National Endowment for the Humanities
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|Formed||September 29, 1965|
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
|Headquarters||1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.|
|Annual budget||$167,500,000 USD (2010)|
|Agency executives||William 'Bro' Adams, Chair
Carole M. Watson, Deputy Chair
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub.L. 89–209), dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C.; NEH was formerly (from 1979 to 2014) located at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. in the Old Post Office.
History and Overview
The NEH provides grants for high-quality humanities projects to cultural institutions such as museums, archives, libraries, colleges, universities, public television, and radio stations, and to individual scholars. NEH was created in 1965 under the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, which also included the National Endowment for the Arts and later the Institute for Museum Services, as a move to provide greater investment in culture by the federal government. NEH was based upon recommendation of the National Commission on the Humanities, convened in 1963 with representatives from three US scholarly and educational associations. The agency creates incentives for excellent work in the humanities by awarding grants that strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in schools and colleges across the nation, facilitate research and original scholarship, provide opportunities for lifelong learning, preserve and provide access to cultural and educational resources and to strengthen the institutional base of the humanities. As part of its mandate to support humanities programs in every US state and territory, the agency supports a network of private, nonprofit affiliates, the 56 humanities councils in the states and territories of the United States.
The Endowment is directed by the NEH Chair. Advising the Chair is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizens who are also appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The National Council members serve staggered six-year terms.
The tenth Chair of the NEH is William 'Bro' Adams, formerly president of Colby College in Maine. President Obama nominated Adams on April 4, 2014; Adams was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote on July 9, 2014.
The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach. President Obama nominated the former Iowa congressman, a Republican, to chair the NEH on June 3, 2009; the Senate confirmed his appointment in August 2009. Leach began his term as the NEH Chair on August 12, 2009 and stepped down in May 2013. Between November 2009 and May 2011, Leach conducted the American "Civility Tour" to call attention to the need to restore reason and civility back into politics, a goal that in his words was "central to the humanities." Leach visited each of the 50 states, speaking at venues ranging from university and museum lecture halls to hospitals for veterans, to support the return of non-emotive, civil exchange and rational consideration of other viewpoints. According to Leach, "Little is more important...than establishing an ethos of thoughtfulness and decency of expression in the public square. Words reflect emotion as well as meaning. They clarify—or cloud—thought and energize action, sometimes bringing out the better angels in our nature, sometimes lesser instincts." Since the completion of Leach's Civility Tour, rallies for reasoning politics like Jon Stewart's Rally to Restore Sanity, and grassroots initiatives for pluralistic rationalism in public discourse, have reflected Leach's call for civil, non-emotive and reasoning language between those with disparate political ideologies.
- Barnaby Keeney, 1963–1965, Chair of National Commission on the Humanities
- Henry Allen Moe, 1965–66, Interim Chair
- Barnaby Keeney, 1966–1970
- Wallace Edgerton, Acting Chair, 1970–71
- Ronald Berman, 1971–1977
- Robert Kingston, Acting Chair, 1977
- Joseph Duffey, 1977–81
- William J. Bennett, 1981–85
- John Agresto, Acting Chair, 1985
- Lynne Cheney, 1986–1993
- Jerry L. Martin, Acting Chair, 1993
- Donald Gibson, Acting Chair, 1993
- Sheldon Hackney, 1993–97
- Bruce A. Lehman, Acting Chair, 1997
- William R. Ferris, 1997–2001
- Bruce Cole, 2001–2009
- Carole M. Watson, Acting Chairman, 2009
- Jim Leach, 2009—2013 
- Carole M. Watson, Acting Chair, 2013–2014
- William 'Bro' Adams, 2014–
Grant-making divisions and offices
The NEH has seven grant-making divisions and offices:
- The Division of Preservation and Access awards grants to preserve, maintain, and improve access to primary sources in the humanities, in both digital and analog form.
- The Division of Public Programs supports projects that bring the humanities to large audiences through libraries and museums, television and radio, historic sites, and digital media.
- The Division of Research makes awards to support original scholarship in all areas of the humanities, funding individuals as well as teams of researchers and institutions.
- The Division of Education works to support and strengthen teaching of the humanities.
- The Office of Federal/State Partnership collaborates with 56 state and territory humanities councils to strengthen local programs.
- The Office of Challenge Grants administers grants intended to support centers and endowments through fundraising by humanities institutions to further long-term stability.
- The Office of Digital Humanities advises on use of technology in the humanities and coordinates.
