National Endowment for Democracy
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (August 2010)|
|Founded||November 18, 1983|
|Origins||U.S. Congress resolution H.R. 2915|
|Key people||Carl Gershman (President)|
The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. non-profit soft power organization that was founded in 1983 to promote democracy. It is funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress, within the budget of USAID, the U.S. agency for development assistance, which is part of the U.S. State Department. Although administered as a private organization, its funding mostly comes from a governmental appropriation by Congress but was created by The Democracy Program as a bipartisan, private, non-profit corporation. In addition to its grants program, NED also supports and houses the Journal of Democracy, the World Movement for Democracy, the International Forum for Democratic Studies, the Reagan–Fascell Fellowship Program, the Network of Democracy Research Institutes, and the Center for International Media Assistance.
- 1 History
- 2 Overview
- 3 Activities
- 4 Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)
- 5 Criticisms
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
A bill was introduced in April 1967 by Congressman Dante Fascell (D,FL) to create an institute of International Affairs. And although the bill did not pass it led to discussions on Capitol Hill to establish an institution in which democracy efforts abroad would benefit the U.S. as well as countries struggling for freedom and self- government.
In a 1982 speech at the Palace of Westminster, President Ronald Reagan proposed an initiative, before the British Parliament, "to foster the infrastructure of democracy—the system of a free press, unions, political parties, universities." The U.S. government, through USAID (United States Agency for International Development), contracted The American Political Foundation to study democracy promotion, which became known as "The Democracy Program." The Program recommended the creation of a bipartisan, private, non-profit corporation to be known as the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). NED, though non-governmental, would be funded primarily through annual appropriations from the U.S. government and subject to congressional oversight. The State Department and United States Information Agency (USIA) proposed the Endowment to encourage and facilitate exchanges between democratic institutions through private sectors; promote nongovernmental participation in democratic training programs; strengthening democratic electoral processes abroad in cooperation with indigenous democratic forces; fostering cooperation between American private sector groups and those abroad "dedicated to the cultural values, institutions, and organizations of democratic pluralism.", and encouraging democratic development consistent with the interests of both the U.S and the other groups receiving assistance.
In 1983, the House Foreign Affairs Committee proposed legislation to provide initial funding of $31.3 million for NED as part of the State Department Authorization Act (H.R. 2915), because NED was in its beginning stages of development the appropriation was set at $18 million. Included in the legislation was $13.8 million for the Free Trade Union Institute, an affiliate of the AFL-CIO, $2.5 million for an affiliate of the National Chamber Foundation, and $5 million each for two party institutes, which was later eliminated by a vote of 267–136. The conference report on H.R. 2915 was adopted by the House on November 17, 1983 and the Senate the following day. On November 18, 1983, articles of incorporation were filed in the District of Columbia to establish the National Endowment for Democracy as a nonprofit organization.
Under the reauthorization of NED several factors were added to the organizations guidelines: the NED Act had to arrange the Board's prohibition on the use of funds for partisan political purposes, including funding for national party operations; mandate that NED consult with the State Department on any overseas programs it funds prior to the commencement of their activities; move the required date of reporting to Congress on all grants from December 31 to February 4, and lastly despite its non-governmental status, comply fully with the requirements of the Freedom of Information Act.
NED is structured to act as a grant-making foundation, distributing funds to private non-governmental organizations for the purpose of promoting democracy abroad. The Endowment serves as the umbrella organization in which half of NED's funding is allocated annually to four main U.S. organizations: the American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS), the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), and the International Republican Institute (IRI), formerly known as the National Republican Institute for International Affairs. The other half of NED's funding is awarded annually to hundreds of non-governmental organizations based abroad which apply for support.
The Endowment has come a long way from opposition between both political parties in its earlier stages to widespread bipartisan endorsement on the Hill. And even though the American government has implemented its own democracy promoting capabilities through USAID (United States Agency for International Development), NED's independence plays a key factor in its relevance. The organizations independence gives it an ability to work in situations that official bodies may have to avoid and its non-bureaucratic nature enables it to move quickly in rapidly changing situations. NED has become a universal model and has influenced other nations to create their own institutions for the promotion of democracy.
Source of funding
The NED receives an annual appropriation from the U.S. budget (it is included in the chapter of the Department of State budget destined for the U.S. Agency for International Development-USAID) and is subject to congressional oversight even as a non-governmental organization. In the financial year to the end of September 2009 NED had an income of $135.5 million, nearly all of which came from U.S Government agencies.
