National heritage site
A national heritage site is a heritage site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the cultural heritage or history of that country. Usually such sites are listed in a heritage register that is open to the public, and many are actively advertised by national visitor bureaus as tourist attractions.
History of national heritage listing
Each country has its own national heritage list and naming conventions. Sites can be added to a list, and are occasionally removed and even destroyed for economic or other reasons. The concept of protecting and taking pride in cultural heritage is something that goes back to the Seven Wonders of the World, but usually it is only after destruction, especially mass destruction in times of war, that new lists are drawn up or revisited. Many countries acknowledge under UNESCO their designation of objects considered to be worthy of having importance to the entire world or world heritage. These listings also acknowledge the need for a separate list of objects judged part of their own unique cultural heritage. The concept of a national heritage site can be split into many types, each type having its own unique list.
Two major types of cultural heritage are "immoveable" and "moveable" objects. Immoveable objects are usually buildings, locations such as gardens or areas such as city districts. Small moveable objects may include old books or artworks, large moveable objects may include automobiles, aircraft and ships.
In the case of a national heritage site in a populated area, monitoring and protection may be under the jurisdiction of a fire department or local police department, whereas more remote sites may be under the protection of a central conservation agency.
Most countries have passed laws to protect national heritage sites, with various classifications for owners. In Europe, many countries uphold the Venice Charter of 1964 though each country's name and criteria for protection, may change.
- Andorra : Patrimoni Cultural, Monument d'interès cultural
- Australia : Burra Charter, Australian National Heritage List
- Austria : Bundesdenkmalamt, Denkmalgeschütztes Objekt
- Belarus : National Heritage Site (Belarus)
- Belgium : National Heritage Site (Belgium)
- Brazil : National Historic Heritage of Brazil
- Canada : National Historic Sites of Canada
- China : Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level
- Croatia : Spomenik kulture
- Czech Republic : Národní kulturní památka
- Denmark : Heritage Agency of Denmark, National Heritage Site (Denmark)
- Estonia : Kultuurimälestised
- Finland : National Heritage Site (Finland)
- France : Monument historique
- Germany : Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Kulturdenkmal
- Hong Kong : Heritage conservation in Hong Kong
- India: Archaeological Survey of India
- Ireland : Heritage Council, National Monument (Ireland)
- Italy : Monumento nazionale
- Japan : National Treasures of Japan, Cultural Properties of Japan
- Latvia : Kultūros paminklas
- Netherlands : Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Rijksmonument
- New Zealand : New Zealand Historic Places Trust
- North Korea : National Treasures of North Korea
- Norway : Kulturminne
- Poland : Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa, for Zabytek & Pomnik historii
- Portugal : Monumento nacional
- Romania : Romanian National Institute of Historical Monuments, Monument istoric
- Russia : Russian cultural heritage register, National Heritage Site (Russia)
- Serbia: Cultural Heritage of Serbia
- Slovenia: Spomenik kulture
- South Africa: National heritage sites (South Africa)
- South Korea: National Treasures of South Korea
- Spain: Patrimonio histórico español, Bien de Interés Cultural
- Sweden: Byggnadsminne
- Switzerland: Historic monument (Switzerland), protected by Kulturgüterschutz, or Protection des biens culturels, or Protezione dei beni culturali
- United Kingdom: English Heritage Archive, Listed building
- United States: National Heritage Site (United States), National Monument (US), National Historic Landmark
UNESCO World Heritage lists
- Usually such a list is split by type of feature (natural wonder, ruin, engineering marvel, etc.)
- Sometimes there is no National Register, but a register per country region is kept, in which case there is more than one register per country
- World Heritage List, UNESCO World Heritage Sites official sites.