Since 1965, the Endowment has sponsored thousands of projects, including:
- "Treasures of Tutankhamen," the blockbuster exhibition seen by more than 1.5 million people
- The Civil War, the landmark 1990 documentary by Ken Burns seen by 38 million Americans.
- Library of America, editions of novels, essays, and poems celebrating America's literary heritage
- United States Newspaper Project, an effort to catalog and microfilm 63.3 million pages of newspapers dating from the early Republic
- Fifteen Pulitzer-Prize winning books, including those by James M. McPherson, Louis Menand, Joan D. Hedrick, and Bernard Bailyn
Bridging Cultures Initiative
Bridging Cultures is an NEH initiative that explores ways in which the humanities promote understanding and mutual respect for people with diverse histories, cultures, and perspectives. Projects supported through this initiative focus on cultures globally as well as within the United States. International projects might seek to enlarge Americans’ understanding of other places and times, as well as other perspectives and intellectual traditions. American projects might explore the great variety of cultural influences on, and myriad subcultures within, American society. These projects might also investigate how Americans have approached and attempted to surmount seemingly unbridgeable cultural divides, or examine the ideals of civility and civic discourse. In connection with a focus on civic discourse, projects might explore the role of women in America’s civic life as well as the civic role of women in other cultures and regions of the world.
"We the People" Initiative
"We the People" is an NEH program designed to encourage and enhance the teaching, study, and understanding of American history, culture, and democratic principles. The initiative supports projects and programs that explore significant events and themes in American nation's history, which advance knowledge of the principles that define America.
NEH was founded on the belief that cultivating the best of the humanities has real and tangible benefits for civic life. Through "We the People," NEH has rededicated itself to this mission, and is leading a renaissance in knowledge about American history and principles among all our citizens. The NEH launched the "We the People" initiative on Constitution Day, September 17, 2002.
Since 1972 the NEH has sponsored the Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities, which it describes as "the highest honor the federal government confers for distinguished intellectual achievement in the humanities". The Jefferson Lecturer is selected each year by the National Council on the Humanities. The honoree delivers a lecture in Washington, D.C., during the spring, and receives an honorarium of $10,000. The stated purpose of the honor is to recognize "an individual who has made significant scholarly contributions in the humanities and who has the ability to communicate the knowledge and wisdom of the humanities in a broadly appealing way".
National Humanities Medal and Charles Frankel Prize
The National Humanities Medal, inaugurated in 1997, honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities. Up to 12 medals can be awarded each year. From 1989 to 1996 the NEH awarded a similar prize known as the Charles Frankel Prize. The new award, a bronze medallion was designed by David Macaulay, the 1995 winner of the Frankel Prize. Lists of the winners of the National Humanities Medal and the Frankel Prize are available at the NEH website.
- List of state humanities councils
- Institute of Museum and Library Services
- National Endowment for the Arts
- National Science Foundation
- Smithsonian Institution
- National Gallery of Art
- "Visiting NEH". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "How NEH Got Its Start". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "National Council on the Humanities". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "President Obama Announces his Intent to Nominate Dr. William “Bro” Adams as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities". Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Obama nominates William 'Bro' Adams to be next head of National Endowment for the Humanities". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Adams Tapped by President Obama". Colby College. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "Senate confirms head of US Humanities Endowment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Robin Pogrebin, "Obama Names a Republican to Lead the Humanities Endowment", New York Times, June 4, 2009.
- Robin Pogrebin, "Rocco Landesman Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts", New York Times, August 7, 2009.
- "E.J. Dionne Welcomes Jim Leach's Call for Civility". The Washington Post. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- Bruce Cole to Depart the National Endowment for the Humanities," press release dated November 12, 2008, at NEH website.
- U.S. Congress (4 September 2001). "Nominations". Congressional Record 147 (113): S9088. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- U.S. Congress (14 September 2001). "Confirmations". Congressional Record 147 (120): S9464. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- U.S. Congress (18 July 2005). "Nominations". Congressional Record 151 (97): S8438. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- U.S. Congress (17 December 2005). "Confirmations". Congressional Record 151 (163): S13969. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- "President Obama appoints Carole M. Watson as Acting Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities," press release dated February 10, 2009, at NEH website.
- Stan Katz, "Who Can Lead the NEH," Chronicle Review blog post, February 10, 2009.
- "Deputy Chairman". Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "William “Bro” Adams Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Information about the Divisions and Offices that Administer NEH Grant Programs". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "About the Bridging Cultures Initiative". Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "We the People". Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau
- "About We the People". Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009).
- Awards and Honors at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
- National Humanities Medals at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
- Winners of the Charles Frankel Prize at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
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