From 1984 to 1990 the NED received $15–18m of congressional funding annually, and $25–$30m from 1991 to 1993. At the time the funding came via the United States Information Agency. In 1993 the NED nearly lost its congressional funding, after the House of Representatives initially voted to abolish its funding. The funding (of $35m, a rise from $30m the year before) was only retained after a vigorous campaign by NED supporters.
The NED has received funding from foundations, such as the Smith Richardson Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation, and others. The Bradley Foundation supported the Journal of Democracy with $1.5 million during 1990–2008.
NED's long-serving president (since April 30, 1984) is Carl Gershman, former Senior Counselor to the United States Representative to the United Nations and former Executive Director of Social Democrats USA.
The Endowment's bipartisan board is composed of a wide range of people. The group includes government officials like former Congressmen Martin Frost and Vin Weber, former deputy assistant to George W. Bush Elliot Abrams, former Senator Norm Coleman, Congresswoman Karen Bass and Margaret Spellings, former US Secretary of Education and president of the George W. Bush Presidential Center. The board also includes former Ambassadors Robert Tuttle, Zalmay Khalilzad, Stephen Sestanovich and Princeton N. Lyman, as well as Melanne Verveer, former Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues and current director of the Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security. In addition, positions are held by scholars of Political Science and International Affairs, Andrew Nathan of Columbia University, author and Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institute, William Galston, Francis Fukuyama of FSI, George Weigel of the Ethics and Public Policy Center, Azir Nafisi of Johns Hopkins SAIS, as well as Senior associates at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Michele Dunne and Moises Naim. Other members include business leader Marilyn Nelson of Carlson, Attorney Jayne M. Kurzman, union leaders James Boland and Fred Redmond, and Vice President of Global Public Policy at Facebook, Marne Levine. The Board also includes: John Bohn, Republican political advisor Barry Jackson, Progressive Policy Institute President Will Marshall, and former World Bank President Robert Zoellick.
The NED has supported programs in countries outside the United States.
Funding of foreign political candidates
NED does not directly fund any political party, as this is forbidden by law. According to NED, it funds election monitoring and also civic education about voting, such as student-led "get-out-the-vote" campaigns.
NED has also supported, provided training, and consulted with groups which approve of democracy, but criticize the United States, in countries such as Indonesia and Ukraine.[which?] The NED says that it focuses funding on democracy-minded organizations rather than opposition groups; however it does not support groups that openly advocate communism, fundamentalism, or dictatorships. Michael McFaul, in an article for the Washington Post, argues that the NED is not an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. As an example of this, he states that the NED was willing to fund pro-democratic organizations even when the U.S. government was supportive of non-democratic governments in the region.[which?]
The International Republican Institute (IRI) received about $1.2 million from NED in 2009 in order to support think tanks and advocacy groups to "support initiatives to implement political positions during the campaigns in 2009".
Democracy and human rights advocacy
Of the 28 Asian NGOs the NED funds, 18 are related to China. Most of these grants go to organizations promoting democracy, human rights, or in the case of Hong Kong, Xinjiang and Tibet, local interests against and independence from China. Democracy organizations funded by the NED that target China as a whole are Human Rights in China, the China Strategic Institute, and the Laogai Research Foundation. The NED also promotes the Republic of China as a "model of democratization".
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (August 2011)|
To advance the human rights of Uyghur women and children. The Foundation will maintain an English- and Uyghur-language website on the human rights situation of Uyghur women and children; conduct a civic education seminar for Uyghur women; and conduct advocacy on behalf of the human rights of Uyghurs in China.
To promote freedom of expression for writers working in the Uyghur language. The International Uyghur PEN Club will maintain a website that features banned writings and the works of persecuted poets, historians, journalists, and others, and will conduct international advocacy campaigns on behalf of imprisoned writers.
To raise awareness of Uyghur human rights issues and advance religious freedom and human rights. The UAA’s Uyghur Human Rights Project will research, document and bring to international attention, independent and accurate information about human rights violations affecting the Turkic populations of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
To enhance the ability of Uyghur prodemocracy groups and leaders to implement effective human rights and democracy campaigns. The World Uyghur Congress will organize a conference and training workshop for pro-democracy Uyghur youth, as well as young and mid-career professionals, on the use of new media and social networking technology for advocacy and outreach, Internet security, and innovative tactics in promoting and defending human rights.
