withdrew Support before State Elections|
|19||Rashtriya Lok Dal||UP||2012||Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election|
|20||All Jharkhand Students Union||Jharkhand||2012||Withdrew from alliance in 2012|
|21||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||Jharkhand||2012||Withdrew from alliance in 2012|
|22||Janata Dal (United)||Bihar||2013||Withdrew from the alliance on June 17, 2013.|
|23||Janata Party||National Party||2013||Merged with BJP|
Alliance Election wise
|Prime Minister Candidate||Parties|
|A B Vajpayee||Bharatiya Janata Party
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
|Prime Minister Candidate||Parties|
|A B Vajpayee||Bharatiya Janata Party
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Year by Year Changes
New parties that have joined NDA coalition are Haryana based Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) and Maharastra based Republican Party of India (Athvale).
Ajit Singh led Rashtriya Lok Dal has withdrawn from NDA.
- Presidential election
- Vice-Presidential election
On 16 June 2013, Nitish Kumar led Janta Dal United(JD-U) has withdrawn from NDA.
On 11 August 2013, after a discussion with BJP President Rajnath Singh, Janata Party Chairman Dr.Subramanian Swamy officially joined Bharatiya Janata Party and merged his Janata Party with the Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of BJP president Rajnath Singh.The announcement was made by Mr Swamy and BJP president Rajnath Singh after they met at the latter's residence in Delhi. Former BJP chief Nitin Gadkari and senior party leader Arun Jaitley were also present at the meet.
On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister. The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi are also joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.
In Maharashtra,two regional political outfits,Swabhimani Shetkari Saghtana and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January.  The coalition of Five parties with NDA is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India (Athvale), Swabhimani Shetkari Saghtana and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.
On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar. On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.
- Keith Jones (9 October 1999). "Hindu chauvinist-led coalition to form India's next government". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin. p. 254.
- "Rediff on the NeT: TDP helps Vajpayee wins confidence vote". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin.
- Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "News World news Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Editorial (14 May 2004). "THE MEANING OF VERDICT 2004". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Small parties, independents in great demand. Retrieved on July 15, 2008.
- "Third Front is born, asks for nation's trust". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- The AGP has formed a seat-sharing agreement with the BJP in Assam, but has indicated that it does not intend to formally join the NDA."AGP announces its candidates for Lok Sabha polls". The Hindu. March 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-09.
- http://www.hindu.com/2009/05/11/stories/2009051157250100.htm TRS joins NDA
- "NDA names Jaswant Singh as its vice-presidential candidate". 16 July 2012.
- "Modi will become PM, says Vaiko". 1 January 2014.
- "LJP rejoins NDA, would contest 7 seats in Bihar in 2014 Elections". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 28 February 2014.