According to the NED's online Democracy Projects Database it has given funding the following groups for programs relating to Iran (1990–2006):
- American Center for International Labor Solidarity (2005)
- Civic Education and Human Rights (2006)
- International Republican Institute (2005)
- Institute of World Affairs (2005)
- Iran Teachers Association (1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2002, 2003)
- Foundation for Democracy in Iran (1995, 1996)
- National Iranian American Council (2002, 2005, 2006)
- Women’s Learning Partnership (2003)
- Abdorrahman Boroumand Foundation (2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006)
- Center for the International Private Enterprise (2004, 2006)
- Vital Voices Global Partnership (2004)
Iranians who have served as fellows at NED include:
Latin America and the Caribbean
NED supports a wide range of programs in Ecuador including the Asociación de Mujeres Municipalistas del Ecuador (AMUME) which “advocates on behalf of women elected officials during legislative reform efforts by facilitating debate, analysis and women’s participation,” and Asylum Access which provides legal support for refugee communities.
In 2004, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez publicized documents which purported to show that the NED funded civil associations in the country, including a tripling of funding from about $250,000 to nearly $900,000 between 2000 and 2001. As of July, 2010, the NED is accused of funding several journalists in Venezuela who work for opposition media outlets.
The National Endowment for Democracy, on their Venezuela page indicate that the National Endowment for Democracy spent $1,752,300 on grants for the following programs in Venezuela (with specific areas indicated) in 2013:
- Building Local Government Capacity in Public Security Policies: $41,500
- Promoting Public Dialogue, Accountability, and Decentralization in Caracas: $55,000
- Promoting Democratic Values and Leadership among Venezuelan Youth : $52,000
- Promoting New Leadership at the Community Level : $34,145
- Youth and the Future of the Country : $58,000
- Promoting Youth Leadership : $20,000
- Activists without Censorship : $37,000
- Promoting Dialogue and Consensus Building : $75,000 (Supplement: $15,000)
Democratic Ideas and Values
- Promoting Youth Participation in Local Governance : $39,980
- Promoting Independent Political Research : $44,000
- Political Leadership with a Gender Perspective : $50,000
Developing Market Economy
- Fostering Entrepreneurship in Defense of Democracy and Free Markets : $149,413
Freedom of Association
- Promoting a Civic Culture and Democratic Values Among Informal Sector Workers : $60,000
Freedom of Information
- Assessing Media's Contribution to Democracy in Venezuela : $53,000
- Emerging Leadership, Communications and Social Networks : $63,000
- Monitoring Freedom of Press : $50,872
- Encouraging Participation and Transforming the Electoral Culture : $40,000
- Protecting Indigenous Human Rights : $49,990
- Promoting Social Cohesion, Democratic Governance and Respect for Human Rights : $70,000
- Protection and Promotion of Human Rights : $48,000
- Promoting Participation and Human Rights : $35,000
- Training Candidates for the Municipal Elections : $48,000
- Strengthening Democratic Good Governance at the Local Level : $35,000
- Promoting Greater Oversight of Elections : $155,000 (Supplement: $20,000)
- Fostering Citizen Participation in Local Elections and Local Governance : $60,350
Rule of Law
- Providing Legal Assistance : $33,000
Strengthening Political Institutions
- Improved Training and Communication Skills for Political Activists : $295,050
NED also funded political groups in the democracies of Western Europe in the 1980s. The French newspaper Libération published a report which claimed that the U.S. funded the National Inter-University Union. The alleged funding was criticized by the Cato Institute, which stated that:
"French democracy in the 1980s did not appear to be so fragile that it required financial assistance from American taxpayers to sustain itself. The government of François Mitterrand was duly elected within a democratic system nearly as old as America's. The AFL-CIO, however, determined that France's socialist government was permitting a dangerous rise of communist influence. According to the late Irving Brown, Paris-based director of international relations for the AFL-CIO at the time of the incident: "France . . . is threatened by the Communist apparatus. . . . It is a clear and present danger if the present is thought of as 10 years from now." That mentality has resulted in AFL-CIO support for highly controversial causes. One of the French groups that received funding, the National Inter-University Union, was widely viewed as a cauldron of rightist extremism and xenophobia and rumored also to have ties to terrorists. Surely, the U.S. government did not intend to fund authoritarian groups that work to undermine the government of a stable democratic nation.
During the 1980s and 1990s, NED invested millions of dollars in Eastern Europe.
Ukraine, Georgia, Serbia, Slovakia
The NED played a significant role in the 2004 presidential election in Ukraine. In an article in the Washington Post, NED director Nadia Diuk acknowledged that there was a controversy surrounding the involvement of the NED: "Some have sought to portray the events in Ukraine as orchestrated in the West, a model executed with the support of Western pro-democracy foundations.' Comparing this to similar recent interventions in Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro and Georgia, she writes, "Some commentators believe that the similarity of their actions proves they are part of a U.S.-sponsored plot, an effort to extend American influence throughout the world." Diuk states that critics are overlooking a genuinely "home-grown" aspect to the "election revolts" in these Eastern European regimes. She also stated that, "...there was a massive effort by nongovernmental organizations to monitor the vote, whether through parallel vote tabulations, exit polls or reports from domestic observers. These strategies were supported by the reports of Western election observers," and that "all these breakthrough elections have been accomplished with the vigorous participation of civic groups that support free and fair elections by monitoring the media, carrying out voter education, publicizing the platforms of candidates in the absence of a free press, training election observers, conducting polls and so on." These comments are of interest when set against the criticisms by US President Barack Obama and others that the free elections in Crimea on 17 March 2014 were illegal and would not be recognized.
The current events in Ukraine are interesting when considered against the background of work done by the National Endowment for Democracy in the Ukraine. In their 2012 report, NED indicated that it spent US$3,381,824 (from the US federal budget) on the following programs in the Ukraine:
- ANGO Resource Center: $30,086
- Association of Ukrainian Law Enforcement Monitors: $44,900
- Bakhchisarai Center of Regional Development "Top-Kaya: $15,526
- Bukovyna Partnership Agency: $48,295
- Center for International Private Enterprise: $359,945
- Center for Political Studies and Analysis: $27,940
- Center for Progressive Young People “Apelsin”: $25,000
- Center for Research on Social Perspectives in the Donbas: $39,776
- Center for the Study of Social Processes and Humanitarian Issues: $30,060
- Center UA: $26,920
- Cherkasy Committee Voters of Ukraine: $34,993
- Chernihiv Youth Educational Center "Initiative": $27,930
- Chernivtsi Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $29,920
- "Civic Space" Information and Analytical Center: $31,535
- Civil Initiative Support Center: $48,486
- Democratic Initiatives Foundation: $73,464
- Dniprovsky Center for Social Research: $25,000
- Dniprovsky Center for Social Research: $25,000 (SIC from NED website)
- Donetsk Press Club: $39,810
- Donetsk Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $52,930
- East European Democratic Center: $78,969
- East European Democratic Center: $41,584
- Foundation for Promotion of Civil Activity: $27,130
- Garage Gang Collective: $37,637
- Human Rights Training Center: $19,370
- Independent Association of Broadcasters: $39,271
- Independent Center of Political Researchers and Journalists: $33,611
- Institute for Euro-Atlantic Cooperation: $48,120
- Institute of Mass Information: $34,470
- Institute of Political Education: $47,994
- Institute of the Republic: $29,990
- International Republican Institute: $250,000
- International Republican Institute: $35,000
- International Republican Institute: $95,000
- Journal Ji Analytical Center: $34,981
- Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group: $47,200
- Kherson Association of Journalists "South": $31,675
- Kherson Association of Journalists "South": $39,578
- Kherson Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $40,890
- Krytyka Journal: $47,000
- Luhansk Business Club "European Choice": $32,000
- Lutsk Center for Political Analysis and Electoral Consulting: $26,523
- "Moloda Cherkaschyna" Coalition of Cherkassy Youth NGOs: $31,855
- National Democratic Institute for International Affairs: $345,000
- Odesa Committee of Voters of Ukraine : $41,851
- Our House - Svatovschina: $21,945
- Policy Association for an Open Society: $39,934
- Polissya Foundation for International and Regional Research: $25,000
- "Postup" Human Rights Center: $24,030
- Razumkov Center for Economic and Political Research: $39,990
- School for Policy Analysis of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy: $52,750
- Smoloskyp: $36,294
- Spilnyi Prostir Association: $50,000
- Sumy Regional Committee of Youth Organizations: $56,260
- Sumy Regional Organization "Bureau of Political Analysis": $31,293
- "Tamarisk" Center for Support of Civic and Cultural Initiatives: $30,890
- Telekritika" $69,800
- Ukrainian Catholic University: $35,000
- Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research: $56,950
- Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union: $47,994
- Ukrainian Youth Association of Ukraine: $42,900
- Vinnitsa Youth Organization "Nashe Podillya": $52,046
- Volyn Resource Center: $16,170
- Youth Alternative: $42,143
- Funds the website of Prague Watchdog, a political and humanitarian new source in Chechnya, Ingushetia and other North Caucasus republics. Funding totalled $49,830.
- Funds Free North Korea Radio, a radio station broadcasting from Seoul to North Koreans.
- Awards the Democracy Service Medal, annually.
Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)
The Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) “works to strengthen the support, raise the visibility, and improve the effectiveness of independent media development throughout the world. The Center provides information, builds networks, conducts research, and highlights the indispensable role independent media play in the creation and development of sustainable democracies.” "CIMA convenes working groups, commissions research reports, and holds events. The Center distributes a comprehensive list of digital media information and maintains a bibliographic database of international media assistance resources."  More information can be found at CIMA’s website.
Criticism of the organization include a lack of openness and public accountability in its stewardship of millions of dollars a year in taxpayer funds in 1985 to Ron Paul arguing against NED funding in 2005 for it having "very little to do with democracy. It is an organization that uses US tax money to actually subvert democracy, by showering funding on favored political parties or movements overseas. It underwrites color-coded ‘people’s revolutions’ overseas that look more like pages out of Lenin’s writings on stealing power than genuine indigenous democratic movements."  Historian William Blum quoted Allen Weinstein, who in 1991 said: " "A lot of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the CIA".
- List of recipients of the Democracy Service Medal
- American Enterprise Institute
- Research Triangle Institute
- National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
- International Republican Institute
- American Center for International Labor Solidarity
- United Nations Democracy Fund
- Westminster Foundation for Democracy, a similar organization based in the United Kingdom
- "NED: History". Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Lowe, David. "Idea to Reality: NED at 25".
- "History". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "Grants". National Endowment for Democracy. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "2008 Independent Auditors’ Report". National Endowment for Democracy. 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Thomas Carothers, "The NED at 10", Foreign Policy, No. 95 (Summer, 1994), pp. 123–138. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1149427
- "Recipient Grants: National Endowment for Democracy". Media Transparency. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- World Movement for Democracy, Carl Gershman
- "Meet Our President". National Endowment for Democracy. July 9, 2008. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- "Grants Program – 2004". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- McFaul, Michael. "'Meddling' In Ukraine: Democracy is not an American plot". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- Washington behind the Honduras coup: Here is the evidence on "Global Research.ca"
- Dominguez, Francisco (2009). "US Support is Propping Up Honduran Military Coup". London Progressive Journal (79).
- Raman, Bahukutumbi (April 13, 2000). "THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY OF US". South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- "Fellowship Programs – Past Fellows". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "Publications". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "Hugo Chavez Accuses U.S. of Spending Over $1 Million To Help Oust Him". Democracy Now!. April 3, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "Buying Venezuela’s Press With U.S. Tax Dollars". NACLA. July 15, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Venezuela National Endowment for Democracy". Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- Loose Cannon: The National Endowment for Democracy, Cato Institute
- Barahona, Diana (May 17, 2005) Reporters Without Borders Unmasked, CounterPunch.
- Diuk, Nadia (December 3, 2004). "In Ukraine, Homegrown Freedom". Washington Post. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- "Statement by the President on Ukraine" (Press release). The White House. March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- "Ukraine: National Endowment for Democracy". Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- "National Endowment for Democracy: Russia". National Endowment for Democracy. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Radio Gives Hope to North Koreans, CNN, February 27, 2008.
- "About CIMA".
- Ben A. Franklin, "Democracy Project Facing New Criticisms," The New York Times (December 4, 1985). Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Bollen, Kenneth; Paxton, Pamela; Morishima, Rumi (June 2005). "Assessing international evaluations: An example from USAID’s Democracy and Governance Programs" (pdf). American Journal of Evaluation 26 (2): 189–203. doi:10.1177/1098214005275640. Evaluation performed on behalf of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), at the request of and with funding from the Strategic and Operational Research Agenda (SORA) of USAID (Office of Democracy and Governance in the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance), according to the National Research Council (2008, p. 28).
- National Research Council, Committee on Evaluation of USAID Democracy Assistance Programs (2008). Goldstone, Jack A, ed. Improving democracy assistance: Building knowledge through evaluations and research (6×9 inches, 15×23 cm). pp. xvi+336. ISBN 978-0-309-11736-4. Individuals can download the complete report (pdf format) for private use.
- Robinson, William I. (1996). Promoting polyarchy: Globalization, US intervention, and hegemony. Cambridge University Press.
- Michael Barker, "The New York Times 'Reports' On The National Endowment For Democracy," Swans.com (October 20, 2008). An article about organizations supported by NED.
- Thierry Meyssan, "NED : The networks of "democratic" interference," Voltaire Network (Jan. 22, 2004).
- Michael Barker, "Catalyst for Iranian Resistance: US “democracy promoters” and regime change in Iran," Znet (December 18, 2006).[dead link]
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